To establish the measurement method of effective luminance function F(θ), the experiment using glare source was onducted and found followings. 1. The value of equivalent veiling luminance caused by glare source is determined ndependently of the background luminance and the direction of glare source at a distance within 10 degrees from the center of field. 2. The equivalent veiling luminance caused by plural glare sources is equal to the total veiling luminance caused by each source. Futher F(θ) was measured by using glare source, and it was expected that the shape of F(θ) was change in the neighbourhood of θ=30 to 60 minutes.
This paper describes the results of the field measurement using eight detached houses in the same site in Sendai City to investigate the airtightness and the heat loss coefficient. The heat loss coefficient of each house was measured simultaneously according to the measurement method of JIS's report, and was compafed with the design value. The major results are as follows : (1) The equivalent aif leakage area per floor area of these houses was 3.0〜16.4 cm^2/m^2. The house with the largest leakage area was constructed by conventional method. (2) The heat loss coefficient per floor area was 1.74〜3.08kcal/m^2h℃. But this value depended on the climatic condition and measurement condition. (3) Measured value of heat loss coefficient except infiltration load using the data of airtightness was within about ±15% of the design value using specifications.
It is well known that condensation more occurs in non heating rooms than in heating rooms. In this paper, the property of condensation in a dwelling house was examined under condition of door open and/or close. Moreover it was examined how ntilizing hygroscopicity and moisture capacity of hygroscopic materials was advantageous for the countermeasure of condensation. In conclusion, it was clarified that rooms and walls in which condensation occurred largely varied with door open and/or close. Especially, condensation was more apt to occur in the room distant from one room than in the room directly connected to heating room by door open. The effect of hygroscopic materials largely varied with door open and/or close. The countermeasures to prevent condensation damage at surface of walls by considering hygroscopicity and capacity of moisture content were more advantageous than the countermeasures to prevent condensation.
The purpose of this study is to establish the air-conditioning control method and zoning for realization of the optimum operation and comfortable environment on an individual system. In this paper, the state of the mixing energy loss is grasped and the amounts of that is estimated in intermediate season in the office building that introduces an individual system. In this measurement, there is two measurement zones that one has a partiton between perimeter and interior, other has no. The major conclusions are: 1. Vertical temperature differences become larger when mixing energy loss occurs. 2. It is effective for preventing mixing energy loss to keep the set point of perimeter temperature lower than that of interior^<1〜3)>. Further there is no worsening of indoor thermal environment on account of making a decision according to PMV. 3. In this measurement, ratio of mixing energy loss to sum of perimeter and interior heat extraction rates is about 28% by comparing the heat extraction rates of two measurement zones. 4. It is probable to decrease mixing energy loss that vertical temperature defferences become to be small by ventilation.
This paper aimed to clarify the consciousness of general inhabitants to high-rise residence. A sampling survey using a questionnaire was carried out at three areas in Nagoya (1991) and three areas in Tokyo (1992). The following results were obtained. The majority of the inhabitants were negative to high-rise residence, and over eighty percent people felt the danger to earthquakes and fires. The inhabitants in two areas in Tokyo significantly desired 'high-rise residence' more than those in other areas. Positive consciousness to high-rise residence had no relation with any of inhabitants' attributes, but the younger the subjects were, the more affirmative the consciousness seemed to be.
This study aimed to develop a method to compare hotel interior design alternatives, to make an agreement on interior design between clients and designers. The author adapted correlation analysis and factor analysis to the data that user evaluated many pictures of hotel interior spaces. And by multiple regression analysis, the author got some formula that forecasts use intention ratio from evaluated data. From the formula the author made some interior evaluation charts. Using the charts, superior alternative is able to be pointed out. The author tested the charts to choose a suitable interior design.
The object of this study is to make clear the design concept of the housing with small courtyards, so we make a survey of actual conditions, and analyze the cause of living activities. (1) As a result, the built environmens needs to be designed in accordance with the functions and a role of living, and opposed other functions or positions. (2) Also cleared that the living activities is related a consciousness of the community and the common space that is the social environment. (3) Lastly, transaction used causal relation in previously built or social environment and living activities, that is operated in an affirmative and a negative for activities in the common space.
In a built-up houses area in a large cities, site partition, high rising, high density of buildings and so on have brought about through renewal of housing and reorganization is on-going. The purpose of this study is to grasp built-up houses area in view of building use based on block unit, and laslly to suggest what to do for improvement of dwelling area. As the research method, we classify dwelling area from view of building use, and find relation between its classifications and factors such as locational conditions, laws and regulations, and so on. In conclusion : the purpose of use zone in force isn't reflected on what built-up houses areas are in terms of land and building use. In the near future, categories of use zone will be detailed much more, but it is still neccessary to consider locational conditions and form of buildings in view of group unit and include them to regulation and guidance for preservative improvement in built-up housing area.
This study clarifies the present dwelling style of AN-BANG and KOSIL and its changes based on a research about the recent movement of using more beds in the AN-BANG and its reasons in urban apartments in Korea. The results of survey are as follows: 1) 35% of our respondents use Beds and 64% use Futons(mattress and quilts). But younger residents use Beds more than Futons; besides, many of the young Futon users want to change to beds, so there will be more Bed users in AN-BANG. 2) The high efficiency of Bed and troublesome Futon-making, although not longing for Western life style, cause them to prefer Beds. 3) KOSIL is generally used as a living room. Using Beds in AN-BANG leads to a great tendency of regarding AN-BANG as a private space and KOSIL as a public space
This study is intended to clarify the usefulness of an open type plan in a public housing design. We define an open type plan as a house design in which many rooms are connected by fittings such as sliding doors, fusuma, etd., used for partitioning off. 3 ppublic housing units were investigated and their occupants behavior was compared. Comparisons were made on the following items; (1) how each room in the house is used (2) the movement of fittings and arrangement of furniture (3) evaluation by residents As the result, we came to the conclusion that the life styles of residents in open type houses were diversified and the rooms were used in accordance with their own life style.
The purpose of this paper is to advance a new theory to explain about [space experience] on Sequence. As an analytical method, 3-times experiments with eve-mark recorder, and hearing of the memory. In conclusion, 1) Consists of observing points which conduct sequence direction. 2) Get 2-assembling types in memories, "Street" and "Square". 3) As a result of learning "forecasted perception" bring about [slide forward], and "selected peception" conduct [replace the position]. 4) Some elements reverse of figure ground in ownelement. 5) In case of biased memories which learn early experiment may account by whereas visual perception is on the rise, memory is declining.
It is important to create consensus step by step with residents' participation during the process of regional planning regarding upgrading of the living environment. This study is on a topic how consensus can be created for "Goal -Image of the Area" which means key planning image of the improvement. Kyojima, Taishido 2, 3-chome, Sanshi-Shikenjo, Nakasendo-endoh and Ichitera-Kototoi ale chosen for study areas. As a conculsion it is clarified how land owners, Machizukuri-Kyogikai, other residents and the local government have selected the Goal-Image of each area.
To establish a sign planning, this study explores that what kinds of informations are utilized by pedestrian when moving in city through an observation of pedestrian's behavior. On the preliminary investigation, We choosed the precincts of MYOUSHINJI temple as an object areas and observed pedestrian's behavior by three indexs: guide map, guide sign and vision behavior. Moreover, on the second investigation, We choosed SHISENDO and SAGANO as the object areas and examinated the relation between the change of collecting qualities and collecting methods of behavior's information of pedestrian with the change of spatial characteristic.
The local architectural culture in Edo era has not been clarified sufficiently yet, nor has been established the research procedures in this field. This study aims to clarify the local architectural culture in Bingo province in Edo era from the viewpoint of distribution of architectural styles in Shintoism main shrine buildings. In this paper, the viewpoints in these kinds of studies were discussed at first, and the local Shintoism architectural culture in Bingo province in Edo era was studied from the viewpoints of arrangement, plane plan and roof style of the Shintoism buildings such as main shrines, worship halls, sacred dancing halls and other facilities. The Bingo province was found to have several interesting locally characteristic distributions when wiewed from the architectural styles in Shintoism shrine buildings in Edo era.
In Ruri-ji temple (Takamori, Nagano prefecture) are kept a number of archives including 28 building records of the main hall reconstructed in 1672. Inquiring into building specifications (so-called "Jiwari-tyumon") and quantity sheets of material (so-called "Kiyose") made conditions of building the main hall at that time clear, such as follows : on planning and construction, master carpenters submitted the specification and the quantity sheet of the main hall to the client (Ruri-ji) at first, and then the client gave an order for building materials. On carved members like "kaerumata" ware also ordered by the client.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the historic outline of carpenter's axes and adzes in Jiangnan district from Ming-Qing era to today. According to field work and studies of carpenter's manuals Lu Ban jing ets., carpenters have used axes but not adzes. Axes have been used for hewing logs,pounding joints, driving chisels, and building ceremonies.
This report is a study of theatrical space in Jiang-Nan China. The point is to consider the various plans of theatrical space that is closely related with water. Theatrical space is prepared for religious establishments, guild halls and palaces. From this study it became obvious that theatrical space is not only situated around the water, but their plans take water directly inside of them. Several types of plans are composed according to the steps which are related with water. The relation with water and the purpose of theatergoing are various according to places, so that theatrical space produces several types.
The purpose of this study is to clearfy the structural principle of the settlements through the analysis of the relationship between the space structure of the settlements and holiness or ritual. This paper examines examples of the settlements which have a group of the traditional storehouses in Tusima. The summary of the results is as follows: The settlements which have a group of storehouses in Tusima are composed under the coherent structural principle derived from the "Holiness-Secularity-Pollution" space cognition based on the "Upper-Lower" notion.
Through the close reading of Epitre aux lecteurs in Le Premier tome de I'Architecture, I aim at composing De l'Orme's view of Cosmos systematically, in the light of Hermetism and Pythagoreanism, and explicating logical relations between Cosmos and Architecture. His image of Cosmos consists of God, Celestial world, and Terrestrial world. Celestial world is a orderly body under numeral proportions. This order is intelligible and sensible, and also it is paradigm for things in Terrestrial world. Things, including buildings, have to resemble the order of Celestial world. The sign of this resemblance is sacred number 7.
This papar analyzes the methods of compositions of Kahn's works in 1954-58 in comparison with his last architectural idea that is 'Room'. And it will be pointed out that the methods developed in 1954-58 are based on the ideas of 'Nature' and 'Room', but have their critical limitations on making the meanigful enclosures.
Sato's paper has the following problems. (1) Pre-surveys seem insufficient. (2) The differences in CRT background glare and too low humidity during the experiment might have effected EEG results. (3) Working from only EEG results is dogmatic. (4) The reasons for omitting Pz EEG are not persuasive. (5) The basis for declaring alpha and beta waves are exclusive is unclear. (6) The PTG interpretation is contradictory to the quoted literature. (7) Task performance should be analyzed and described. The increase in alpha-waves power doesn't always mean a good relaxing visual environment. Environmental evaluation indexes should be better selected and conclusions more carefully thought.
I answered to Hashimoto's questions as follows. 1) Pre-survey. 2) Experimental condition. 3) Selection of physiological indices. 4) Reason for omitting Pz EEG. 5) Relation between alpha wave and beta wave. 6) PTG interpretation. 7) Result of task performance. Some indications are not proper and clear. Physiological indices evaluating visual environment were selected properly. Discussions sticking to minor details of expression are meaningless.
The issue of alignment of you-are-here map in underground town, one of the conclusions in the above paper, is discussed. A few but fundamental questions about the experimental conditions, data, and their explanations relevant to the results are also pointed out. Contrary to the suggestion of "north-up" alignment manner in the above paper, a "forward-up" principle is advocated by the present author.
We answer to Dr.funahashi's objection to our previous paper : "EVARUATION OF VISIBILITY OF INFORMATION MAPS AND GUIDANS SIGNU ON UNDERGROUND STREETS IN UMEDA, 0SAKA ; Research on visual information easily recognized by aging people". We will show our viewpoint of visual information for the elderly.