We set out a questionnaire to residents in multiple dwelling houses on their habitability and how they should live. The answered questionnaires were collected 66%. They live in 16 housing estates (3634 dwellings in all), built after around 1985, which are generally regarded as having a standard building performance as a multiple dwelling house. The results of the questionnaire may be summarized in that the residents personally have a favorable impression on their houses and are satisfied with them in general. With respect to sound environments, we notice that the improvement of sound insulation performance of dwelling units in late years, in addition to the residents for themselves know how to manage the sound problem, both of which are very useful for the improvement of living environments in a multiple dwelling house. On the other hand ,about 30% of residents are concerned about sound problems. In particular they still complain of floor impact sounds, implying the necessity for increasing sound insulation in building design against the problems.
The purpose of this paper is to verify the accuracy of direct illuminance calculation based on window's subdivision. First we presented basic discretized equations for daylight factor calculation under assumption of uniform sky and CIE standard overcast sky. Next we applied these equations to the actual daylight factor calculation. Judging from comparison between theoretical results and results of discretization method, following 2 aspects were obtained. 1) Although the accuracy is affected by the fineness of subdivision or the way of configuration factor's calculation, the discretization method is as accurate as the theoretical method. 2) The discretization method is excellent to deal with incident angle characteristics of transmittance and the influence of occlusion in the complicated room.
To obtain efficient humidity regulation effects in buildings, development of non-organic porous materials impregnated with lithium chloride was attempted and a series of experiments using calcium silicate board and plywood as test materials were carried out. A test piece of calcium silicate board impregnated with 90.8[kg/m^3] lithium chloride showed about twenty times high absorption and desorption of moisture compared with the one without impregnation. In addition, a good correlation in the relationship between the impregnated content of lithium chloride and adsorption/desorption coefficient was obtained. This means that humidity regulation effects were controllable by regulating the impregnating content of lithium chloride into porous materials.
The influence of attributes of line segments on their recognizability and the cognitive grouping pattern of line segments are analyzed using sketches. The recognizability turns out to be mainly affected by the attributes of line segments, in particular, those representing major outlines of architecture, while their edge strength has a less effect on cognition. The attributes of line segments appear to have stronger influence on their grouping than their location or repetitive form. The distinction in grouping between major outlines and minor outlines suggests landscape cognition taking two or more stages from the entirety to the details.
To obtain more energy-conserving effect with cogeneration system, which has the problem caused by imbalance between heat consumption and electric power consumption, this study propose a cogeneration system equipped with thermal storage tank for a building and/or District Heating and Cooling. As the result of this study, 1) A energy flow chart for the system is set up. 2) Through a theoretical computation on gas-engine cogeneration system, a maximum energy-conserving effect is gained where the heat power ratio is over 1.25 and also over 25% of insufficient heat consumption is supplied from thermal storage tank. And the thermal storage makes the range of the heat power ratio, where the energy-conserving effect is negative, narrower. 3) Through a simulation of 3 representative DHCs in Tokyo Metropolitan area, the thermal storage makes the heat power ratio's standard deviation smaller, and the bigger the capacity of cogeneration and/or thermal storage, the more the energy-conserving effect is expected, but in complex district and residential district, if the regeneration's capacity is comparatively smaller, the thermal storage effect is negligible.
This series of studies aim to consider and point out the essentials for the architectural planning and design of recuperation facilities for the aged, dealing with the geriatric hospitals, the nursing homes and the extended care facilities for the aged as the investigation targets. The thorough investigation and observation works were made to them from the view points of daily living activities of the recuperating aged, ADL abilities of them and nursing activities by nurses and care staffs. This article discusses about the actual condition of the daily living activities in the recuperation facilities. Though the patterns of people's daily living activities extend to wide range, its typical patterns can be classified to 5 main categories from the aged who has a tendency to stay in his bed through the greater part of the days to the aged who joins actively to the variety of events and stay in the public common space in the facility.
A college specializing in engineering has usually laboratories, exercise rooms, drawing rooms and the like and these rooms have functions and objects which a college specializing in liberal art does never have. In the former, research rooms are used in various manners. As a result, the internal environment and usage of each room cannot be determined only from the name of the room and the faculty to which the room belongs. This study has investigated all rooms of Kogakuin University as an example of colleges specializing in engineering, comparatively examined these rooms by faculty and use(research rooms,laboratories) and conducted classifications of study items and individual rooms. In the classification according to the whole study items, the classification standards of "good or bat" of the envrionment and "active or inactive" of the work were made clear and in the classification according to the study items about the internal environment and equipped machines and implements of research rooms and laboratories the classification standards of "good or bad" of the environment and "chemical work or mechanical work" were clarified.
This paper describes differences of the use of stages and dressing rooms for the single and same production by a touring opera company in three different multipurpose halls. Our purpose is to get the basic data about the floor planning of stages and dressing rooms by comparing them each other. We measured plot conditions of sceneries on stages and equipments in dressing rooms. On stages, we could find differences in each hall in schedules of carrying in and out, place of set and company's own hand equipment. On dressing rooms, we could find necessity of attention to size, specification and circuration with another rooms. And waiting space around doorway to a stage should be highly effective.
Protocols taken from the experiments in Shibuya's ground level and Ginza's underground level are analyzed using eight types of codes as follows : view(V), signage(S), guide(G) and memory(M) information; A-plan(Ap) and B-plan(Bp); lostness(?) and finding(!). Two types of protocol sequences, finding(!, [V S G M], Ap) and lostness(?, [V S G M], Bp), are identified. The results show that as a problem solving, wayfinding in above situations has shallow and simple planning process. However, plenty of environmental information can be acquired, and in case of getting lost, "way out" behavior, stated as B-plan, can be executed. Unspoken process is also discussed.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the relationships between physical attributes and perceived meaning in the outdoor space enclosed by buildings on university campuses. In the experiment subjects rated 75 color-pictures of enclosed space on 40 bi-polar adjective scales. The consequences of analysis were as follows : At first, three circular structures of adjectives were ascertained through MDS analysis. Secondly, meanings of affection and composition were fairly explained by Hayashi's quantification I with independent categorical variables of 1) the rasio of building areas in picture, 2) disposition patterns of buildings, 3) differences of heights among buildings, 4) elements of facades, and so on.
The arrangement of Japanese emergency medical services is very poor compared with the European and American standards at the present time. Based on those facts, the systems(ambulance with attendant doctor and emergency medical staff) have been studied by medical and public health science in Japan in recent years. It is required to study the relationship between these systems and medical facilities in the regional planning departments. The aim of this study is to grasp the complex relation between present emergency medical facilities or hospitals and other facilities needed for medicare such as fire stations, etc. Based on the aim of emergency medicare the most reliable location planning will be considered, the final aim of this study is to formulate a basic policy of future arrangements of emergency medical facilities.
The population in Tokyo 23 wards area has decreased by 190 thousand people in 10 years from 1980. Most of the area sufferring from the extravagant population decrease in the center of Tokyo is designated as the commercial area under high F. A. R. controls by the Building Standards Law and the City Planning Law. This study shows the feature of houses which still exist in "GINZA & NIHONBASHI" area at the center of Tokyo by researching the followings. 1. The houses on the taxation ledger 2. The resident registration 3.the actual survey on existence of residents
This paper aims to discuss the administrative problem of reducing the billboards in "the sequence seen from Shinkansen window" for the maintenance of a beautiful spectacle. The conclusions in this paper are as follows; 1) A large number of billboards set up along the Shinkansen, and the billboard is the harmful element in "the sequence seen from Shinkansen window". 2) The distribution of billboards varies in different locates. Western Japan has more billboards than Eastern, and they are set up by Western companies in many case. 3) The local governments have to manage the billboards as the administrative problem for scenic beauty.
The building agreement system and the district plan system are planning systems with similar aims. In this paper, after comparing the outline through examples of both systems, we have analyzed the difference in administrative management of them with a questionnaire conducted on the municipalities' authorities in charge as data. At the end are discussed the problems of both systems and assignments as planning systems. It can be pointed out that some difference is noticed in the use of both systems. And then it is pointed out that although the administration is responsible for those systems, it can be properly worked out without positive participation of the residents.
Landscape planning in Italy is developed by the three types of plans for the territorial preservation or visual landscape preservation : the local authority's plans (1943-1972) and the proposal plans for south Italy (1966) and the State plans (1986-1993) by the Galasso law(1985). 14 landscape plans introduced by the Galasso law are characterized by the condition of natural and historic resources of each State. Here we can find the methods for the historic preservation around the historic center and the local area.
Under the revised zoning system which enforced in June 1993, Category I Exclusive Low Rise Residential District is desired to maintain the prototype of landscape of residential use districts more strictry than before. As a result of. The study on existing Category I Exclusive District in Tokyo wards areas, a complemental numerical relationships were founded between the evaluation of landscape and some land use indicaters like plot size of detached house and green space ratio. These knowledges give useful guidelines to select the effective control itmes of District Planning System to realize desireble landscape in Category I Exclusive Low Rise Residential District.
The Tatekawa Group in Shinano was formed as a center of the master builder, Tomimune Tatekawa or his son, Tomimasa Tatekawa in the late Edo period. The Group built a number of Buddhism temples and Shinto shrines from Kanto to Kansai, and the technical lebel of the Group was highly qualified. And moreover, the Group had trained apprentices within the group arid a lot of cooperative carpenters around it. But when building sites were far from Shinano, the total contract system including making both buildings and sculptures was not held up and buildings were often left to sub contractors, or completed by apprentices.
There, since 1922, lived several professors of the newly founded School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, in Kita 10-11 Nishi 3 blocks, Kita-ku, Sapporo. In the community called "Igakubu-bunkamura", they had certain relationship to the activities of the Bunka-Seikatsu Kenkyukai (Modern Life Society) promoted by Dr. Kokichi Morimoto, and wrote some essays on the society's jounal "Bunka-Seikatsu". We could, by statements and photographs of their relatives, observe that they achieved some improvements in their houses : the use of hard floors for drawing rooms, studies and dining rooms, and of glass window panes, the improvement of engawa, the utilization of space between ceiling and roof.
In this thesis, the block with medieval city wall in the north part of the historical district of Peccioli, small medieval city in Tuscany, is analyzed through the historical documents " cadastre(1834)" in order to clarify the immovable property system of the block in the early 19th century. The destination and surface of the properties are examined at first, and then the relationship between family, make-up and the properties is analyzed to define the property system and also the boundary of properties is defined by the analysis of cadastral map and present surveyed drawing of the block.
This study is an attempt to clarify Mart Stam's relation and contribution to the Weissenhofsiedlung held in Stuttgart by German Werkbund in 1927. For which following two topics are dealt with : 1. Process to be selected as one of seventeen architects to design houses for the exhibition, 2. Features of the row houses designed by Stam related to his ideas on the Modern Architecture, which Stam called Bauen.
At first glance the Golden Ratio is not seen in the plan of Farnsworth House by Mies van der Rohe, but actually it is used there. The walls of the H -shape core including bathrooms devide the whole plan into four rectangles - living, dinning, kitchen and bedroom. Each ratio of a long side to a short side of the living, the dinning and the bathrooms is close to the Golden Ratio. And moreover there are close connections between the rectangles. These-facts show that there was a figure which consists of the Golden Rectangles to make the plan. So it is found that Mies intentionally used the Golden Ratio.