The purpose of this study is to clarify advantages and indispensable conditions for school-age childcare centers which use private houses as the base of children's daily life after school. Hearing and observation serveys were carried out. The main results are as follows; 1) Indispensable conditions: (1) Children can use neighboring areas for school-age activities. (2) Children can play how and what they went, to some degree. (3) Children are allowed to come and go from the facility. 2) Requirements for the base of children's daily life after school: (1) Existence of play areas and surrounding resources. (2) Areas and resources to play near the school-age childcare center. (3) The appropriate amount of staffing to properly oversee the children under their care. 3) Advantages: (1) Getting life experience by utilizing surrounding resources. (2) Interaction with other children and adults. (3) Vitalizing community by children's utilizing local areas.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of school space based on a survey conducted at “Gunma Kokusai Academy” established in 2005. Our results are as follow: 1) Classes in the lower grades are characterized by instructions consisting of lecturing, and therefore children tend to spend the whole day in the same classroom. 2) Those in the upper grades have more individual and group work, and they tend to enter a different classroom for each subject. 3) Considering the difference of physical size between the children in the lower and those in the upper grades, the area of a classroom should be carefully weighed. Above all, a plan fully exploiting the advantages of both open and closed classrooms is desired.
In this study, we will look at the roles of the external space that connects a common space to living unit and those of a common space in living unit, by bringing under light the locus and communication in Shousha-style children's Home. (A Shousya means a small scaled group living as a house.) As results of this study, we conclude: 1) that the factors that affect children's choice for a place of interaction are their ages and the number of children occupying the place; 2) that in the layout planning that a play ground connects Shoushas, the play ground functions for children as their locus, home base, and place of interaction with peers; 3) that it shows a tendency that, when the play ground is removed from Shoushas by remodeling, children interact with their peers mainly in the hall and cafeteria of Shousha and, therefore, their interactions with children from other homes decrease.
This study investigated the evaluation of ‘impression’ and sound environment for open plan type classrooms by elementary school children and teachers. From the results, it has been found that the children and teachers have good impressions for open-plan type classrooms. From evaluation of teachers, there was indication that an area around a desk of a child was narrow. From the evaluation of children, we understand that good ventilation, moderate brightness, sufficient space and adequate room temperature were important elements for classroom environment. In cases of schools, which were designed in consideration for acoustical environmental benefit, there were no effective evaluation given by children even though the acoustic characteristics improved. The challenge for the future design of open-plan classroom in elementary school is the realization of open-plan spaces with visual connections that retain the good impressions with high level of acoustic environment.
This document analyzes the current conditions and uses of public space in each city's city hall. The results found the following trends which have led us to new planning of these spaces. Public spaces can roughly be divided by their general purpose into the following categories: entrances, lobbies/waiting areas, halls, meeting/assembly rooms, information/display areas, and commerce areas. It is important that these spaces be set up in a way that is easy for the general population to use and that has a layout with an appropriate distribution. Public spaces should be set up according to the following: (1) Public spaces that can be used as rest areas and/or waiting areas should be set up near entrances. (2) When the proper usage of a public space is not clear, it should be made clear where the designated areas for pathways, event areas, etc. are. (3) Meeting/assembly rooms and information/display areas should be placed adjacent to other public areas.
This study aims to consider relation between change of utilization in space and planning concept through the document research and interviews about Makomanai Elementary School in the 47 years history. In the situation of declining birthrate and aging population today, it is started to discuss closing and integration of four public elementary schools in Makomanai area. Makomanai Elementary School has open space which is used for work space, playroom and gymnasium. As a result of analysis on the history of utilization, the following has become clear; The Open space could be reviewed as a pioneering work. For a long time, the open space has been used for many children, teachers and other people in diverse ways.
Recently, there has been a great demand for day nursery in Japan. The floor space per person, which is provided in minimum standards for child welfare facility, has not been revised for 60 years though this is the only criterion for the environmental level in day nursery. The purpose of this study is to consider whether it is relevant to use the floor space of eating and napping per person, for the means to reconsider the floor space per person which is not said to be well-founded scientifically. We observed four-year-old-children in detail while they were eating and napping. We also measured each space of nursery rooms. 4 nurseries fulfilling the following criteria were selected; eat and nap in the same room,20-30 children for each class, 2.0m2 per person in nursery room. As a result, we found that eating and napping space is 0.80-1.65m2 and 1.22-1.44m2 per person, respectively. Therefore, we figured that the necessary space of eating was 1.03m2 per person and of napping was 1.40m2 per person, respectively(2.43m2 per person in total)in order to make comfortable nursery room. To conclude, the eating and napping floor space may become one of the effective index to develop the nursery environment hereafter.
The main purpose of this study is not only to clarify the thinking mechanism in architectural design process due to professional architects by means of sketch but also to analyze the differences with regard to developing or dealing with building spaces in planning between them and students majored in architecture. From above point of view, we have recorded a series of their design process on video tapes. Through surveying the tapes, we discovered that professional architects are not always paying attention for whole design of the building but also considering accompanied details of the space. In other words, the professionals have been conscious of the relationships of many factors which composed the building requirements when they are in design process. Finally, their proficient capability in finding out some implicitly hidden requirements compared to those students makes a plan to be optimum or exquisitely.
This paper aims to advance a systematic typology to explain the diversity and complexity of the framework of minka, or Japanese vernacular houses, by examining 18 distinctive local framework systems. First, it describes the framework and the plan of minka, and defines the various integral structural timbers and identifies them in the frame. Then, care units of frames are categorized according to the arrangement of beams. Finally, a methodological typology is developed by determining the extent to which the core frame style is repeated, both crosswise and lengthwise, and by verifying the linkage between the central and peripheral structures.
This paper discusses the form of townhouses and traditional houses in northern Thailand, clarifying the process of urban formation and characteristics of living environment. The research this paper is based on tries to compare forms of houses in Thailand with those in other regions of South East Asia and southern China. Our previous papers clarified the typology and its transformation of shop house in Bangkok, Patani and Malacca... In this paper, authors selected Phimai (Isan,Thailand) to consider the formation of urban tissues and its transformation. Phimai (Isan,Thailand) is known as a historic City with many ancient monuments traced back to Angkor Khmer period. One of major focuses of this paper is how the townhouse(shop house) was introduced in Thailand. The paper is composed by historical analysis of the process of establishment and development of Phimai and considerations on block formation and typology of approaches to house lots. Analyzing the characteristics of street system and block, the paper suggests that two types of houses clearly characterizes the spatial formation in Phimai.
Firstly, this study considered the characteristic about design standards of land readjustment for war-damage reconstruction through comparison with the prewar design standard. Secondly, it analyzed the thought of the block planning from a design standard plan devised originally in Tokyo. As a result, on one side of “the 1933 standard” that standardization was planned as land readjustment technology, “the national standard” showed operation method and performed deregulation backed by making use of regional specialty. In Tokyo, it advocated evasion of uniform city space from commercial serious consideration, the negation of the grid pattern, and the city beauty.
The aim of this study is to consider the characteristics of the university areas composed by the University of Bologna and the public open space focusing on exterior spaces. Firstly, fifty campus sites, disperses in the historic center of Bologna, are examined with regards to the continuity into the adjacent street and piazza. And seven types of characteristics of each site are found out. Secondly, Spotting the locations of these seven types and surrounding public open space, further analysis were made to find the continuous exterior space as the university area. Five university areas are pointed out with their particular characteristics of integration between the university and the city.
In great disasters, people can hardly endure to stay in a mass refuge environment with no privacy and they felt the burden in mind and body because setting up disaster housing took long time. We tried to develop compact emergency shelter for family use which can be set up in limited time and space by method of assembly, can support recovery of houses by placing them beside damaged houses, and can be used complementarily until disaster housing is set up or can be used for volunteers. We investigated questionnaires on the necessity and the residence performance of the sample shelter at Ube city in the tidal wave disaster area by typhoon and Ojiya city in the disaster area of the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake. Temporal residents occupied the sample shelter in winter at Ojiya city and in summer at Ube city and tested the performance of the shelter. Then we developed new compact emergency shelter based on the test results and temporal residents occupied in winter at Ube city. This paper reviewed the practical use and residence performance of the emergency shelters for early supply, for one of the emergency shelters or housings.
Recently in Japan, streetscapes have been changing by repeated deregulation and redevelopment. Through the experiments using VR system, we research the desirable building forms and facades in Marunouchi. Firstly we investigate the viewpoints of examinees when they experience VR street model. Secondly, we investigate the changes of impression in three streetscapes whose buildings forms are different. Thirdly analyzing the correlation of physical components and unique facades, and we clarify the relation between attractiveness of streetscape and building forms and facades. Way of design to create emotional and favorable and arouses customer interest in Marunouchi is suggested.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the roles of enclosed arcades on the area around Kashiwa station. In the research, network of pedestrian spaces is focused because it is one of the important characteristics of the area. And through the analysis of development process of the network, three points of roles of the enclosed arcade become apparent. 1) A certain span of the network was formed by the extension of the enclosed arcade. 2) Two projects, which created other pedestrian space, were affected by the shopping street with the enclosed arcade. And one of them was very important for development of the network. 3) Two basic plans compiled by city office were the basis of other pedestrian spaces, and were affected by the existence of the enclosed arcade.
In order to examine closely inhabitants' intention for residential earthquake safety measures, we conducted a questionnaire survey targeting the citizens of Shizuoka city, Chiba city and Mito city. Based on the obtained data, we grasped the respondents' seismic risk perception and behavior for earthquake safety of their houses. We also examined the effect of informing some knowledge related to residential earthquake safety on their intention to retrofit their house. Some important findings are as follows: - The strength of inhabitants' intention to take earthquake safety measures is not necessarily depended on their expectation as to when a big earthquake will occur or how serious damage they will suffer because of it. - In order to promote residential safety, it is more important to inform the inhabitants the cost and effectiveness of the measures than to emphasize seismic hazard in their region or fragility of their houses.
This paper defines the criteria for the building owner's responsibility and the tenant's one against the damage that a visitor received from the defects of a building. The building owner's responsibility and the tenant's one are defined Civil law Art. 717. But the Art. 717 can't settle some cases. Then, this paper reached the criteria by analyzing the decisions of courts and theories. The owner and tenant who have administered and controlled the defects are responsible for the damage that a visitor received from the defects.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the issues of housing support system for disabled people to rent private rental housing. We investigated the actual conditions of real estate agencies that work under housing support system of local governments in Tokyo. The results are as follows: 1) the real estate agencies are conscious of problems arise from private rental market. 2) Housing support system is appreciated but actual efforts from real estate agencies are few. 3) With the supportive system for the home owners, the housing policy that doesn't depend on private rental market is demanded.
The purpose of this research is to validate the adaptability of aged households to a housing project. The project for the elders is called "Sliver Reform" where the facilities of 2DK public housing are improved, while the original model remains unchanged. We analyzed the indoor lifestyle of 17 aged households before and after they moved to the renovated 2DK public housing. The findings are that 50% of the dwellers are highly-compatible with the housing improvements and they inherit their previous lifestyle, while the other half are found it difficult to adjust themselves to the improvements in the facilities. The reasons for the difficult adaptability are delineated as two: one is that some households found that the DK is too small even for a table, and the other is, due to illness, agedness and physical disabilities, some households mainly use the Japanese-style room with 6 Tatami mats on the southern side. The indoor lifestyle, including meals, of the former type of households has changed from what they had had; in the latter case, the multi-functional room and the Japanese-style room on the northern side become vacant or become a storeroom.
The building of worship place which is called “Haisyo” is one of the characteristics of Shinto shrine of Wakasa-district in Fukui prefecture. In this paper, the character of architectural style of independent “Haisyo” is ascertained. As the result, this paper six point found. 1): The frontage and the depth are same one span in the general “Haisyo” architectural style. In the architectural style the roof style is “Karahafuzukuri” or “Irimoyazukuri” and it has no wall and no housing. 2): An architectural decoration of the “Karahafuzukuri-Haisyo” is the highest. 3): Independent “Haisyo” many found to composition of Shinto shrine building with “Honden”, “Haisyo” and “Haiden”. Specify, “Karahafuzukuri-Haisyo” is more. 4): There are most “Karahafuzukuri-Haisyo” at Wakasa-cho, eastern Obama City and western Mihama-cho the others part, “Irimoyazukuri-Haisyo”. 5): Oldest architectural style of independent “Haisyo” is “Katanagarezukuri”. 6): “Haisyo” and “Haiden” are some the building to pray, but then independent “Haisyo” is greater than “Haiden”.
In order to study "Oji-zukuri", we need to know about basic character of architecture for shrine described in the Japanese architectural reference books "KIWARI-SHO". According to the interpretation of that description, it's concerned with scale and form of architectures mainly. This tendency cause an newly problem joining buildings, and that point is related to the "Oji-zukuri". There are two types for from in Japanese architecture named "Tsuma-iri" and "Hira-iri", it's classified by the position of entrance. "Hira-iri" is easier than "Tsuma-iri" to join buildings, and "Oji-zukuri" has "Tsuma-iri" entrance. There seem to be some difference meaning in form of architecture.
This study aims at revealing the original form of the government office area in local regions in the 8th century. The research method adopted here is based on intensive examination of both historical documents and archaeological reports. The results show mainly three conclusions. First, the local government “Kokucho” was planned by the rules according to the provincial class. Second, every “Kokucho” and “Guncho” (a lower government than “Kokucho”) had “Maeniwa”(Front Yard), and it was the very important official place in the district. Third, this “Maeniwa” originated from “Oharidano Miya” in the 7th century. “Maeniwa” is the essential space in the local government office area. The provincial governor (“Kokushi” or “Gunji”) held official ceremonies here to demonstrate the dignity of the ancient state to the local powerful families. Therefore, though the excavation results show various planning types, it was generally accepted as central place of local government office district.
This paper is a trial about architectural regulation and order with town house which is two stories high. In previous studies, typical style of town house in folding screens is one story. Because of that, many houses have not eaves in front of them. But there is possibility of these houses have lumber room in the ceiling which called “tsushi-nikai”. Tsushi-nikai is low ceiling, but in occasionally used for sleeping room and others. In 17th century, Toyotomi government gave order for town people to build two stories for townscape. So that, town people have stated to put on eaves in front of their town houses. As the result of that, low and two stories style have established and called for tsushi-nikai.
The Principal Tower of Nagoya Castle was repaired on a large scale from 1752 to 1755. This paper evaluates and analyses the principal tower based on some drawings and specifications, which have explained about the leading frame that gives a base line on the stone wall of the tower. Besides that, this paper is also addressed to clarify the dismantlement repair process and its area. Basically, the dismantling and piling up were gradually done within the appropriate range on the North side and West side of the stone wall, and the new window had been installed.
The main building of Old Tokyo Science Museum (The Nihonkan of National Museum Nature and Science at present) is a first real science museum which was build in Japan. Director Yasuji AKIHO established “Dynamic Museum” about the new museum design concept which was the conclusion that he researched western science museums. This museum building plan was designed on the Akiho's concept. Akiho's concept was mainly to capable to use museum facilities to activity of “Dynamic Museum”. It was the reason that Akiho intend to include to the lecture hall, library, laboratory, dining hall, because to activity of museum was not popular in Japan, and not understand it's importance. This museum planning concept was one mile stone of the Japanese museum building history.
The results of analysis on the shrines that have living “sanken-sya” in old Tama county are as follows. These shrines were the village shrine of the dominion that was ruled by powerful family as like Nishi-party, Yokoyama-party, and Chichibu-party in Kamakura era. And these powerful family built, repaired and conserved these shrines. We think that the style of the main shrine as “sanken-sya-nagare-tsukuri” of these shrines was imitated the style of the main shrine of Tsuruoka-hachimangu shrine that was protected by Kamakura Shogunate, in the Middle Ages.
P. Conner pays attention some Indian architectures designed in England from the 1780's to the 1810's, and regards those works as the architectures in “Indian Revival”. In four Indian architectures designed in England from the 1780's to the 1810's, there are the trend which the British of those days went back to the prototype of architectures in the archaeological attitude. And, four works are the revival of the architectural style designed in the distant past, to the British of those days. His concept of “Indian Revival”, however, is based on a matter which the British of those days flung into Indian Architecture in the scholarly attitude.
This paper examined the plans of the Budapest central city hall proposed between 1891 and 1914. During this period, especially private architects tried to create a new urban core by locating the city hall appropriately in the redevelopment area. Around 1892, they planned the city hall along the Danube or near the new bridge to treat the two parts of the city separated by the river equally. In the proposals after 1898, the city hall was placed on the axis of a wide street or on the focal point of several radial streets. The officially accepted plan in 1914 emphasizes the view from a car approaching the city hall through a curved street.
This paper analyzed two projects of monuments planned on the Castle Hill in Budapest around the turn of the century. The first project was proposed by Schulek Frigyes during the restoration works of the Gothic Matthias church. In 1894, he remodeled the church into a monument to represent historically important moments of medieval Hungary. This monument was planned to be seen from the opposite side of the Danube, along with a new building which represents the history before the foundation of the church, and a part of the city wall called the Fisherman's Bastion which serves as the common pedestal of the two buildings. The second project was the Queen Elizabeth Memorial, for which altogether six competitions were held between 1900 and 1916. In the first two competitions, many applicants proposed gigantic monuments associated with the design on the slope of the hill, such as stairs, promenades and waterfalls. These two projects can be regarded as the last phase of the series of the proposals of the National Monument in Budapest in the 19th century.
In the Kwandong region of Korea, there are ten well-known places with beautiful views of nature , which are called as “Kwandong-Sipkyoung (Ten-views)”. Each place has, without fail, a Nu-Jeong (a kind of pavilion ), where men can take a good view of the surrounding nature. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the strong mutual affinity between nature and men leaning on the balustrade of Nu-Jeong architecture, based on the phenomenological interpretation of poems included in the C 18th Chosun dynasty document, “Kwandong-Sipkyoung”, which described these ten places in poems and pictures. Furthermore the reason why the word “balustrade”was increasingly used in the“Kwandong-Sipkyoung” will be analized from the historical background of thoughts and ideals of the period.
The purpose of this paper is to make an analysis of Le Corbusier's architectural thought and the works in 1920's focusing on the folklore. Le Corbusier had a relation with the progressive avant-garde from the beginning in 20's, and he participated in avant-garde movement, but his architectural thought has the characteristic that is incompatible with the avant-garde, and the architectural works of his 1930's are explained in a concept such as regionalism and the vernacular. It was made clear that this characteristic tendency of the works of his 1930's is also seen in the works of his 1920's, by an analysis of his works based on his work explanation.
Instruments for environmental protection of cultural property in Germany were analyzed from the following three aspects. 1. Analyzed from law situation in Germany of environmental protection of cultural property; its purpose and restrictions. 2. Research on the environmental protection in Potsdam through interviews with specialists to understand the protection methods of the environment of cultural property in practice. 3. Research of “Denkmalpflegeplan”: how the environment of cultural property is protected by “Denkmalpflegeplan”; its possibility and problem.