The purpose of this study is to gather knowledge about sustainable residential environments for independent elderly settlers via an examination of a residential area that changed into a town for senior citizens and that has bilateral character of villa and settlement, by analyzing the lifestyle activities of resident couples from various viewpoints.
In Part 3, we investigate the lifestyle activities of independent elderly couples at the residential areas from an examination of their housing and lifestyle activities. The living style targeted in this paper is defined as the living conditions formed by three aspects: people, space, and activities. Specifically, “people” refer to the elderly couples, space is the villa (which is blessed with an abundance of nature), and activities are the lifestyle activities enjoyed in the dwelling unit.
This study was able to clarify the following: 1. Most of the seniors' life activities, except for sleep and some hobbies, are spent in spacious living-dining-kitchen (LDK) rooms and on the villa terrace, which can be used as an extension to indoor living. While their primary living space is the “LDK”, they often create hobby rooms as secondary locations where they can fulfill self-realization goals. 2. The time allocations of couples (except for sleep and meals) differ for each person, with husbands spending significantly less time for housework and much more for hobbies and relaxation. In contrast, their wives' time tends to be equally divided among housework, relaxation, and hobby activities. Thus, while dining together sets the life rhythm of their days, hobbies and relaxation times are enjoyed separately, even though they will also share some household chores. Thus, couples tend to balance their married life between private and shared time. 3. It can be said that simple, compact, and open villas provide suitable housing for elderly people, because they offer the small number of functions required by couples, ease of maintenance, and the ability to accommodate lifestyle changes. Living spaces are harmonized by an open living and dining room (LD) and a spacious terrace, which provide a common venue for individuals, couples, and guests to socialize. Thus, it can be said that their lives are stably balanced by appropriate levels of privacy and communication with others. The authors have named this “harmonized life”. 4. Looking at independent elderly couples from the viewpoint of “silver stage” (age level), we find they can be divided into three level: the zero to second stage (55 to 69 years old), the third stage (70 to 74 years old), and the fourth to fifth stage (more than 75 years old). People of the zero to second stage are full of energy and enjoy active life-centered hobbies, while the third stage is the period of transition from active to tranquil lifestyles and hobbies, and reflects their declining power. Persons in the fourth to fifth stages lead mostly placid lifestyles, with less time spent in hobbies due to their decreasing strength.
With the rapidly developing economy in China, the gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider and wider. At the same time, the gap of education and school facilities between urban area and rural area is also widening. The reform of education has been carried out for about 30 years, but the development of the education facilities and space in urban area has stagnated for a long time. On the other hand, in rural area, with the outside help of architects and NGO, many creative school facilities have been built, which are rare in urban area and called by Hope Primary School (those are built in poverty-stricken rural areas of China and funded by charities in order to help children whose families are too poor to afford the tuition to complete elementary school education, hereinafter referred to as HPS). Many of these HPSs were built after the Sichuan and Qinghai earthquake. The paper intends to clarify the composition and the character of HPSs' architecture spaces and the process of the planning and constructions of HPSs in order to break the standard school planning for future school building. The methods of this paper include: 1) picked up 31 HPSs from architecture magazines and literatures, analyzed the geographical position, design concept, architecture space of them, and the planning methods of HPSs which are based on cooperation between schools and local society. 2) interviewed 13 architectural designers who designed HPSs, clarified the sequence of the project starting, the background and the process of the planning and constructions of HPSs. 3) implemented a field survey on the current situation and actual status of use of 14 HPSs. The conclusions are as follows: (1) In the starting of the process, the way that designers enter into the projects and their role are very important. At the beginning of HPSs' project, most of designers were chosen by NGOs / donators according open competitions except those who start the projects themselves. After that, the chosen designers will find problems on local education and society, decide location and scale of schools, and submit design proposal. The above features promote the functioning of the schools and reflect the involved local traditional cultures. (2) The valuable creation of various spaces is resulted from the designers' initiative of planning process. Although the low cost set a limit to the design, the designers succeeded in creating school architectures by introducing local traditional culture and features into the school planning through using local architecture materials and construction methods and employing local residents and contractors. (3) Taking not only the public budgets but also various construction funds promote forming a more democratic process of school planning. (4) The participation of local residents and contractors in the process of the planning and constructions promotes creating the school planning which will satisfy various needs of local society, connect with local traditional culture, and support cooperation programs and exchange activities between HPSs and communities. (5) There are various clients and various methods to start the project of HPSs. However, the design process and the way of getting the construction funds have not been systematized yet. The cost connecting to schools' quality is overall low, and the gap is still big.
Introduction: University campuses started to be built since the late 19th century in China, strongly influenced by the Beaux-Arts planning style, characterized by monumental buildings with strong axis and enclosed open space with regular shape. Such space became the spatial prototype in Chinese universities. Meanwhile, influenced by the traditional Chinese cultural elements such as Feng Shui and the image of Chinese Garden, it is very common to find rivers, ponds or mountains within campuses located in natural environments, creating distinctive campus spaces. Also, with great changes of the Chinese society, not only the educational system but also the campus environment has experienced a lot of changes. The rapid urbanization has transformed the fringe area into urban context around campuses, affecting campus spaces indirectly. Under such cultural and social background, this study aims to clarify the spatial characteristics and transformation of open spaces related to the site environment in universities in China.
Methods: Open spaces faced by main buildings and enclosed by buildings or environmental elements on at least two sides are extracted as "campus open spaces (COS)" from 54 campuses built before 1949. The formation of COS is divided into four phases according to the Chinese historical background in China. By analyzing and categorizing the shape, number, arrangement of COS, and the environmental elements related to COS in each phase, 6 spatial composition patterns are found. Moreover, Composition of plan and environmental elements, distribution of cases by patterns and phases, inclination of change in each phase, and typical transformation were examined.
Results: 1) Under the influence of Beaux-Arts planning style, single regular-shaped COS were common in the early phase. However, many of them developed in an interrupted way afterwards, thus plural irregular-shaped COS became the majority today. 2) Influenced by the traditional Chinese culture, many university campuses are located in the natural environments including mountains or bodies of water from the beginning. Most COS were also created relating to such natural elements. In the early phase, COS usually adopted only urban or natural elements, while in the background of the rapid urbanization in China, many COS were developed to combine the natural and urban environment. 3) During the foundation phase of Chinese universities, most COS were created following the regular spatial prototype planned in Beaux-Arts style, in a relatively pure environment (Phase I). Immediately after the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, with the reorganization of universities, new COS units appeared in many campuses, representing the new era (Phase II). After 1978, more and more COS related to the urban road were created under the background of rapid urbanization (Phase III). And since 1999, with the increasing number of university students, most campuses keep developing in a urban-nature-combined environment (Phase IV).
Conclusions: This study has clarified that the transformation of open spaces in universities in China, is related to the Chinese cultural and social background, and also the site environment. Under the same cultural and social background, the transformation of open spaces shares common characteristics in each phase, while according to different site environments, open spaces formed and developed in various ways, present distinctive spatial characteristics.
Text description of Presence of Absence is one of the major forms of communication for architects to express their conceptual intention. Normally, architects design architecture by making objects. But sometimes they eliminate a part of the original object or parts to design architecture, for example, eliminate columns to make a large space in a building. The way creates some effects which could not create just only making an object. The objective of this paper is to reveal the aspect of architecture from the view of Presence of Absence from expression of elimination through the text description of buildings. The flow of this research is as below: 1. Extract sentences which contain presence of absence used by architects to explain their design of architecture from architectural magazine, Shinkenchiku during 1950 - 2013. 2. Extract what were eliminated from the design of architecture, the ways which they were eliminated, they define the eliminated as subject, and the result of elimination as effect. 3. Consider and analyze the relationship between the eliminated and ways, the eliminated and Subject, the eliminated and Effect by using correspondence analysis. After that, derive the tendency of their properties. 4. Categorize the relationships by creating a matrix. Take horizontal axis as effect, vertical axis as subject, further create ways of the eliminated within the vertical axis as sub-category.
As a result, between the eliminated and Subject, three tendencies were found : Objects constituting form, External conditions and system, Spaces constituting environment. Between the eliminated and Effect, four tendencies were found : Functional structure of space, Abstraction of sense, Dimensional transformation of architectural form, Extroverted aspect. And between the eliminated and Type of elimination, three tendencies were found : Obfuscation of atmosphere, Deliberate abstraction, Epistemic release. Through the investigation of the matrix, 22 types of the frameworks were derived as Presence of Absence.
To summarize the characteristics of architectural Presence of Absence from expression of elimination in text description of buildings, 1.) Through the design of architecture, architect expresses essence of own architecture by using subtraction and abstraction, 2.) In the activity inside of architecture, architect expresses potential of activity inside of architecture eliminated, 3.) In the recognition of architecture, architect obscures the perception and dismantle ideally, be present nature and unit of form as a virtual image to express architecture beyond the existing concept. The expressions of eliminate reveal that not only building function and material presence but also meaning and added values architects create through the absence.
1. Introduction After World War II, new junior high schools were established in many municipalities by the reform of the school education system. Later, at the time of implementing the municipal merger of Showa, many of these new junior high schools were consolidated. 2. Purpose This paper addresses the reorganization process of public junior high schools in the Tottori Prefecture. This paper considers that the local government finished the consolidation of junior high schools in the first half of the 1970s and organized a new junior high establishment status that were implemented in 1947. This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the municipal merger and the consolidation of junior high schools in Showa in each municipality since 1953. 3. Conclusion After World War II, the Tottori Prefecture had many municipalities compared to the expected number for its resident population, and many small new junior high schools were founded in 1947. In 1950, the Prefecture Board of Education established the "junior high school maintenance strengthening of the principle matters, " which included the policy of establishing joint junior high schools that are shared by several small municipalities. The "junior high school maintenance strengthening promotion committee" determined and encouraged the amalgamation for 22 junior high schools. However, after enforcing the Municipal Merger Promotion Law of 1953, small-scale municipalities were themselves amalgamated as a result of a recommendation based on a merger plan encouraging prefecture governments. There was little relationship between the recommended municipal areas and the catchment area of joint junior high schools, and recommendations regarding municipal mergers were prioritized. Therefore, the "Five-Year School Reorganization Plan" of 1954 proposed the junior high school reorganization policies that were considered the future municipal mergers. Of the 36 municipalities that negotiated the merger agreement at the time of merging of Showa, 21 municipalities promoted the amalgamation of junior high schools in the first half of the 1970s, became each town 1 junior high school. The result of the municipal merger of Showa had a major impact on the timing and scope of the reorganization of junior high schools. In particular, nine municipalities that wrote amalgamation of the future in merger agreement amalgamated junior high school of all municipalities during 1956-1964, became each town 1 junior high school. In this way, the towns and villages section became the basically format of each municipality 1 junior high school that was restructured school by the municipal merger. At that time, the Tottori Prefectural Board of Education urged the amalgamation of different schools into one school that can be shared by more than one municipality. A consolidation of junior high schools was completed in the early stages of the 1970s. Since then, the operation of junior high schools has been stable for over 40 years.
The pavement conditions in snowy regions continuously change as a result of localized snowfall. Individuals with visual impairments unknowingly become disorientated when walking alone. Cognitive maps which are developed during the non-snowy season are not valid during snowy conditions. Braille blocks, landmarks, destination points and street corners are all obscured by snow which make navigation difficult. We created a guidance system to aid the visually impaired during independent travel in regions with heavy snowfall. This paper studied the effects of sound cues on the navigational turning action of visual impaired persons. Sixteen individuals who are blind were recruited to participate in an investigation of the navigational effects of sound cues. Six loudspeakers, directed towards the ground, were placed at a height of 3m and separated 2-10m from each other, creating an L-shape route (See Figure. 1). We analyzed the frequency characteristics of background noise at the experiment site and selected three different sound cues for experimental stimuli. The frequency characteristics of our sound cues were different from that of site background noise. Two stationary continuous sound cues (i.e. the sound of a creek (1kHz and 4kHz)), and one intermittent sound cue (i.e. bird's tweets) were used individually or mixed during four different walking conditions. The first walking condition sound cue was 1kHz of the entire creek sound frequency for both X and Y walking axis. Walking condition two was 1kHz and 4kHz of the creek sound frequency for each walking axis, walking condition three combined 1kHz of the creek sound frequency on both X and Y axis with additional birds tweets from two loudspeakers located at the corner. Walking condition four combined all three cues, 1kHz of the creek sound on Y axis, 4kHz of the creek sound on X axis, and the bird tweet from two loudspeakers at the corner. Our results show that in order to guide the blind persons turning action at a corner, at least two kinds of sound cues are required. Providing two different continuous stationary sound cues on each axis is effective for visually impaired persons to recognize the existence of two crossing axis and assist with turning. However, walking participant feedback suggests that to better distinguish the location of a corner on an L-shape route, another type of sound cue, such as an intermittent sound, might be useful.
The present study focuses on “Nagayamon” gates, one format of constituent buildings in a rural estate, with the aim of clarifying their origins and inheritance processes to date. Nagayamon gates remain in large numbers in rural parts of the Kanto region, but the gates, as items of cultural property, have been regarded as appendages to main houses, and therefore, no statistical data and few records are available on them. Our study shows that Nagayamon gates in rural areas first emerged in the first half of the 18th century, with village heads and other well-off farmers building them under the reign of feudal lords. The abundance of Nagayamon gates in central Ibaraki Prefecture can be attributed to factors of the ruling structure, whereby frequent relocations of lords toward the end of the feudal age split up their domains and increased the number of “aikyu” villages that were divided between different lords. Our case study shows about 40 percent of Nagayamon gates were built during the feudal age, with many of them located in aikyu and other villages where more than one ruler reigned, as well as in smaller feudal domains. Historical documents and oral tradition indicate that rulers used Nagayamon as a means of domain administration, such as by issuing Nagayamon construction permits in exchange for cash or labor, and by allowing farmers with reserves to build Nagayamon at times of famine in exchange for their release of grain from their reserves. More than half of all Nagayamon gates were built in the Meiji Era or later. They adopted a symbolic quality that had originated in the Edo Period, and they were popular among well-off and non-collateral families, or families of about the same social standing as those that had built Nagayamon during the Edo Period. The fact that they were introduced as symbolic objects is demonstrated by the less practical choice of their distances from the main house, orientations, building materials and other attributes than in a reference village on an island; their layouts that take account of the street-facing side of the estate; and the different wall finishes used on the front and back faces. Use of Nagayamon has been centered on accommodating retired members of the family well into the postwar period, but it has also complemented community demands by drawing on their spatial separation from the main houses, such as by allowing third parties to occupy them or providing venues for public activity. But disuse rose sharply and has hovered around 40 percent since around 1980, with their owners leaving the farming business, their children moving out, and new houses being built to accommodate retired family members. Conversion of functions to use Nagayamon gates as galleries, shops or other establishments by drawing on their characteristic locations has so far been rare. While new Nagayamon gates have seldom been built in recent years, existing ones have been renewed or maintained by total replacement, partial rebuilding or repairs. Interviews with their owners indicated they are highly motivated to pass on the items of heritage. Despite changes in roof materials and extensions, Nagayamon gates still observe a certain format, so they are recognized as a constituent element of community landscape, and their continued inheritance is desired by third parties as well.
This paper focuses on the revision of the City Planning Law in 1933, which extended the law's application to small towns, focusing primarily on towns with hot springs (Onsen), beaches, historical sites and sightseeing places.
In the 1920s, scenic areas started to be developed, but the disorganized and uneven nature of this development caused some problems. In the face of this, city planners realized the importance of planning in scenic areas. Research by the Toshi-Kenkyukai (都市研究会) in 1930 clarified that many city planners could utilize city planning in scenic towns to protect the environments from damage by the private companies, to conserve the scenery, to improve the space for tourists, and to combine existing industry with new markets for tourism. At that point in time, the City Planning Law did not apply to small towns. In 1933, the law was revised and small towns with hot springs (Onsen), beaches, historical sites and sightseeing places were included. Kazumi Iinuma, the chief officer of the city planning department, aimed for conserving the natural scenery of these towns, in addition to developing the district close to the natural scenery properly.
Through the application of the City Planning Law, the layouts of small towns were decided not only by the town's will but also the prefectures. 576 towns in total applied the revised City Planning Law by the end of the WW2. 224 of them had planned streets, scenic districts or parks. In this paper, 56 towns are identified as scenic towns in light of official statements made and reasons given for the plan. These scenic towns, compared with the others, made a greater number of planning decisions regarding scenic districts and parks.
In the Czech Republic, lots of housing estates consist of prefab panel housings were developed in socialist era. Those estates have often been related to negative images such as “uniform“, “gray“ and so on. Such negative images are mostly from the standardized prefab panel housings and other factors of housing estates have not been paid enough attention so far. In this paper, by using a national magazine “Architektura CSSR/CSR“ published in socialist era, which has been possessed but not organized yet in the archive of IPR PRAHA, the concept and evaluation of South Town (Jižní Město, JM), which is one of the largest housing estates developed in socialist era in Prague city, were examined. The main contents of the articles focused on in this paper are as follows: competitions of JM (phase 1 and 2) in 1967, detailed area planning of JM in 1969, housings for JM in 1972, the third group development of JM in 1973, detailed area planning of JM II in 1978, progress of JM II in 1981, evaluation of social value of housing groups in 1982, and competitions of new housing groups in Prague: idea and reality in 1988. The development plan of JM started from the plan by J. Krasny which won the competition in the late of 1960s. However, the concept of the development plan had often been forced to change because of economic reason and so on. For example, one of the important character of the original plan was various heights of buildings which make gradation of outline of landscape from the highest center to lower surroundings, but this idea had to be changed and was not realized. On the other hand, the relationship between the development area and natural environment around the estate, transportation system such as bus, metro and highway, the landmark design in housing area in JM II, which were considered in the development plan, were realized and exist until now. Natural environment and transportation system are indeed evaluated highly by the present municipality and inhabitants. On the articles in 1980s, the housing estates developed in 1970s were reviewed. The functionality and utility of housings were generally highly evaluated but psychological effect and architectural ideology of the housing estates were evaluated that they had not achieved enough level. In addition, the recognition of problems such as empty central part and lack of workplace in housing estates were pointed out. The same situation was occurred in JM, which has taken over after democratization and some activities to make the situation better have been carried out by Prague 11 municipality. In conclusion, the architectural creativity were expressed in the early competitions of JM and following detailed area plans. It means the authors of the plans had made their planning with their own ideas which tried to involve the area's character. Thus, in this paper, early planning and those transformation was revealed by using articles of the national magazine since 1960s. Those are partly corresponds to the existing situation of JM housing estates. Early plans of housing estates in socialist era might help to find their characters, even prefab panel housings were normally standardized.
Industrial districts which had been leading the Japanese economic growth, declined along with the change of industrial structure. Many large-scale factories were withdrawn and reduced. The residential area near the littoral industrial areas which have been supplying the labor have a lot of unoccupied house in relation to aging and declining population. In many case, these unoccupied houses had also made a factor of the whole decline in towns because these have been neglected without the next residents and any planning of rebuilding. This study aims to clarify the succession of community development and explore the promotion of settlement through the utilization of unoccupied house. We focus on the community development of Baika·Sikanjima in Osaka. It is a case of self-reliant community development through the creative activities that is being processed independently without public funds. We examined the process, approach and perceptions of the stakeholders, the creators and visitors in this area with the literature-review, interviews and the questionnaire survey.
The major findings of this study are as follows. 1) This movement is divided into four phases; the first that students renovated a vacant room, the second that the annual event was held and artists settled, the third that stakeholder was changed and the existing artists promoted another, and the forth phase that the movement expands to public as well as artists. The number of ateliers that reutilized unoccupied house is increasing in this area. 2) There is a framework for promotion of settlement. i) “The annual art event” that exhibited works in unoccupied houses at first has been gradually changed to open the creators' ateliers and giving off the town's attraction to the public. ii) There is “Trial Living” program that people interested can live for short time in this area. iii) “Unoccupied Houses Tour” has been joint in the annual event. iv) There is “Intermediation” that an architect and local estate help people find proper unoccupied house and settle there. v) “Renovation” is allowed for residents. Some creators and young people have settled through these programs. 3) Free atmosphere is an important factor with cheap rent and transportation convenience to settle here. For realization of moving, in addition to cooperation of a landowner, it is also important that architect and local real estate mediate the condition of free renovation and house rent between owner of unoccupied house and prospective resident. This reutilization project of unoccupied houses results in a benefit to each other. It is a core business for landowner and local real estate and it takes to renovation works for architect. These suggest that this project can be a sustainable business. 4) On the other hand, there are some assignments to sustain this community development. i) Along with creators increase, it is hard to pull together. ii) It is necessary for creators to be aware of the relationship with the local residents and communicate with them. iii) Some owners have anxiety of putting the creators as tenants. These should be considered in order to carry out community development through reutilization of unoccupied houses starting with creative activities in the future.
This study clarifies the long-term change of post-disaster built environment of three neighborhoods in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (2005).Three neighborhoods experienced almost same housing damage by disaster, but have different attribution in terms of population and housing such as household income, race and homeownership etc. The selection of neighborhoods are determined in order to analyze what kind of factors given influence for built environment regeneration. The goal of the research is to examine the neighborhood-scale mechanism of built environment regeneration after mega disaster. The methodology is housing stock regeneration and land use field survey counting five times during 2009 and 2015. This research examines not only the recovery process of neighborhood-scale built environment but also the impact of property transfer and regeneration programs by local government which are Auction and the Lot Next Door program both of which aims to bring back buyout properties into real estate market. It is demonstrated that housing stock regeneration in Lakeview, the middle-high income and white neighborhood is achieved not only by middle-high income survivors' housing reconstruction but also third-party's property purchase who might have motivation in land speculation and for development benefit through local government's property transfer and regeneration programs. High property value which is affected by race and household income is one of factors which given influence for positive built environment regeneration. It is proved that property transfer programs are effective methods for this neighborhood which is achieved by encouraging multiple stakeholders to construct housing and manage properties, not adhering to housing "re"construction by pre-disaster homeowners. In Gentilly Woods, mixed race and low-middle income neighborhood, the percentage of buyout programs are relatively high, but the properties transfer and regeneration program only functions as decrease of blight properties but not increase of new housing stock. The absence of third-party housing construction stakeholder leads to the "empty lot immobilization" that is more apparent than other neighborhoods. Finally, Holy Cross, low-income and African-American neighborhood, number of blighted properties have been visible even after ten years after disaster. However, the percentage of empty lots are smaller than that of Gentilly after ten years and the incremental housing renovation remain ongoing process by survivors' housing reconstruction actions. The percentage of buyout properties are approxitemtly 3 % smaller, more people decided in-situ housing reconstruction, than Lakeview and Gentilly Woods which implies that residents' strong attachment for neighborhood might affect the built environment regeneration situation in the long-term process for the future. This research has not clarify the motivation of the property transfer and regeneration program and also the attribution of non pre-disaster homeowners who construct housing in neighborhood which is one of the factors that might give influence for built environment regeneration. These have to be proved in order to examine the mechanism and structure of built environment regeneration. It is possible to analyze the data of real estate transaction and the attribution of stakeholders by using the Assessors'' office of Orleans Parish. This is next research issue to be examined.
The challenges regarding rehabilitation and reconstruction of housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake revealed limitation of government-led approach. That includes large burden of local official staffs, huge expenditure for implementation of recovery programs, and future expenditure for maintenance of public housings. Although Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction emphasize importance of sharing responsibility among stakeholders, there is still lack of practical knowledge on how each stakeholder embodies assistances for permanent housing recovery, and how it influences to housing recovery of the assisting area. In order to clarify characteristics of NGOs in housing recovery, this study examines organizational design and project implementation of NGOs in New Orleans city after Hurricane Katrina. This study 1) examines recovery status and distribution of NGOs in the city, and in the selected district, 2) categorizes NGOs by its assistance type, and 3) clarifies program schemes and distribution of projects for selected NGOs. The data collection methods include in-depth, semi-structured interviews with personnel from nine NGOs and New Orleans Redevelopment Authority consist of three research trips. This study also draws on a review of tax records and other secondary sources. Hurricane Katrina was selected due to its magnitude of economic losses. We selected New Orleans city for case study due to scale of housing damage, status of NGOs' participation in housing recovery, and availability of precise data. This research found the relationship between market value and recovery rates of households in the city. We categorized 14 districts into three, based on market value and level of damage to housing stock. Through an observation of recovery rates and number of active NGOs in each group, we found that the group with lower market value recorded the lower recovery rates and had more NGOs. Government assistance scheme tend to give less grant to lower market value area, therefore, there are high needs of external assistance from NGOs. The Lower 9th Ward (L9W) was selected for detail study, because it significantly improved recovery rates from 2008 to 2015 and had the most NGOs. Nine NGOs in L9W had different scale of activity from district to national level, and implemented more than 800 projects in the district. We categorized NGOs by the type of assistance, such as (1) new construction (4 NGOs), (2) repairing (4 NGOs), and (3) securing fund from government programs (1 NGO), with subgroups designated as (a) and (b) in term of the size of program expenditure. Each category shared similar assistance phase and scheme of payment, but strategy for selecting target area was different. The study analyzed program scheme and project distribution of selected NGOs from each category. The pilot NGO from (1a) played role as developer who brought 75% households from outside; almost all projects were aggregated in least value blocks with high damage by levee breach. The pilot NGO from (2a) and (2b) applied volunteer labor scheme for repairing; project distribution showed around 80% of aggregation in the neighborhood in relatively high value blocks on natural levee with less damage. The pilot NGO from type (3) assisted displaced households to get government fund; projects were scattered, and more than 70% of projects were locating in least value blocks with high damage. In conclusion, under market-based-approach in New Orleans, districts with low market value received less government grant, showed low recovery rates, and had more NGOs. Nine NGOs in L9W had various organization designs and assistance schemes. Dependent on NGOs' strategy, budget, and assistance scheme, each NGO tended to assist specific households and areas, which were partially causing unequal recovery. Thus, coordination mechanisms of NGOs and guiding principle for spacial development are necessary.
Takashi Asada belonged to Kenzo Tange's laboratory and starting with Reconstruction planning of Hiroshima City (1946-47), he was the main partner when Kenzo Tange designed Hiroshima peace center (1952) as well as Kagawa prefectural Government Hall (1958). Independently, he also designed Showa Station of Antarctica (1957), managed World Design Conference (1960) etc, and had played the important role in various fields beyond architecture planning and design. In 1961, Asada established "KANKYO KAIHATSU CENTER" with the meaning "research center for environmental development and design" which is the first consultant of urban and regional city planning in Japan. "KANKYO KAIHATSU RON" (1969) which means "theory of environmental development" was the only book written by Asada. He attended to establish the theory of environmental development and carry various works out through his concept as one of pioneers in Japan however Asada's theory of Environmental Development has not been clarified specifically. In his actualized works, there are 2 projects for children: Kodomo no Kuni as national children land in Yokohama (1962-72) and the development in Goshikidai of Kagawa (1965-71). This study aims to clarify Asada's method of environmental development for children through the analysis of 2 actualized projects as a part of his method of environmental development as follow. (1) Collecting information on projects and discourse concerned with children by Asada to clarify his theory for children. (2) Analysis of reflection of Asada's theory for children in program, planning and design of Kodomo no Kuni. (3) Analysis of organization frameworks and decision-making process in Kodomo no Kuni and ascertaining his role in 10 organizations. (4) Clarify points of common and development between Kodomo no Kuni and the development in Goshikidai. Throughout the analysis, the following 5 points have become clear. 1. Asada had his theory that children should act and play voluntarily in nature environment for education planned and design as less as possible. He believe in this environment encourages them self-development. In development of Goshikidai, outdoor activities had been taken in the program of school education with cooperation of governor and superintendent of education in Kagawa Prefecture. 2. Asada played an important part in site selection for Kodomo no Kuni. And that action changed the plan of Kodomo no kuni from smaller site(36ha) to the bigger site(96ha). 3. At first, the plan of Kodomo no Kuni was programmed to focus on artificial facilities like Disneyland. Asada denied it and planned minimal facilities for children's various outdoor activities. The completed plan followed Asada's concept and program generally. 4. Asada trended to introduce master plan like the cluster pattern and distributed facilities dispersively in each zone separated along the topographic features to suppress unnecessary development on nature in planning design of each project consistently. Asada tried to reuse architectural remains in Kodomo no Kuni and planned Goshikidai including existing temples, industry or facilities for children's activities and sightseeing. 5. Asada not only did planning and design, but also suggested concerning PR, management or personal affairs in each organizations of Kodomo no Kuni. In implementation process, he organized group formed of specialists, designers and architects in different field in order to design the environment comprehensively without differentiating fields and scales. Asada used the method of environmental development in cross-sectional fields to control organization in both decision-making and design and connected several organizations to design the environment comprehensively like Kodomo no Kuni.
In this study, some tendency of color standards on restoration and improvement in the important preservation districts for groups of historic buildings was investigated. Questionnaires for 110 Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Historic Buildings has been carried out. Questionnaire sheets was distributed to 110 parts. 54 questionnaire sheets recovered from 110. Recovery rate of the questionnaire in this study was 49%. As results, the following three points were revealed. 1) There are strict or loose regulations, and they have different consultation operation in response to the natural color or painted color. In addition, color criteria consisted of strict regulations and loose regulations. Trend management has been grasped vary depending on the method of coloring such paint with natural color. How to focus on the council as a way to focus on prior consultation has been confirmed. 2) Most operations of color standard is to have natural color of the material and to paint colors in harmony with existing and surrounding building. The most numbers of teaching matters in prior consultation with the preservation council was building design. Second matters constructed to color and third matters constructed to form. It was confirmed that numbers of guidance matters of color was huge. However, a process which was confirmed the color swatches and Munsell color system in the consultation process is extremely rare cases. The determination for the suitability of color is few. Without using the accurately recognize the article in color, there were many districts that have implemented the decisions and guidance on color. 3) Color guidance matters in the prior consultation and the preservation council is very large. However, it is not so much to determine the suitability of color while checking the material and color samples. Operation tendency of the consultation process in important preservation districts for groups of historic buildings, have been classified into four operation type, which were, deliberative type, prior consultation-oriented type, cautious operation type, and simplified operation type. These were grasped that differs greatly by district. From the above findings, it should be discussed while using the material that can determine the suitability of color standards.
Introduction Current CRP of Korea was introduced by Seoul in 2006. In 2009 was determined by the law re conjoint between areas in redevelopment project and development project. However, with regard to the circumstantial operation, redevelopment project is local government ordinance, development project is delegated to the Presidential decree, which corresponds to the diversification of investment.
Purpose CRP case of Seongnam, and the operation of the CRP is different from the model area of Seoul, has made the results of the redevelopment project. The purpose of this study, carried out the analysis and discussion on the operation case CRP of Seongnam, Gyeonggi, and conjoint among remote areas, is to gain knowledge in the construction of the method to achieve urban renaissance. Therefore, this refer to the results of the investigation and analysis of previous research.
Results and Conclusion CRP of Seongnam is new way to enable complex adjustment of building density through mutual earning adjustment basis on the maintenance planning which connect reinforcement and relax about land use regulation of two area with conjoint two or more apart areas to one. The results of this study are as follows. 1. Current CRP of Korea were divided into ‘transfer of F.A.R’ and ‘transfer of right’. 2. CRP, in order to achieve the public interest of the upper level plan, should measure the relief by conjoint between the loss of land property rights caused by the down-zoning of the land use regulations with the relaxation of land use regulations. 3. Operation of CRP is a process of public and private cooperation, it can be said that the participation in the planning process of the stakeholders, consensus building by agreement between stakeholders is an important element.
Railway commuters to work place/school, who are the majority of railway users, often make stopover at various stations for eating or shopping on their way home. In recent years, the mobility of railway users has been diversified by expansion of railway network and redevelopment around railway stations. Therefore, we need to analyze such stopover behavior by commuters in order not only to improve safe and comfortableness of railway stations but also to activate the commercial activities in the vicinity of stations. In this paper, we constructed a multinomial logit model, which describes commuters' choice behavior of stopover-stations for eating or shopping on their way home from their workplace. More specifically, we considered commercial facilities in the vicinity of the stopover-station and the positional relationships between their home and workplace as explanatory variables. Analyzing the person trip data obtained in three different time (1988, 1998, and 2008) in Tokyo Metropolitan Area by the proposed model, we demonstrated the estimation accuracy of the model and the attractiveness of stopover-stations quantitatively. On the basis of the estimated parameters, we grasped the influence of each variable on the attractiveness of stopover-station in three different time. For instance, it is shown that transfer stations, stations located on a railway line of their way home, and stations surrounded by many commercial facilities were attractive for stopover. By contrast, the effects of resistance to the increase of travel time is getting larger and larger. Furthermore, we classified the samples of railway users by his/her personal attribute (gender, age, and the purpose of stopover), and estimated the stopover behavior model for each attribute. More concretely, we quantitatively analyzed the preference for choosing stopover-station, and obtained the new findings as follows: (1) Men prefer to make stopover at transfer stations on their way home, but women prefer stations which are surrounded by many commercial facilities with large total floor area. (2) Elderly people are reluctant to increase of travel time by stopover, and stations with high commercial potential are more attractive for young people. (3) People who make stopover for shopping tend to feel higher resistance to the increase in travel time by stopover. On the other hand, transit stations, which are convenient for meeting friends, are more attractive for people who make stopover for eating, socializing, or entertainment. Finally, as an application of the proposed model, we estimated the change of attractiveness of stopover-stations and the number of people who made stopover. Namely, assuming that the number of commercial facilities around the specific station increased, the attractiveness of the station and other adjacent stations on the same railway line tended to be decreased greatly. Additionally, assuming that the mutual railway line operation between different railway companies started, stations on the direct railway line became more attractive for stopover, but the attractiveness of stations on other railway lines were decreased. Through these examples of simulation, we demonstrated the possibilities of application of stopover behavior model proposed in this paper.
In building construction, construction planning varies largely depending on its architectural design and site conditions, as well as the
supply conditions of building materials/components and labor during the construction period. In general, as building constru ction is
carried out only once under the same conditions, it becomes significantly necessary to simulate the construction progress by using
simulation technology, in order to clarify problems and to improve issues prior to the actual construction. This paper proposed
methodologies to represent construction works in models with high flexibility, and also to calculate construction progresses, then
verified that the simulation was carried out accurately in the case study on reinforced concrete works using these methodologies.
The architectural treatise “De Architectura”, written around 20 BC by the roman architect Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, is the most recognized and analyzed architectural treatise in the history of mankind. Particularly in the Renaissance period, the Italian artists have shown great interest in Vitruvian treatise, upon which they have based their own architectural treatise. Through the Renaissance recognition of Vitruvian architectural theory, the European classical architecture acquired the tradition of proportional design called the “module system” as it is apparent in Le Corbusier's concept of “modulor”. On the other hand, the true image of Vitruvius and the historical context of his treatise are yet to be thoroughly understood. Reading “De Architetura”, it becomes obvious that Vitruvius often introduced Greek terms, when he describes technical matters in detail. However, when he draws examples from other regions such as Egypt, Persia or Cyrene, he uses Latin terms and the topic remains to be superficial, omitting details (Tab. 1-2). From this fact, it is obvious that his references for writing his treatise were limited to Latin and Greek sources. Looking outside of the Greco-Roman culture, we see that Vitruvius' architectural theory is hardly his original thought. For instance, the analogy between a temple and a human body is already existent in Ancient Egypt. In the so-called “Book of Temple”, there is a specification that certain column styles are to be differentiated between the male and the female deities. The archaeological evidences confirm the validity of this statement. Other archaeological evidences show that the gender was not the only aspect applied to the columns. Some columns had a funerary aspect, others acted as emblems of the land, etc. In the case of Ancient Egypt, one style gained multiple meanings as time went by, so that, at the end, the columns formed several groups to express different aspects in variety of situations. In contrast, Vitruvius limited and applied the concept of gender to only three orders, despite the fact that he admits the existence of other styles. The fact that these three orders originated from different regions and eras, seems to indicate that this group of symbolism cannot be earlier than the mid-5th Century BC, and also that the varieties of symbolic meanings also existed for the classical orders. In this sense, Vitruvius consciously chose and concentrated on the gender of the columns among other possible symbolisms of the columns. The module system described by Vitruvius may also have an Ancient Egyptian origin. In Egypt, there are some tantalizing evidences that show the use of module for elevation drawings of naos-shrines (Fig. 1-2). It shows that the width of the post is given one unit and other larger parts are given the multiples of the unit, and the smaller parts mostly the unit fractions. As for the Vitruvian system, the Doric system correlates with the Egyptian, whereas the Ionian system, the major dimensions of the building, which is defined by the primary module (= column diameter) as in the Doric system, becomes the secondary modules for the smaller parts that surrounding them. As a result, the Ionic system allows the architect to adjust a selected group of dimensions without disturbing the overall appearance. Although the cases considered in this paper comprises only a modest part of the treatise, it shows that Vitruvius unconsciously adopted the architectural philosophy of other culture, particularly the ancient Egyptian. In order to escape from the illusion that Vitruvius created and to understand the true context of the Vitruvian treatise, it is essential to reassess the Vitruvian architectural theory from the view of his contemporary and preceding architectural cultures.
This study is a part of a research on architects' perception of users' psychological makeup. 115 texts of architectural theory were selected and analyzed for keywords and contexts to establish architecture's theorists' extension of interest, and perception of users' rationality, irrationality, and two modes of thinking, using selected theories of modern psychology as a baseline. It was found that, despite a relatively large interest in the subject, architectural theory did not form a comprehensive theory of the users' rationality. It was also proposed that architecture's theorists were selective and likely to be influenced by the intellectual discourse of their times.
“Kugok” in Korea means a kind of traditional landscape, located along a river, that is composed of nine beautiful spots with given names. Generally, it starts from the first spot downstream and ends up at the ninth spot upstream. Since the C16th during the Yi Dynasty, Neo-Confucianism scholars retreated to valleys in the mountains to study and teach their disciples. There, they often selected nine beautiful spots as Kugok and enjoyed their views, painted their scenery, and wrote poetry about them. So far, about 90 places in Korea have been recognized as Kugok. The concept of Kugok comes from a great Chinese Confucianism scholar, Zhu Xi (1130~1200), who settled down in Wuyi Valley and composed the poems known as “the Wuyi－Boat Songs” which described nine beautiful spots there: “Wuyi-Kugok”. The Neo-Confucianists in the Yi Dynasty who longed for a life like Zhu Xi, set up their own Kugoks following the example of Wuyi-Kugok. No Kugok place following Wuyi-Kugok has been recognized in China as yet. A great Korean Confucianism scholar, Yi Yulgok (1536~1584), who dwelled with his disciples in Kosan Valley, set up “Kosan-Kugok” and composed the poems known as “Kosan-Kugokka” (the Songs of Kosan-Kugok ) in the traditional Korean style of poetry. The aim of this paper is: (I) to geographically clarify the nine Kugok spots in the locationof Kosan- Kugok and (II) to show how Yulgok conceived the landscape of Kosan- Kugok in connection with his way of living.
(I) So far there seems to be no studies that have clarified Kosan-Kugok's geographical location. This is probably because it is located in North Korea and no useful map seems to have been found. This 2nd section ascertained Kosan-Kugok's location by means of a map made by the Japanese government during the period of Japanese rule in Korea in 1913. (II) By analyzing Kosan-Kugokka, this paper showed Yulgok’s conception of the landscape of Kosan-Kugok in two phases: (1)time and (2)space. (1) With the exception of the 5th spot poem, it is known that each spot poem of Kosan-Kugokka represented time : the time of day (morning, afternoon, sunset and night) and the four seasons. The 3rd section showed that the 5th spot poem implicitly represented eternity. This was by means of the paradigmatic comparison to the Wuyi-Boat Songs. Yulgok saw the circulation of the eternally repetitive time and seasons in the landscape of Kosan-Kugok. In addition, as another aspect of time, the same section showed that Yulgok intended to go back to the past, longing for the Confucian preceptors. It is the most outstanding characteristic of the Yi Dynasty Kugok that differs from Wuyi-Kugok. (2) Concerning the concept of space, the 4th section showed that Yulgok's intensions, as represented on the downstream side, were not to live in seclusion but open to the society. On the other hand, his intensions, as represented on the upstream side, were going toward the spring (which meansthe origin of nature). At the same time, he could enjoy the origin of nature at each spot of Kugok along the river. Thus we knew that Yulgok conceived the landscape of Kosan-Kugok corresponding closely to his way of living. He did not see the various landscapes objectively with a focus on distance, but saw them unified with his intentions and emotions in the deep layer of his experience.
Topographical surveys in Osita; less clear is the evidence for the republican surface, and the roles and purpose of the raising ground, but an accurate observation of the raised surface of Ostian streets; Decumanus and Cardo Maxiumus, Semita dei Cippi, and Via della Foce, and Via dei Mollini can be made from the result of laser scanning. The republican fortress or colony could be sited on a flat stretch of a low plateau at the mouth of the River Tiber sloping eastward, and the east gate was located on the edge of the plateau facing a small valley. Exposed republican surfaces of the Decumanus Maximus through the previous east and west gates of the fortress do not only show the topographical feature around the Forum but we find trenches giving places sporadically to the republican surfaces along that main streets. The foundation of the temple of Rome and Augustus in the early imperial period was built at the same level as the Republican ground, on which two pre-existed tempels directly facing it at the northern end of the open space, and 15-20 cm lower than the surface of the Decumanus. In the imperial period, the small fortress became administrative and commercial centre, of which the town area expanded beyond its wall and gates and enclosed by a new town wall and gates. Although the several routes between the river side and the Decumanus outside the fortress were opened, through the Roman period Decumanus crossing the central open space has been survived for providing the east-west main artery in the city (Figs. 10, 11, 17, and 18). Constant maintenance of streets which was a crucial consideration in any infrastructure plan, had been resulted in the apparently deliberate raising of the ground level as discrete events rather than as a continuous fill. In other words, the raising of the level of the streets could represent a short period of construction activity avoiding to make the buildings or blocks along the street inaccessible for long term, rather than a long slow period of construction. The surface of the Decumanus Maximus was assembled in stages rather than commonly raised as a unit. There are flat areas on the surface of the Decumanus Maximus (areas of the western part between Taberne dei Pescivendori and the intersection with the Cardo degli Aulighi, between the Cardo degli Aulighi and the entrance of the Domus del Ninfeo, and between the Domus del Ninfeo and the Marina Gate, and of the eastern Part between the Aula del Gruppo di Marte e Venere and the Quatro Tempietti, and between the Theater and the intersection with the Via del Sabazio, and between the Via del Sabazio and Edificio II, III, 1.2.5, and between Edificio II, III, 1.2.5 and the Romana Gate, and an area beyond the Roman Gate), which appears to have been the involvemant of the property owners (who may be private or local government) of the buildings in front of the main street. In contrast the surface of the Cardo Maximus has been raised in a constnt slope between the Forum and Terme del Faro and the flat areas was provided as the Porticos; the east portico of the Forum Bath and the Portico del l'Ercole. Conclusively the height of the street surface is seen as essential to understanding the development of street topography, all such surface detail had to be plotted accurately during the planning process (Figs. 19, 20, 21, and 22). The streets in Ostia remind us that in Imperial times quite different principles for infrastructure planning remained with other kinds of function than the Roman monumental beauty or axiality.
The main goal of this paper is to explain, on the one hand, how protected townscape designations evolved due to new theoretical lines and new policies, while on the other hand, explaining how this evolution allowed some townscapes to enter the denken chiku designation, while it would have been unlikely for them to have entered that same designation back in 1975. The main hypothesis is that the shift has driven the denken chiku designation system from tourism and economic development viewpoint to a local, community based model, in which tourism is not seen as the goal itself but, at the most, as a booster for local life. For this purpose, a comprehensive documentation and on-site research has been conducted. Starting from laws related to cultural protection and economic growth, every townscape designated denken chiku has been analyzed in terms of location, townscape typology, designation year, urban or rural nature and accessibility to traffic infrastructures developed over the last 40 years.