The purpose of this study is to clarify the differences of the dwelling spirits on children's books between Japan and Europe & U.S. culture. First, (1) The concept of dwelling is different. In Europe and U.S. they think that the making a house is to look for the partner living with, on the contrary in Japan they think that the making a house is to make the space living with many friends. We have found other differences for following points : (2) View of a space, especialy private-space, (3) View of the communication with the neghborhood such as manners, (4) View of various life-styles, (5) Popularization of architectural technology and knowledge with DIY culture. (6) Their culture is reflected by detailed interior drawings and section drawings of apartment-houses.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the urban tissues of Bhadreshwar which is located on the south coast of Kutch district, Gujarat, India. Bhadreshwar, previously known as Bhadravati Nagar during medieval times, had been one of the port towns in the Indian Ocean. In this paper, we discuss the spatial pattern and community distribution of Bhadreshwar's neighborhood blocks, called Fadias, Sheris, Galis, Vases and Delis. We found that typical neighborhood blocks called Fadias are generally formed along the streets branched from the major streets. There are some larger blocks called Vases that include some Fadias and Delis. Many small shrines for Hindus (Dadas, Mathajs) and Muslims (Dargarhs, Pirs) are distributed within Fadias, while public assembly facilities for each community (Samajwadis, Daramsharas). The distribution of religious facilities and Fadias show segregation based on the religion and castes. We found 27 communities (castes) in researched area. We can see that the role sharing of daily life by communities within each Fadia.
This study aims to get evaluation from users about design of health care environment for inpatient and their family in pediatric wards and make clear the mental effect to ease their stress in the hospital. We got questioner evaluation on interior design from children, their attendances, nurses and doctors. The results are as follows; 1) The evaluation from users vary with their positions in the wards. 2) We can clear the effect of interior design; (1) hospitality (2) distraction (3) refreshment. (4) encouragement. 3) It is need consideration about difference of the stage of hospitalization and their developmental stage to study more suitable design.
The Ministry of Education introduced the integrated course to Japanese high school in 1993; however, on the actual fields of education, the understanding of the course has been still ambiguous. This study focuses on the daily activities of the students taking an integrated course in deferent schools; from well-planned buildings for the course to existing ordinary buildings. Following factors were identified; (1) In the school with juxtaposional function, students betray the program with occupiing spaces in different way. (2) Students use spaces with their space literacy. (3) Redundancy or flexibility of space might influence students lives through belonging groups or sense of places.
Starting a full-scale operation of computerized information system on medical treatment and patient care, it is possible to exchange information anywhere in wards through computer terminals. It is therefore that the location and the number of nursing bases are regarded as with small limitation to distribute near to patients' beds. Personal Nursing Base (PNB) is defined as a nursing base closely located to patients' beds either in the form of fixed setting or on wheels. The paper aims at clarifying the efficiency of PNB concept compared with ordinary nursing bases in terms of shortening walking distances of nursing staff. The followings are the results of the surveys carried out in four hospital wards; 1) In three wards of the wards surveyed, PNB has been introduced. Moreover, the team nursing has been introduced in all wards, and each team is composed of one leader nurse and some member nurses. 2) Member nurses often taking records and references at PNBs located in ward passages. 3) In patients' rooms, activities of records and references are not frequently happened in the case of wards introducing computerized information system. 4) Member nurses tried to communicate with a team leader or matron. 5) Confirmation and discussion among nursing staff are not carried out by the mobile phones but by direct conversation. 6) Computer simulation shows that one PNB in each working area is effective for shortening the walking distance of nurses while more numbers of PNB have no effect.
The purpose of this paper is to provide the method which clarifies the components of traditional house based on sensibility evaluation and rough set theory and to give the components meaning and to systematize it. The sensibility evaluation test on Kumandong district for historic houses was done with evaluational photos. With the proposed method, it is possible to obtain combination of several contributory components which can be considered as reducts, Covering Index and Column Score. Moreover, the idea of personalized data structure with an Ontology is applied to the Traditional/Non-Traditional house to give meaning to the components of Traditional/Non-Traditional house and propose an Ontology structural similarity-based method. “Traditional/Non-Traditional” houses were identified by the combination of several components.
The purpose of this paper is as follows: (1) to obtain knowledge on current management of integrated facilities within functions of nursery school and day nursery (hereinafter, Integrated Facilities), based on questionnaire resurvey, (2) to analyze the relationships between management conditions such as integration type and scale, and the mixture of children of short- and long-hour daycare, and (3) to analyze the activity place changes during a day at facilities of the mixture of children of short- and long-hour daycare, based on a hearing survey. The results are as follows: (1) reasons of integration strongly influence on facilities management, (2) scale of facilities is related to reasons of integration, management type and building configuration, (3) characteristics of Integrated Facilities are demonstrated by the ratio of prescribed number of children to the maximum capacity, which is equivalent to the ratio of area used for daycare functions to the whole, (4) the elements such as fluctuation size of children number during extended daycare time, presence of dedicated room for extended daycare, and total number of classrooms, influence on the frequency of activity place changes, and (5) The area used for extended daycare is decided according to the convenience of watch, staff number, appropriateness for activities and so on.
The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation method which considers the escape distance and the escape barrier such as doors. The results of this study are as follows; 1. The validity of evaluation method was ascertained by applying it to a simple network model 2. Realistic path choice rules are proposed which exclude improvable escape routes. It can also reduce calculation time drastically. 3. The evaluation model is applied to the network model in a real hospital ward plan with balconies and two fire compartments for horizontal escape, and proper results were obtained.
On the basis of the POX model of the socio-psychology, the effect of personal relation on the preference evaluation on architectural work is formulated. Furthermore, considering the dispersion of the individual evaluation, the model is reformulated in the stochastic utility model. When the changing process of the individual evaluation in the group is reproduced by the simulation based on the model, we observed that the evaluation becomes identical in the group in the to each other favorable relation. The above result on the process is theoretically able to be proven.
In these days, local special product branding is watched with keen interest as a effective method for activating the reigons economicaly and mentaly. But it has just started, so there are a few researches and arrenged information. It is nessecery to research for the actual condition and the influence of branding. At first I extracted the marine products that are registered a trade mark and put informations in order. Secondly, I clarified the influece of local special product branding for the regional economy and the residense attitude in case of Anori-fugu. The result is 1) adding product value, 2) increasing visitor, 3) producing resident's affection and pride for the region.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial composition of open spaces in urban commercial buildings. As a case study 91 commercial buildings of central Tokyo are analyzed. In high-dense city such as Tokyo, open spaces of commercial buildings are widely recognized as main private open spaces. Focusing on formation and accessibility of three-categorized open spaces as outside, semi-outside, and inside-common spaces, 13 types of spatial compositions are identified. In commercial high-dense city it is possible to draw not only customers but also the general public from street into commercial buildings. Therefore, this paper examines continuity between street and their open spaces from connection between aforesaid spatial compositions and layout of shop entrances.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 1999. This paper discusses the characteristics of the Spanish Colonial cities created in the Cuba Island. In the period of the Spanish urbanism in America, approximately a sixty of colonial cities were established in Cuba. As cartographic database, 916 images and maps from AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville-Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), are used for analysis. This paper deals with hatos and corrals system, which is very unique land distribution system in Cuba. In the analysis of maps of hatos and corrals, we classify them into several types and analyze the case of La Habana.
The purposes of this research to find redevelopment techniques of damaged house of the Taiwan JiJi earthquake, and clarify their realities. As the research method, the authorized material of the administration at the each stage of redevelopment is assumed to be basic data, the realities of rebuilding are find, a finished rate of each stage according to various places and period of the time needed are compared, the factor that influenced is analyzed, and the trend of rebuilding the apartment captured.
It is necessary to select scenic heritage elements which should be inherited, when townscape conserving will be planning in traditional city. This study examines method to make criteria for selection in Taketomijima preservation district for groups of historic buildings. The point of making criteria is to assume the continuance of characteristic and legislation degree to be grounds of the criteria. The investigation for selecting was demonstrated that method we practiced was effective for Taketomijima, also it could be applicable to other sites by meeting necessary requirements we derived.
There are many case in which renovation of the historical buildings becomes the starting point of the community development. Many of autonomies in Hokkaido were reclaimed in the Meiji period. Hokkaido has 100years of urban formation history and accommodates many historical buildings. These are resource on autonomies. In this study, we pay attention to spreading of the community development to surrounding area from renovating a historical building. This research brought the following findings: 1) first spreading are 32 on 10 cases renovations, and those of their secondly spreading are 14 on only 3 cases, 2) First spreading type; relationships of renovation and first spreading divided to 54 types, and 16 of them are appeared on 10 cases. 3) Secondly spreading type; relationships of first spreading and secondly spreading, and 5 types are appeared on 3 cases. 4) 2 helps; backgrounds and supports were made up of Spreading. Spreading structure is based on 4 important conditions: “object and content in first spreading”, “establishment of derived group”, “government support system” and “way of renovations”.
The purpose of this study is to develop a method for location planning of regional facilities considering topographical condition and aging society. To this end, this article aims to express the regional reconstruction method by using converted distance, which we developed by considering resistance of topographical features and changes in physical strength by age in the previous study. As a result, the study shows the regional reconstruction method that is utilizing the neighborhood centers which exists in an old-new town and is considering the daily life of senior citizens.
This study focuses on the regional commercial area which is based on the neighborhood area and spreads its territory to the adjacent areas. Shimokitazawa is selected for the survey site from the commercial areas composed of the small-sized stores in human scaled space. This paper aims to clarify the location of stores in the commercial area through the analysis of interrelationship between the street networks and the physical properties of the stores, which expects to find some clues to the activation factors for the local community development.
In compliance with upward trend of women who take architecture or housing as their career, women students has accounted for around 20 percent of the total students who choose architecture or housing studies as their major at university in recent years. As the equality of the sexes at works has not been fully realized yet, it is mostly women that take cares of household affairs and children. This study is intended to investigate: obstacles that hinder keeping on taking a job.
Recently, Chinese construction industry has been improving as well as the construction labor market is reforming and growing gradually. The development of the construction labor market is the most important issue in China in order to assure the construction quality during construction. Since 1980's, with the revolution of the Chinese construction industry, the construction workers became independent from the general contractors. Moreover the relation between subcontracting system and employment changed. In this paper, discussing the transition process of reformation in Chinese labor market, relation of the subcontracting system and employment with the construction workers, which is based on the official statistical data, clarifying the current status and problems about the Chinese construction labor.
This paper aims to examine Non Profit Organizasions (NPOs) which are established to execute activities related to housing such as supply of new houses, repair of existed houses, etc. To describe the general situation, the articles of association which NPOs notified public office are checked and names, objects and tasks of NPOs are judged whether they releted to housing. Through this work, 2472 Housing-Related NPOs established from 1999 to 2006 are picked out. From analysis of these Housing-Related NPOs, some characteristics are observed: 1) Housing-Related NPOs are increased and diversified year by year; 2) a major activity of Housing-Related NPOs is supply and management of new houses to older persons and handicapped persons, activity for ordinary residents is minor; 3) Housing-Related NPOs are divided into two types: one group set the area for activities and execute concrete projects to solve problems on that area, the other group determine the theme of activities and enlighten many people in wide area about that theme.
The paper traces the transfiguration process and the structure of three-storied wooden architecture in Shukubo of Shinshu Zenkoji-temple. Each of three-storied Shukubo was two-storied or one-storied, and site was not filled with architectures like present at the beginning of completed in Meiji period. Each of three-storied Shukubo came up with three-storied by extension to the upstairs existent architecture, that is “Tsumimashi”. There were Shikigeta structure at one of the structure that arose in the transfiguration by “Tsumimashi”. Shikigeta structure is structure that was built beams on existent beams, and pillars of up floor and down floor were fixed to each of beams.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the design methods for building the western-style architecture through the Japanese carpentry books published in the Meiji period. The western-style architecture was built to imitate the western architecture by Japanese carpenters with disregard to its historical background after the end of the Tokugawa period. Early studies did not verify how the traditional technique had been introduced into the design method of western-style architecture. We clarified that Kichirobei Kameda, the master carpenter in Fukuoka, had applied the traditional design technique to the western-style architecture in his carpentry book entitled ‘Kiku-Junjyo-Shin-Hinagata-Taizen.’ We confirmed in this study that the master carpenter adopted the modular design system, ‘KIWARI’ into the western-style architecture.
This paper aims to identify biographies and works of an architect, Kouki Okada (1907-1981) in Hokkaido. After his graduation from Kobe Technical College in 1928, he worked in the architectural section on the Hokkaido Imperial University until 1944. He designed Hokkaido Grand Fair 1950 as a chief architect, and then he established his design office. He especially demonstrated the ability by designing reinforced concrete construction and steel-frame-and-reinforced-concrete composite construction in Hokkaido in Showa era. The architectural style of his works was mainly Modernism Style, partially Japanese Style. He planned a sun parlor, moreover adopted a certainly heating system and double-paned window to keep off the cold.
This paper aims to make clear the private lifestyle and interior design of bureaucrats, mainly concerning to the study house “HISUI house” in the novel “JIN PIN MEI”. As a result, next five points become clear: 1) In general bureaucrats are persons of culture and have a public life-style and a mental private lifestyle. The latter is mainly performed in a study. 2) An ideal study house should have nature inside and outside of its room and be purified. They place stationery and antique on the desk and spend spiritual life, appreciating them. 3) They design stationery, furniture and interior to make their spiritual and healthy lives enrich. 4) The term “HISUI” is used for giving the house the meaning of a wish for ageless and immortal life and a desire for productivity and revival. 5) The “Dong po chair” designed and used by Su shì is a chair for health and spiritual calmness. Its motif of the top of the backrest is designed from a legendary plant called “líng zhi” which grows in a sacred place. It seems that the “Dong po chair” is the original model of “Tài shi chair” in the period of Qing Dynasty.
From 2003-5, as a part of the Folkloric Study of Coastal Villages in Jiangnan, China (Chugoku Konan Enkai Sonraku Minzokushi), I received the opportunity to investigate private homes in two fishing villages facing the East China Sea in Zhejiang Province, (Dongmendao and Ruoshan). I will therefore focus on the homes of Dongmendao and, while comparing them with the homes of Ruoshan, report on the condition of private homes in fishing villages in Jiangnan. At the time of liberation (1949), tile-roof houses and thatched-roof houses were of approximately equal proportion. However, there is no longer a single thatched-roof house in the middle of the town of Dongmendao, where the private homes are concentrated Therefore, with the private homes of the very rich, or the class immediately below them, while there were differences in scale, traditionally the pattern was of thick brick walls surrounding the outside, the inside surrounding an enclosed courtyard, and a tile-roof wooden building forming a siheyuan or a sanheyuan. However, with the private homes of regular fishing people and people of lower class, traditionally there was no courtyard and instead one story houses of simple construction with walls only 1-1.5m in height and the area above that concealed by thatched roofing.
This paper is a part of a study on the change in the temple complex in northern Vietnam. In this monograph, we examine the following three aspects of the front hall, Tien Duong, where believers pray; the dimension ratio of the column spacing (that is to say, bay), type of roof frame, and the number of purlins. On the basis of these analyses, we infer the construction period of each building and divide the changing process of the front hall into three stages. In the first stage, the 17th century, the front hall is 5x3 or 7x3 bay building where the middle bay is wider or narrow than the side bays in the ridge direction, and one kind of structure form with 2 horizontal beams and 2 short vertical posts. In the second period, from the late 18th to 19th centuries, the middle 3 or 5 bays in ridge direction were arranged at even intervals and the structure form developed into new form with only 2 or 3 horizontal beams. In the third, from the late 19th century, the front hall got bigger as 9x3 bay building, which the structure form got simple and its types were diversified.
This study aims to figure out the increased amout of spending in the construction of the Paris Opera by comparing the estimated cost of each work with the final expenditure. This anaysis shows that the increase in the works of decorations and arts was far less compared to that in the works of building frame and services, which reveals that Garnier was not a profligate as accused in the comments of the contemporaries. We will also see that he had made every effort to reduce the cost of each work by adopting rational and economical proposals. Ideas of Garnier in the design of the Paris Opera are well reflected in these strategies.
Häring House is the first residential design of Hugo Häring. The purpose of this paper is to derive the proportional relationship in the floor plan of the House. Many approximations of 1:1, 1:√2 and golden ratio are extracted from the dimensions of the first floor plan. This paper clarifies that design of the first floor based on a composition of geometric shapes such as squares, golden rectangles, and silver rectangles. Those shapes have the proportional relationship and some of them create whirling squares.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the theories of body culture for Le Corbusier and Pierre Winter, his collaborator, and the relation between them and their architectural theories. This paper deals with Le Corbusier's theory in the 1930's. He proposed a daily exercise for health in the Radiant City (1930) and a solution to a problem of a spectator sports in the 100,000-seat stadium (1936). Furthermore he expressed his profound understanding about life. This is an underlying thought of his projects for the space of body culture.
In the late 19th-century New York, introduction of apartment houses which was seen as a social degradation for the middle and the upper classes was led mainly by speculative builders. They, whose financial standing was quite vulnerable, never explored the possibility of the new housing style to secure profit during the depression in the 1870s, while some of them stepped into building vast and luxurious ones in the first half of 1880s, driven by the anticipation for the larger profit and creation of urban spectacular. It proved, however, that it was the technological invention accompanied by the economic pressure that wiped out people's attachment to owning their own houses in Manhattan.