In a preceding paper, a constituting method of a diffuse index of plate vibrations in audio-frequencies has been defined and was confirmed to be proper. In a present paper, an evaluation method using the diffuse index on the vibration response of arbitrary flat plates is shown. As results of numerical study, the followings are clear. Though vibration response changes by various conditions (aria, thickness, boundary condition, vibration damping, and so on), that characteristic is represented as a single regression function by arranging based on the diffuse index regardless of those plate conditions. In addition, the diffuse index can be approximately inferred due to a number of natural frequencies in an octave band. These findings are useful for the evaluation of the structure-borne sound such as floor impact sound.
Measurements on over-track building were conducted in order to clarify train-induced vibration. The characteristics of the structural vibration of the building caused by train-passage were discussed. It was found that the propagation of the vertical vibration along the pillar was affected by the natural frequency of the building. It was also discovered that the characteristics of the structural vibration for the vertical propagation was different from those for the horizontal propagation along the beam of the building. Finally the propagation of the train-induced vibration was calculated using F.E.M. in order to compare the measured results.
When a person moves from space to space in a building, the adaptation level of the eye must be varied. The purpose of this study is to present a guideline for an appropriate design of illuminance level of circulation spaces considering eye adaptation. Based on the field measurement on the illuminance in circulation spaces such as foyers and corridors etc. in apartment houses, a series of subjective experiments using two artificial visual fields with different illuminance levels were conducted and the followings were found. Against a small change in the illuminance level in circulation spaces, adaptation levels effected on the brightness sensation of a space significantly. The results of the supplementary experiment showed the vertical illuminance at the eye could be used as a parameter to predict the brightness perceived at the moment one enter the space. Predicted Brightness Sensation chart based on the adaptation level is proposed.
A numerical equation has been proposed by the authors in the previous papers. It gives the relative values of the sky luminance distribution for all sky conditions. Though the numerical equations for the zenith luminance in absolute value on the various standard skies have been proposed by several researchers to get the sky luminance distribution in absolute value, they do not bring the suitable value for the new equation. A numerical equation on the zenith luminance using the same indices as those of the newly proposed equation has been composed. It has made it possible for the sky luminance distribution in absolute value to be estimated by one of the easiest measurable values, the global illuminance. The result of this research work convinced the authors of its contribution to the progress and development of the prediction technique in the daylit environment. The new equation of the zenith luminance in absolute value is introduced, the process of composing it is explained in detail and the examples of the sky luminance distribution for all sky conditions in absolute values are illustrated in this paper.
To evaluate the thermal performance of windows and to direct improvement of the thermal resistance of openings, we propose a calculation method of thermal transmittance(U-value) of casement windows. The calculation method we show in detail covers the various kind of casement windows developed in Japan, and will be effective during the design stage of various products of windows which have complex sections with several materials. To examine the accuracy of the proposed method, U-values are computed for 23-type casement windows and comparisons are made with the test values. We comfirmed good agreement in this comparison.
This paper describes the relationship between 'suzusisa1 sensation and the variation of air velocity obtained from the field measurement with subjective experiment. A female adult participated in the experiment as the subject. 'Suzusisa' sensation is a thermal sensation which we may have in a hot and humid environment with some breeze; 'suzusisa' is a Japanese word which exactly indicates this sensation. We found that the subject does not necessarily feel 'suzusisa' sensation as she is exposed to an environment in which the air movement is strong. It is possible to feel 'suzusisa' sensation even with a relatively small air velocity after she is exposed long enough to an environment in which the air movement is still. According to the Fourier analysis, the spectra of the air velocity during the periods in which she had 'suzusisa' sensation is larger than that during the periods in which she did not. Normalized air velocity obtained from the spectra, the amplitude of the normalized air velocity during the period in which the subject had 'suzusisa' sensation is twice that in which she did not. The characteristics of the wave of the normalized air velocity is to increase suddenly and then decrease exponentially; this is considered essential to provide with 'suzusisa1 sensation.
This paper presents measurements of the full-scale field experiment in a high-rise building with a large void space to investigate heat and smoke behavior in fire stage. The large cavity space is 68.2m high and has a 174 m^2 floor. The major results are as follows. (1) The smaller the area of bottom opening is, the higher is temperature and concentration of smoke in the space. (2) The turbulence of fire plume in the space without the bottom opening is stronger than that with it. (3) The larger the area of bottom opening is, the larger is the air inflow rate from it into the space. However, the relationship between them is not linear
This paper describes the calculation methods for estimating building surface concentration profiles when point sources are located in the cavity regions of an isolated high-rise building or twin high-rise buildings. The proposed methods use a decay index of vertical concentration profiles as substitutes for diffusion widths based upon Gaussian plume concepts. The index was derived from the experimental results that the vertical concentration profiles were inversely proportional to the power of the distance between point sources and sampling ports on the building surfaces. The empirical formulas could predict the vertical profiles of building surface concentrations with a mean prediction error of 21% for the twin high-rise buildings and 29% for the isolated high-rise building. The prediction accuracy became worse when the location of maximum concentrations could not be estimated well using the streamlines to the downwind building measured by a split-film probe of anemometers.
This paper presents an analysis of the emission of chemical compounds under internal diffusion control and their diffusion in a room by the technique of computational fluid dynamics. A polypropylene styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) plate was chosen as the VOCs emission source. The emission rate and room concentration are analyzed under various conditions of air change rate and temperature. Furthermore, the concentration distribution within a room is also examined and evaluated from the viewpoint of ventilation efficiency. In this analysis, the room-averaged TVOC concentration does not decrease so much during the duration of simulation (11 days), and the concentration of TVOC near the SBR floor, from which the TVOC is emitted, is about six times larger than the room-averaged value.
A computational method for generating inflow turbulence is presented in this paper. The turbulent boundary layer flow computation was used for providing the inflow turbulence. To keep velocity profiles as those of the wind tunnel measurements, the computational method which Lund et. al. used for spatially-developing boundary layer simulations was applied. Though only time-averaged velocity profiles were prescribed, resulting fluctuating velocity profiles also show good accordance with experiments. Then flow computations around a three-dimensional square cylinder at the Reynolds number 24,000 are presented and the results are compared with experimental results. The computed results show better agreement with the experimental data and the method presented here is proved to be a convenient tool for generating inflow turbulence.
This paper aims at developing an optimal design procedure of a hybrid air-conditioning system of cooled ceiling (CC) and displacement ventilation (DV) systems to meet the demand of both thermal comfort and air quality environment in the occupied zone. A series of experiments were carried out using a hypothetical office room to obtain data of vertical air temperature distribution, local ventilation efficiency and thermal comfort level affected by the various setting parameters of the air-conditioning system. Importance is stressed on the choice of CC cooling output ratio η to the vertical temperature difference of occupied zone and thermal comfort. Based on the subjective sensory experiments, optimal temperature difference of occupied zone is proposed at 2.5℃. Present work was summarized as a design diagram that can be used to determine the η value to realize the highest ventilation efficiency within acceptable range of vertical air temperature difference.
In order to evaluate solar heat gain through windows with internal shading devices, I developed an experimental apparatus which consists of two boxes. One box is holds a clear glass pane with internal shading devices, for example, a conventional ivory white blind. The other box holds a clear glass pane. All walls of the boxes, except the openings, are composed of thermal insulating materials. The values of shading coefficient (SC) of thirty conventional Venetian blinds were measured with the experimental apparatus. For example, SC of a conventional ivory white blind set at 45-deg slat angle was 0.58 and that of a medium cream_colored blind was 0.68. And the measured values of SC were approximated by the measured reflectance (ρ) of window, such as SC=0.475ρ^2-1.48ρ+1.0.
In this paper, the authors constructed a fixtures selection model based on the decision process of lavatory users during the connetcting use between different fixtures. Two types of lavatories were surveyed ; M-department store and K-stadium. The authors carried out study of Neural network by using values of evaluation that was obtained with a previously announced report. Then, the authors compared their predictions with the measured results. The results were as follows. I. The authors confirmed efficacy of the proposed model from the prediction results. II. The fixtures selection model presented in this paper is able to clarify the trend of user fixture selection and useing trend of each fixtures. III. The accumulated knowledge and the prediction results are able to be reflected to the other lavatory, by applying a model on Fuzzy and Neural network.
The purpose of this study is to propose an optimum preparatory articles policy, by constructing the model that minimizes the total cost that is used widely on the spot, as such preparatory articles management model that carries out optimum maintenance. Thereupon, assuming the following models are examind. Each quantity makes the model of case, that is known a decisive model. It makes the model of 1 period (1 cycle) of in the case, that complies with the known probability distribution with demand quantity probable model. As the result of this study, it became theoretically possible to carry out preparatory articles management upon the heart of one in issue which had the various problems that is shortage preparatory articles and also do the preparatory articles excessively.
Maintaining the capability of a given system in an emergency has become an issue of paramount importance. As urbanization proceeds, it is crucial to provide safety and to meet social needs by optimizing the infrastructure of the city. This report examined the possibility of installing a disaster proof District Heating and Cooling (DHC) in the 23 wards of Tokyo. The desired capacity for a DHC in an emergency has been determined through a thorough questionnaire. Moreover, this report examined the complex issue of installation from two perspectives with the district's level of danger (DLD), the amount of damage a district would face in a given disaster, such as a fire or an earthquake, in mind. It was necessary to evaluate the value to the customers of the DHC and to consider the public benefit from installing a DHC in the area. This report has studied the possibility of installing a DHC in Tokyo 23 wards with the above factors namely, safety, DLD, customer satisfaction, and public benefit.
In this study, we showed how to understand the characteristics of the spatial structure in multi-story housing. We defined "the spatial unit" with be based on the notion of "control". We examined "the spatial structure in multi-story housing" by "the mutual relation of the spatial units " and "the collective form of the spatial units". Then we defined "the topological structure of space" and "the physical structure of space". We modeled with the spatial structure of multi-story housing and grasped its characteristics of the spatial structure.
In this study, we tried to clarify following two points after survey towards residents of rebuilding apartments of wood construction for rent in Osaka. 1. On what intention they put ornaments around windows. 2. When they put ornaments around windows to show to passers-by, or to residents living in the houses facing windows, their consciousness regarding their privacy are light. And most of those rooms, windows of which have 'window-ornament', confront streets, so those ornaments are mainly intended to be shown to pessers-by, and secondly, to people who live across streets.
The public elementary and junior high schools implicated as special educational facilities have recently given the chance to be lifelong learning facilities in dwelling area. This paper intends to search for the role of schools taking place as lifelong learning facilities plan new utilization as regional facilities by analysis of present situation of school-community complex and fundamental policy of administration which controls schools. The school-community complex in function dealt in this paper means (1) open-school to dwelling community, (2) utilization of surplus classrooms to the community, (3) school-community facilities complex, and (4) school-community contacts. The public elementary and junior high schools sampled all over Japan and there administrations ware analyzed for this purpose. As for administration measures, departments of school in educational committee which control schools, ware compared with departments of lifelong learning which promote it in the community.
The objective of this study is to make clear the relation among facility's environment, inpatients' living activity and stuffs' doing through classificating inpatients' life style. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) There are very wide diversity of living style and some stages to be grouped by their physical phases. 2) It is important for the inpatients to prepare spaces in the ward such as day rooms and dinning rooms. 3) The bedside space is also important for the inpatients' behavior. 4) A view from the ward, sunshine and furniture in the ward can give inpatients the motivation to behave actively.
In this paper, analyzed the minimum districts of public spaces planning in urban residence area. The result is (1) the multilayered planning units is not cluster type. In the comparison of each district size, have been to see the inversion layer of planning units in a part of city. (2) The minimum districts is school districts or neighborhood housing groups, or the area is smaller than administrative districts and larger than school districts. (3) Almost all of public spaces in the minimum districts is facilities used by all inhabitants. Therefore, the community facilities need to be used for indefinite or large assembly in the district.
This is a case study in spatial meaning conducted at a newly designed group-living home (the latest model case in Japan) for people with dementia. Previous research has already pointed out that the utilization of common space greatly affects the life-style of people with dementia. Here the focus is on the adaptation to and use of space, especially to the private rooms. Changes over time of the spatial use patterns are clarified. As survey methods, observations of behavior and interviews with staff were used. On survey days, behavior maps were made every 10 minutes from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.. As for the attributes of the residents, ADL (Activity of Daily Living) and mental status were recorded by the staff. The survey was repeated 3 times at periods of 2 months, 4 months and 7 months after the home was opened. Each of the three studies were carried out over a period of 3 days from Saturday to Monday. The aim of this study is to clarify the changes over time of adaptive behavior in spatial use patterns of the people with dementia in Group-living environment. Some results show as follows: 1) The residents were able to adapt to the new environment over time. 2) Due to the special spatial characteristics of the private rooms and many rich common spaces in this group-living home, everyone was able to develop their own way of life and own pattern of using the spaces. Many types of life-styles were observed and it is thought that the provision of spatial diversity enables life-style diversity. Both the private rooms and common spaces are determined to be important to people with dementia. 3) Seeing that residents, after learning from the guidance of the staff, are eventually comfortable to freely use most spaces in the home, we can conclude that using space plays important role in one kind of rehabilitation for people with dementia.
This paper aims to clarify relationship between behavior and spatial structure of a nursing home for the elderly, focusing on process of personalization of inside spaces of the facilities. Methods used were mapping of activities of the residents, behavior observation and deep interviews. The survey was repeated five times in order to follow longitudinal changes. The findings are as follows. 1) Meaning of common spaces in the facilites changed gradually, i.e. semi-private space was more familiar to the residents. 2) Each resident was confirming stable relation to facilities' environment (that had physical, social and managemental aspect) on his/her own way, then diverse adaptive processes were observed. 3) "Activity in place" in common spaces played very important role as intermediate or interface between residents and surrounding environment.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effective value of workshops at participation in view of social-support through analyzing resident's consciouseness and mutual relationship in planning process of pubulic housing renewal. Environmental-transition such as pubulic housing renewal brings identity-crisis to residents and old people particularly. A large number of residents have a desire to continue living in present homes in that community. I wish to systematize the method of residents and ifs community catch empowerment as result of getting over identity-crisis and create identity independently through resident's involvement in plannig process of public housing renewal with workshops.
This study investigates the activity of strolling which is done by residents in free time for leisure. Behavioral tracking, observation and interview are applied to obtain data on intensity of strolling, characteristics of strollers, unstructured occurrences, and places visited. Comparative study shows some universal and specific unstructured occurrences due to local habits. Based on the data of purposes of strolling and places visited, strolling can be categorized into three types : diverse strolling, specific strolling, and accompanying strolling; with diverse strolling is done the most in four study areas and in general, accompanying strolling is done more than specific strolling.
DEA is a tool which can evaluate comparative efficiency of decision making units. This study aims to grasp current conditions of each prefectural number of welfare facilities for elderly people with DEA and discuss the applicability of DEA to location planning of community facilities. The prefectural efficiency was calculated using some input and output variables such as number of four types of welfare facilities per population to offer valuable information on making evaluation and improving policy. It is concluded that DEA is a powerful tool for assessing relative efficiency on location planning of community facilities.
To clarify the characteristic of townscape, the investigation for the image of townscape at the commercial and business districts were carried out in the field. In this study, the mode of appearance was adopted to analyze the image words of townscape. Many words which showed the mode of appearance were discussed according to time, distance and direction. Compared with four townscape at the commercial and business districts, it is clear that each townscape has the characteristic mode of appearance and the diversity in some condition. The mode of appearance is one of the important factor of townscape and it is necessary to introduce the mode of appearance for study on townscace.
The purpose of this paper is to develop an environmental management support expert system for developing countries. First, we arrange the knowledge base from environmental management plans of Japanese four cities. It consists of environmental zoning areas, environmental guidelines, evaluation items and database required for reasoning. Then, we propose the evaluation method and indexes that enable to infer within the limits of data acquired, especially using satellite data as a substitute for landuse and vegetation data, and formulate the inference using fuzzy set theory. Finally, the usefulness of the system is shown through the application to Oita, Kitakyushu, Mokpo and Ujung Pandang.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a simulation system to evaluate urban landscape composition. We formulate the problem about configuration of landscape elements using Genetic Algorithm with a function that measures a fitness of the configuration. The function is composed of four indexes. These indexes and parameters are derived from the results of analysis of 19th century European landscape paintings. And a prototype simulation system is proposed to compare a landscape composition obtained from actual urban area with a sub-optimal solution of the configuration. The usefulness of the system developed here is shown through the application to three types of actual landscapes.
The lessons learned through the study on the urban design programs in Setagaya are as follows. (1) Specification of the roles of urban design in the general plan, the organization and its staffing, a budget and authority for coordination are important as a base for promotion of urban design programs. (2) The actual improvement projects have been carried out and fully accomplished in advance of adoption of the urban design plan and the related or dinance in Setagaya. (3) The continuous interaction among the improvement projects by the Setagaya City, the Tokyo Metropolitan government and private sectors in the focus areas has resulted in creation of the attractive urban environment. (4) The major citizen participation measures are "civic ideas competitions", "design competitions", "citizen workshops", "organization of neighborhood associations", "experimental projects" and "collaborative construction works by citizen". (5) Combination of the basic citizen participation measures with others are important to improve the participatory process.
The purpose of this study is to develop the application software for grasping the characteristics of landscape. The used data is digital elevation map (50m Grid) which is published by Geographical Survey Institute in Japan. We simulated geographical environment using this data, sited the eye position and abstracted the characteristics of landscape by calculation of geometry. The characteristics of landscape are expressed by the numerical data and the three-dimensional computer graphics. The numerical data presents the range, distance and direct of view, angle of depression, angle of incidence and others. By comparing these data and computer graphics, we verified the effectiveness of indexes.
This paper aims to clarify the countermeasures for problems in condominium reconstruction projects and to educe main factors to successfully carry reconstruction of condominium into execution, by adducing the existent reconstruction projects as examples. Reconstruction of condominium has been mostly caried out by equivalent transfer method, using the differences between real floor area ratio and designed floor area ratio. Having good marketability to dispose reserved floor area by sale is needed to use this manner. It is also essential for those who have no means that developer providing small scale apartment units and purchasing condominium ownership to easily reach a mutual agreement among condominium owners. Appropriate supports by developer are needed for mortgagee, rental dweller and neighborhood. The small number of condominium owners to be reach a mutual agreement and strong leadership of reconstruction supporter are also essential, and cooperation among condominium owners in the stage of demolition and reconstruction works is really needed, because reconstruction project itself has no strong leagal supports. Consequently, it is important to establish any methods where a mutual agreement is easily reached including those who has no means and the elderly, and they can join continuously to reconstruction projects. It is also important to give any legal basis in order to stabilize the process of condominium reconstruction works.
The main building of Myojo-ji temple was built by carpenters of Kenninji school. The whirl pattern of Kibana and Sanehijiki of the building was carved in Uwamaki form. The technical skill was taken over by Zen'emon Yamagami when Nata-dera temple, Komatsu Tenmangu shrine and Zuiryu-ji temple were built. From the Buddhist sanctum of Zuiryu-ji temple built in 1659, we can perceive not only his excellent constructing skill to produce the inner space which we feel much more spacious than it is, but also his unconventional idea with Uwamaki form basically used on the whirl pattern of the construction members of the building. His excellent skill was taken over when the gate (Sanmon) of Zuiryu-ji temple was built at the late middle age. On the other hand, when the inner building of Isurugihiko shrine was built by carpenters of Shitennoji school in 1653, Mokko shape whirls in Shitamaki form were used on all the construction members.
An examination of historical sources on Zentsuji-temple reveals the following things about the construction of the temple in the early and middle 13th century : ・ Until the late 12th century, it was almost impossible to repair or construct the architectures in Zentsuji-temple by themselves because of the obstruction by Toji-temple which managed Zentsuji-temple, or by Kokuga, local government. ・ But in the early 13th century, the construction of the Kodo-hall and the Jogyodo-hall was achieved by Shingon, a priest of Toji-temple. ・ And in the middle 13th century, the construction in Zentsuji-temple became to be carried out by themselves through Kanjin (a method of gathering contributions) , and so on.
According to Shigetaka Miyagami, the Kondo-hall of Motoyakushiji-temple and the Tahoto-pagoda of Mandaraji-temple were removed to Zentsuji-temple and reconstructed. But an examination of historical sources on Zentsuji-temple reveals the following things about the temple : ・ The existence of a piece of a clay Buddha image which dates from Hakuho period suggests the existence of the Kondo-hall at the same age. ・ In the late 11th century, the damage of the main architectures in Zentsuji-temple was not so serious except the Gojunoto-pagoda and the Jogyodo-hall. And they didnt have effective measures to get enough money to be carried out the construction. ・ And the late llth century, the relations between Zentsuji-temple and Mandaraji-temple were not so friendly. And the shape of the Tahoto-pagoda in Zentsuji-temple was supposed to be different from that in Mandaraji-temple. So. Mr. Miyagami's opinion is not correct.
This study deals with the landscaping heritages on BENTENJIMA resort areas (MAISAKA, SHIZUOKA) .The aim of this paper is to make clear the relation between landscaping heritages and changing process of land use. By the study some knowledge was acquired as follows. 1) The sustainability of landscaping heritages related to keeping site largeness. 2) The group of heritages have the sustainability to make highly. 3) The large site keep trees if the site change its use. 4) In reclaimed land, urban spatial planning influenced that sustainability.
The Palais Royal has played a central role in the history of theatres in France. It also had an important influence on the town-planning of Paris. In this research I analyse the relationship between the theatres which were built in the Palais Royal and the development of the surrounding area. From the examination of various plans, the different forms of theatres in their built form can be explained in terms of different ideas concerning urban structure. By charting these differences we can see a process of shift from a court theatre to a urban public theatre, which in turn changed the surrounding urban spaces. This analysis thus provides a new understanding of the relationship between theatres and the urban spaces that contain them.
Generally, the Byzantine cities were considered to have been in poor condition for its public institutions if compared with the Roman. This paper, based on the Roman codex in the reign of Justinianos and some documents, deals with the charitable institutions, for the most part, founded within Constantinople in the sixth century. As the result, those institutions, which substantialized "pity" as a Christian idea, were treated well in point of property to endure and expanded its piety to the weaks inside the city as a new component of the city's system in Christian state. Those were also converted from personl houses and founded in the course of enlargement of churches.
This paper deals with first Dresden Hoftheater by Gottfried Semper. The purpose of this paper is to clarify a part of Semper's architectural manner which he acquires in response to the main theme of Thearer Reform. Therefore this paper points out the architectural composition of this theater on the basis of analyzing the relation between blocks and surface. Semper acquires a unique architectural manner, making a concession to a request for the traditional form of court theater. Semper gives up relating surface to the inside of blocks and then he shows a rigid simple shape, covering blocks with autonomous surface.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the design of the stoa of Zeus in Athens. Through the analysis of the dimensions and their proportions of the building, the following conclusion was given. 1) As initial dimension and proportion, the width of the stoa was given as 150 ft., and the width of the wings as one-fourth of whole length of the stoa. 2) The axial intercolumniation of the wings was the basis for the proportional relationships of the stoa. 3) The small difference between the width of the wings and the depth of the stoa occurred from angle contractions.
The palace of Bonos was founded by Romanes I Lekapenos as his summer residence. This palace is now lost to us and the information on it were delivered only through literary sources. This study re-examines the literary sources and tries to find out the characteristic features of the palace. In this palace, the courtyard or 'Aule' was used as the ceremonial space, and the palace church (St. Constantine) was facing the 'Aule'. Therefore the courtyard or 'Aule' might be the functional core of this palace. And the situation of the palace, on the north slope of 'the fourth Hill' in Constantinople, is ideal for a summer residence.
Vitruvius' theory of optical adjustment is based on the hypothesis that one sees the architectural order from a certain distance. This distance, which can be found out by a simple calculation, is about 60 feet and 120 feet. It is significant that these scales correspond to those of the inner space of the basilica that Vitruvius designed. In the academic discussions of the 17th and 18th century, his theory was sometimes approved and sometimes denied, but this ideal scale of space revived in its practical discussions.
In this paper, I tried to make clear the histrical meanings and functions of "maison de plaisance", that was a country house-style of late baroque-rococo in France and Germany. From this viewpoint, one can say that the remarkable book is "De la distribution des maison de plaisance et de la decoration des edifices en general (2.vol.,1737-38)" of Jacques-Francois Blondel (1705-1774), who was one of the most important French architectural theorists in the 18th century. The notion of "maison de plaisance" is connected with" bienseance(convenance)", "commodite", "distribution", "economic" and "variete". They make the turning point of architectural thought from 17th century to 18th century. In other words, the "maison de plaisance" also characterizes one of social changes in the "Ancien Regime". Firstly, I treat of the problem of the original notion of "maison de plaisance" in France. Secondly, I discuss the adoption of "maison de plaisance" in Germany. In conclusion consequently, I publish to more profund investigation of the transformation in architectural thought between France and Germany.
This paper aims to clarify the architectural consciousness of the city of Florence by analysing the characteristics of the city-images in Christian paintings from the 14th to the 16th century. The expression of Florence can be categorized into three patterns. First, Florence in which saints and the Virgin Mary play an active roles. Second, the proximity between Florence and the Holy world. Third, Florence protected by the benevolent nature of Holy figures. These variasions of the expression of Florence not only confirm the glory of the God and enrich the religious city-life of the people, but also contribute to the formation of the identity and the originality of the city of Florence.