The purposes of this paper are to show the problems associated with articulation tests by comparing the results of trisyllable articulation test, mono-syllable articulation tests with and without continuous maskers, psychological measurement and STI (Speech Transmission Index), and to know the difference of them. The results of this study are as follows : 1. The tri-syllable articulation tests can distinguish the effects of noise and that of reverberation on speech intelligibility. 2. The mono-syllable articulation test with continuous maskers has high sensitivity in reverberation field. 3. STI has a good relation with audibility in the experimental fields. 4. There is a difference between articulation and audibility.
Venetian blinds, pull-down screens, light-blocking films, and other sunlight screenig devices used with windows not only reduce the amount of sunlight that enters a room and lower the luminance of outside, but can also obstruct the view of outside scenery. ln this research we have therefore quantitatively expressed the luminance-reducing properties and transparency of screening devices that are superimposed on outside scenery. First, methods for quantifying the screening properties of screening devices were examined, after which we used these screening properties to predict changes in the luminance distribution of outside, which enable us to enhance screening device transparency. We then created a method for deciding on the desired characteristics for a screening device with the right combination of transparency and luminance-reducing properties for a given window.
To make clear the thermal characteristics and water performance of rooftop lawns, experimental studies were carried out with two kinds of test roof models (large models and small models) in Kumamoto city. Thermal characteristics of the rooftop lawn were made clear by observing the large models. Solar reflection and radiation at the lawn surface were also examined. Water performance of the roofs was analyzed relating to the weather conditions with small models.
In the conventional expression of experimental stomatal conductance, the assumption of separation of variables should be admitted without any validation of it. In this paper, we adopt the neural network for making the experimental expression. It becomes clear that the neural network has the capability in expressing the experimental data with excellent accuracy than in the conventional method.
The thermal conditions preventing the growth of 4 kinds of hygrophile fungi on building materials intentionally contaminated with egg yolk are described. Exposure tests for building materials of tatami mat, which is the Japanese traditional flooring, made of straw mat, plywood, wallpaper and so on, swabbed with a suspension of fungal spores and yolk, were conducted. Fungal species of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium cladosporioides, frequently detected in Japanese dwellings, were used in these experiments. Exposure conditions of temperature and relative humidity were covered extensively, ranging from 0℃ to 45℃ and from 45% R. H. to 95% R. H.. Minute observation for the colonies formed were made over 12 days under each thermal condition. These 4 hygrophile moulds grew and formed colonies under the conditions ranging from 20℃ to 30℃ or above 90% R. H.. On the other hand, none of these moulds grew under the conditions below 5℃ or beyond 45℃ regardless of the relative humidities, or the conditions below 80% R. H. regardless of the temperature.
First, importance of real-time load prediction and several kinds of optimization on HVAC system control are discussed. Then, six prediction models, ARIMA (Autoregressed Integrated Moving Average), EWMA (Exponential Weighted Moving Average), RLR (Recursive Linear Regression), ANN (Artificial Neural Network), KALMAN (Kalman filter) and FNN (Fuzzy Neural Network), are examined to compare their accuracy under situations where the all models use the same 3-month-long calculated load data and weather data in cooling and heating season. The results shows that the ANN model has the best prediction accuracy. It is confirmed that the ANN is a potential prediction model for practical utilization in HVAC system control.
In the light of the importance of exhaust heat characteristics of air-conditioning equipment in relation to the outdoor thermal environment, this paper deals with exhaust heat characteristics of cooling towers which play a major role in summer-time air-conditioning. Methods of calculation for water evaporation from cooling towers were studied based on the results of numerical analysis. As a result, errors can be held down to a minimum by disregarding heat resisitance in the liquid phase and substituting the volumetric overall enthalpy-transfer coefficient for the volumetric overall moisture transfer coefficient.
This paper examines the possibility of constructing the district heating and cooling facilities in the central area of built-up areas in Saitama Prefecture in terms of heat load density as an examination from the viewpoint of the present heat demand. As the data of total floor area for each use of buildings were not made by local governments. I made the data of every 100m square area in the whole area of seven major commercial districts in the prefecture. By multiplying the data by the amount of energy consumption per 1m^2 of floor for each use, I measured the heat load density of each district. I made it clear that the heat load density of some 100m square areas in each district are high though the values of the restriction of floor area ratio are almost same.
In the present paper, we showed housing complex energy consumption data 10 years ago and now. And we analysed the applicability change of co-generation system to housing complex in these 10 years. Foliowing results were obtained: 1) Among the energy consumption of housing complex, the electricity is increasing. 2) The applicability of co-generation to housing complex becomes larger and larger. 3) More energy can be conserved if the co-generation plant supplies cooling energy as well as heating energy.
The data of the thermal sensation vote are often analyzed by the linear regression model under some hypotheses for the error term. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether one of the hypotheses, the normality of the error term, holds validity for the thermal sensation vote or not. First, different kinds of normality test were examined to clarify their characteristics. Then, on the basis of the results, nine kinds of experimental data akeady reported were tested for the normality of their error terms in linear regression models. Through these analyses, all hypotheses of the normality were abandoned. It implies that the error term of the thermal sensation vote may not be distributed normally, and that the linear regression analysis for the thermal sensation vote requires more careful handling.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residents' consciousness to new subway service and its effects on residential environment. One residential area in Nagoya, which had new subway service, was selected, and two sampling surveys were conducted on it before and after its construction. The findings were as follows: More than 60% residents wanted new subway service and evaluated that the effects were desirable. However the further from the station there were subjects' houses, the less they wanted the new subway service and the lower they evaluated the effects, the effects on residential environment seemed to be small, but the degree of dissatisfaction for two items concerning car, 'parking on the road' and 'lack of parking lot', diminished.
The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the evaluation of office privacy and communication, and to ascertain the importance of these factors to office workers(i.e., in office environment evaluation). This research project comprised 1) interviews with office workers, 2) color photographs-based assessment, 3) questionnaire-based surveys, and 4) experimentation using full-sized office models. The photographs-based assessment yielded different experimental results than did the questionaire-based surveys (designed to solicit assessment of an actual office) with respect to participants' assessment of privacy and communication. Experimentation using full-sized office models was carried out to determine the reason for these disparate results, upon which we found that assessment of an actual office environment is not merely determined by the office's physical properties, but rather also depends on whether the office is seen as conducive to the work (i.e., activities) performed there.
Life cycle C02 emission from the buildings are analyzed. At the first part, C02 emission from the manufacturing process of building materials are analyzed. And the unit value of C02 emission per weight which include recycle materials are presented. At the second part, the effect of using recycle materials for buildings are analyzed. At the third part, from view point of building total life cycle (from material manufacturing, transportation, construction, operation, maintenance, reform, to demolishing), CO2 emission prediction method is presented. Finally, using this method, concrete restrain means of C02 emission from building life cycle are discussed.
In recent years, a number of surplus classrooms came out in the primary schools. It has been caused by the decrease of children population in urbanized. On the other hand, re-adjustment of existing facilities, mainly surplus classroθms, became an important issue to adapt the new educational curriculum with higher facility standard and community opened ideas. Based on the classification of the effective use of a surplus classroom to analyze the relationship of a surplus rate and the scale of school, to change the effective usage of a surplus classrooms, also re-arrangage of a surplus classrooms, to bring out the the change of utilizing space in order to point out the issure of existing school facility.
In this study we propose a method of using mathematical index to describe space perception of sight with the aim to have a series of the description procedures systematized in a computer. For the subject we bad floor plans which are the main plans representing architectural space and we defined the distance from a viewpoint to the objects blocking a person's viewpoint as "sight depth." We made "Sight-Depth-Graph" by measuring the "Sight-Depth" at every point on the floor plans. We got seven indexes expressing thc area, the extension and the volume of the space out of the "Sight-Depth-Graph" and made a sight depth plan expressing those indexes with shades of colors drawn in every viewpoint of the objective plans in order to analyze the space perception of sight.
In community facility planning, it is important to decide the location of facilities to provide the effective service for habitants. It is very hard to find the optimal location from a large number of alternatives of locations. In this paper, we proposed a method of the optimization of facility location using Genetic Algorithm (GA). We proposed a coding system of chromosome which expresses each alternative of facility location. We also gave definitions of genetic procedures, selection, crossover and mutation for optimizing the location of facilities. The effectiveness of proposed method was confirmed by application study on some ideal and actual facility location problems. As a result, we showed that our method is efficient because it doesn't depend on the number of facilities or locating points.
The purpose for this study is to make a proposal for rural leading by comparison between types of regional resource and types of locational conditions. The results are as followings : (1) We can classify the villages by each regional resources. The villages are classified by two-pole structure : order of precedence axis and present situation axis. (2) By comparison of these two typologies, regional resources are devided into two : related to lacational conditions, and not not related. But in the latter, we can also find model villages in eachtype of localional conditions. (3) By synthesized indicaters of all regional resources, we classify the villages, and its structureis able to be explained by order of precedence axis and present situation axis. (4) Comparison between type of synthesized indicator of regional resourses and type of locational conditions realizes rural leadings. The general rural leading for each type on locational conditions is different from each other, but we can clarify the existence of model villagesin each locational conditions, and the most important thing is making the most of using the charasteristic of regional resources for each villages.
The business activities are influenced by the development of telecommunication network. The objective of this paper is to clear how much do the development influence, especially how much do the development of TV conference to the 'face-to-face' communication. In conclusion, (1) Only a business firm affiliated with same group, TV conference will be more important than face-to-face communication; (2) As, many company feel that the face-to-face communication is important in the communication with the company belonged to the other group, the office will separate into front-office and back-office.
This paper deals with the method of study used in the Programmed Operation of Improvement of the Living Condition (OPAH) in an urban area in France. (1) In the study of housing, the states of their interior and exterior are analysed and shown in a map. (2) In the study of the housing demand, the demand of entire city has been examined to determine the expected size of house and anticipated rent. (3) In the study of test building, typical buildings are analysed to obtain informations about the cost and subsidies which will be used in the operation.
We recognize urban environment as the structure of cognitive settings in townscape. The aim of this study is to examine the spacial characteristics and the structure of the integrated setting recognized in townscape through the field research. The data acquired from the field research were maps indicating the area and location of the integrated settings and interview data explaining the factors generating the sense of integration. There are 2 types of integrated setting ; scenery type and spacial type. The structures of integration are categorized by space type, sense of space, and area image as well as physical elements.
This paper is concerned with the number of figures of the decimals in data sets, such as the National Census Data in Japan, which any decision-maker can have access to. First, we show that by use of the continued fraction method the rational number can be derived from the decimal, which is obtained by rounding the rational number if the figure of the decimal is at most two times that of the denominator of the irreducible fraction of the rational number. Therefore, we may use this decimal to approximate the rational number. Second, we demonstrate that the differences between the sizes of the decimals and that of the irreducible fractions ale insignificant using Japanese Census data.
Labor resource leveling is a major issue for construction management on site. It is not easy because of two reasons. One is that many kinds of trades exist on site and they must work intermittently. The other is that we have not made so many efforts as labor resource leveling is satisfied. Therefore, in this paper, we examine the some labor resource leveling methods using mathematical modeling, and then present a new labor resource leveling method. Finally we investigate applicability of the method in repetitive construction work.
This paper deals with urban dynamics of high-density dwelling from the example of Takase Shinyashiki developed in 1671. The plan of Izumiya Chou shows the synchronic space of this site in 1872. The site was altered into the low-rise high-density urban forms by four occasions listed below. 1. Urban development. 2. Dissolution of the craft union. 3. Spread of the urban amusements. 4. Plot division of the canal side. The formation of the site is a typical example of low-rise high-density dwelling in Kyoto of the Edo period, although its initial stage is different from the central district of Kyoto.
The main objective of this series of our study is to clarify the development of local architectural culture in Edo era through the characteristics of the Shintoism shrinebuildings. In this paper, the authors investigated the charcteristics of the plans of the Shintoism main shrine buildings in Bingo province in Edo era. The plans of the Shintoism main shrine buildings in Bingo province in Edo era can be divided broadly into two categories ; the Hisashinoma style and the Gohai style. The fundamental structures and the typical plans in both styles were investigated, and the charcteristlcs of the plans in this province were clarified with comparing to the literatures of the carpenter technology in Edo era. These charcteristics were also investigated from the viewpoints of generation and locality.
Since a fire is the most dreaded disaster for a wooden building, signs and symbols of fire prevention are commonly used on "munafuda" (dedication board). These sings are, for instance "[figure]" symbolizing water, or ones which stand for the sun, the moon and stars. Especially, stars of 28 hotels are popular, such as "△" representing the star of the triangular seat, that is, the north heaven. The Chinese character 'seal' is used as a magical sign of 'cutting of a seal' and also of 'enclosing something inside' ; sometimes the mere symbol "[figure]" is applied in the same occasions."[figure]" occasionally symbolizes four kings. The sign "[figure]", meaning 'nine characters are cut' in Yin and Yang theory, is used. Again, in Buddhist temples, munafuda registers "卍" symbols.
10 official residences, for foreign professors of Hokkaido Imperial University and Otaru Higher Commercial School, were built between 1925 and 1927. We have been able to ascertain the outline of these residences, by statement and old photos from former residents, and by the historical materials and plans which were kept at Hokkaido University and Otaru University of Commerce. These residences used the improved Japanese-style fittings, and were designed for protection against cold. They can be said to the best advanced example of the improvement of houses in Hokkaido at the end of Taisho era.
The purpose of this research is to understand the feature of space of Buddhist caves (Nos. 1 to 12) at Ellora, India, by means of examining about the relation between the design and arrangement of pillars. In the caves at Ellora, there are three kinds of principal motifs in pillar design. Those are a) lotus medallion, b) vase with foliage, c) cushion- like motif. According to these motifs, in this paper as the first part of the treatise on this research, the classification of pillar designs is attempted, and the features of arrangement of pillars in each plan of the caves are described.
This study intends to clarify the development and changes of types of plans, during the mid-modern age (Genroku [元禄] 6 (1693)〜Kansei [寛政] 9 (1797)), according to reconstruction plans. From these, it is possible to deduce the reasons for changes and trace the development of the plans. In the mid-modern age, the plans of most memorial cloisters have similar development patterns to those of the early modern age (Keicho 1 [慶長] (1596)〜Enpo [延宝] 9 (1681). For instance, part of a veranda, on three sides of the building, was renovated and changed to sayanoma (鞘の間). The employment of the 1.5 ken (間) veranda also appeared on the left, right and front sides of the building. Moreover, at some memorial cloisters, in order to have place for the carved statue of the cloister founder, the front of the sanctuary was reformed.