Conversion of building structures to an incombustible state is one of the most important issues in the field of disaster prevention planning. In Tokyo metropolitan area, it is a great concern to improve the incombustibility of cities since a devastating earthquake and subsequent fire would cause the wide spread damages. In this study, we construct a probabilistic model, which describes the conversion process of building structures. By using this model, we estimate the time-series changes of the building structures in an established city area and extract some hazardous areas from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. In the areas, we simulate the time-series changes of the building structures by applying some urban regulations and evaluate how much those regulations are effective and efficient for promoting the incombustibility of the areas.
This paper discusses typology and transformation of houses of Hui's Residential District in Xi'an Old Castle based on field surveys. The major objective of this study is to compare the Muslim cities and the Chinese cities focusing on the urban tissues. Now, Hui's residential district is located on from the centeral to the northwest region in Xi'an Old Castle, where Hui believe in Islam are living and gathering together. We, firstly, clarify a distribution of houses, especially in terms of floor area and structure of Chinese traditional house ‘SIHEYUAN’. We clarify residential land sizes classifying their houses by a frontage, depth, an arrangement, and the transformation processes of houses. This paper shows clear differences between the Hui's residential district and general houses in Xi'an Old Castle District.
This paper contributes to the view that the housing construction practices in cities in developing countries are differ in nature and extent from, those of developed countries. The findings of an investigation from a field survey conducted in a typical location in the capital of Bangladesh are presented in order to explore culturally-rooted housing construction practices. The survey illustrates that households are intimately involved in the process of creating and controlling modern apartment developments. The owner-builders split the whole construction works into several smaller tasks and then build the apartments in a piecemeal process. They first construct their own dwelling units and then construct additional units for rental use depending on affordability, practicality and expediency. About 75% of all dwelling units in the study area are constructed in a self-help piecemeal construction process. The owner-builders gradually acquire construction skills during the construction period and then continue construction of their apartments over a period of 20-25 years until completion.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the actual condition of urban housing supply and demand in China, to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese house plan types, and to know how the direction of development of Chinese house plan types move forward. This study was a case study in Shenyang city. The result as follows; (1) The basis of the china's housing market already had been completed in the latter half of 1990s. The urban house was widely purchased by people from the high income group to the low income group. (2) The urban house in China had the rational plan types which could gradually compose the public territory and the private territory. (3) According to the patterns analysis, the plan types of houses that have their direction of development could be closely described.
To acquire the knowledge for affectionate environment for ALS patients at welfare-homes, this study focus on environmental factors and care giving. We conducted some field surveys and questionnaire at welfare-homes to clarify the conditions of the care and the living environment for ALS patients. 1) Most of the patients in welfare-homes have been suffering from ALS more than five years, and they usually use the artificial respirators. Mainly, the difficulties in caring ALS patients for their family cause them to move to the welfare-home, so it is important to arrange social care systems not only for the patients but also for their family in order to support them. 2) It is difficult for the ALS patients to have enough and appropriate care because there are always two types of care givers; the nurses from the medical field and the care workers from the social welfare field, and they offer different types of care and ideas for caregiving. 3) The ALS patients have enough space in their private room, they spend most of the time watching TV or using machines to aid their communication.
This paper is focused on the management and collaboration with the community of ‘Fureai Living’ which residents manage as the place for the communication in Osaka Prefecture. The results are as follows; 1. Every ‘Fureai Living’ is the place where volunteers give residents foods and drinks at low price from one day to six days for a week. 20-60 residents who are almost elderly everyday come to every ‘Fureai Living’. 2. One of effects of ‘Fureai Living’ is that residents have never taken part in the activities of their communities. 3. Every ‘Fureai Living’ is managed by the residents living at public housings and the residents near them voluntarly, and collaborated with the organizations in the community. This managements and collaborations are needed for the residents to continue to live at their houses.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the functional characteristics of facility planning and exchanges among different generations and to bring up effective compositions of such facilities. The targets are the facilities which designate the exchanges among different generations for various social meanings. The findings can be summarized as follows. Exchange programs are, in particular, active at recently increasing facilities with specific generations such as children and seniors. The openness of the exchange spaces leads to more exchange activities. The arrangement for activity sharing, not only space sharing, is of great importance among different generations.
The purpose is to develop the method which clarify the harmony of historic street by the facade control. The sensibility evaluation test on three historic streets in Sanneizaka preservation district for groups of historic building was done with models on virtual reality and acquired some reducts by employing the rough set theory. As a result, the combinations of several contributory form elements could describe the concept of harmony by using ontology to utilize and share knowledge including facade.
SimTread has been developed as a pedestrian simulation system with straightforward pedestrian and space model, which is highly operable by the users. The pedestrian model is a multi agent system in which the individual pedestrian is modeled as agents, and the space model is based on real coordinates, on the contrary of network and mesh models, that enable to represent plans directly into models. The characteristics of crowd represented in this system had been evaluated through test cases by measuring the flow rate that is a major index for evaluating crowd. Major results are as follows 1. In a simple plan that are comparable to network models, SimTread showed reasonable behaviours of crowds, which in terms of operability, can be concluded as highly desirable performance. 2. In a case where a bottleneck accumulates enough pedestrians so that consecutive exits will be virtually closed, SimTread showed accurately the propagation of crowd, which led to qualitative analysis of the crowd.
In recent years, many places have been established to support lives of inhabitants. We call these places "Machikado-no-Ibasyo", which means places set up on a street corner. In these places, people can be freely and quietly without having specific purpose. We think that the allowableness of these places is abundant. The purpose of this article is to clarify how the host of "Lounge for Parents and Children: TOPOS" set physically to allow guests to be freely and quietly. The method of this article is interview to the host. This article clarified following things. The host intended to allow guests to be freely and quietly, by setting physically (1)not to be looked at from outside, (2)to realize unchangeableness of the place, (3)not to limit use, (4)to provide good reasons for staying, (5)to be there with others without direct communication.
This study aims to consider the issues concerning the farmers' housing land use in Hokkaido rural settlements through the investigations about Tondenhei-mura and Shokumin-kukaku. Analyzing differences between the ideal arrangement and the present condition of buildings, some issues were emerged; the relation to the road, the number of agricultural facilities and the work traffic line. In addition, some characteristics of Tondenhei-mura and Shokumin-kukaku were found. The difference between the ideal arrangement and the present condition of Shokumin-kukaku was more remarkable than that of Tondenhei-mura. In Shokumin-kukaku, it should be needed to consolidate agricultural facilities and simplify the work traffic line.
Recently, streetscape planning which focuses on characteristics of each area is needed. In this study, we investigate the impression of the unity of streetscape and the impression on each building's facade. Generally speaking, it is difficult to realize both impression of unity of streetscape and impression of each building, however, it is one of the most important matters. We chose Motomachi street in Yokohama, and compared three streets models whose street building shapes' configuration is different. By Virtual Reality system, impression of street and facades are investigated by the evaluation experiment using SD method, the multivariate analysis, and the indication method. Though the examination, correlation of sense of unity, impression of facade, and those physical components are analyzed and the way how to realize both unity of streetscape and attractiveness of each building are suggested.
This study aims to grasp the change of utilization pattern of roof tile in town conservation of Obuse neighborhood area. The following four things have become clear. (1) Roof tile of traditional building was manufactured from Edo era to early Syowa era and is found lichen on. (2)Old roof tile is recycled because texture of new roof tile is tend to be homogeneity and different from all one of traditional building. Reuse is important, but it is not popular. Because reuse is expensive in aspects of cost and time. (3)Scenery of roof tile in Japan is composed not only rood tile that manufactured in regional area but also accessory of one. (4)If roof tile industry has been declining in regional area such as Nagano, it is difficult to maintain regional scenery of roof tile.
In this paper, we developed a land use planning support system using the household distribution prediction model. The concept of multi-agent systems was used in the model. The agent of this model is a household. The agent decides decision of migration depending on its own conditions and migration potential at current address. Next, the agent starts to select the next address by land potential. If land potential of the next address is higher than the current address, the agent will migrate to the selected address. This model was incorporated in GIS to develop a land use planning support system.
Recently in Japan, aging and depopulation trends have made it increasingly important to advance the development of centralized urban housing for elderly citizens. The purpose of this study is to analyze the needs of an aging consumer in order to tailor commercial facilities to their needs. Data for elderly citizens and the general population were collected using a consumer consciousness and behavior survey. The resulting data were sorted by age group, mode of transportation and item of purchase, and analyzed by application of an existing satisfactory model. The results reveal a difference in both ideal shopping distance and actual distance traveled between elderly citizens and the general population. Results also vary according to item of purchase and mode of transportation. This study provides foundational information for the future development of commercial facilities around centralized urban areas.
This study aims to investigate the characteristic of guesthouse as a kind of residence type in metropolitan city, for efficient utilization of existing housing stock. The conclusions of this study are as follows; 1. Many guesthouses use a small scale house and are shared by a few people. Therefore, management is done by resident's self-responsibility. 2. Because of the convenience for traffic, guesthouse has concentrated on the part around the center of a city. And around a guesthouse, there are a lot of senior citizen and live-alone. 3. The fixed-term rental housing system is used for a contract of guesthouse. Therefore, the owner can manage real estate premeditatedly and the tenants can borrow a room for low wage charges and can leave it freely. 4. Guesthouse has high profit nature, but has little amount of profit.
This paper, drawing on empirical data obtained by re-calculations of the micro-data of the National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure, explores transformations in the condition of housing asset formation. In Japan's home-owning society, many households attained residential property ownership to accumulate a considerable asset in the rapid economic development period. The paper, however, demonstrates the fact that the traditional conditions of home-ownership and housing assets have increasingly been eroded since the early 1990s when the deflationary economy appeared with the bubble collapse as a turning point.
In recent years, China attach greater importance to improve the construction site workers' problem. However, it is really not clear the relationship of construction workers' employment and trade subcontractor, moreover such as employment difference, wage, training, welfare lots of construction workers' problem are not clarified. In this paper the author make clear the current status of the enlistment, the wage, the training, the welfare of construction workers, and make a survey of several construction projects; aim at clarifying the responsibility allotment relation of the general contractor, first subcontractor, trade subcontractor.
This paper aims to discuss the distribution of building materials by home improvement centers. Based on the analysis of Commercial Statistics and the questionnaire survey for them, the following three points are clarified: Firstly, the market of them is growing up and dispersing stores more. Secondly, their stores are categorized to two types. One is used by general consumers and the other is by small constructors. And finally, many of the latter are flagship stores built in suburbs. They have more skilled stuffs and supply general consumers better services for renovating their houses and small constructors better building materials.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the realities of Heian revivalistic style of the court-noble's residence at the early modern period. In this paper, the residences of the Nijo-family especially were taken up and the history of the residences at the early modern period was confirmed. The shinden existed in the Shin-zaike-cho residence, the Imadegawa residence before conflagration at Tenmei, and Imadegawa residence after conflagration at Tenmei, and all these shinden had the Heian revivalistic style. As a result the construction of the shinden having the Heian revivalistic style was a running tradition in the residence of the Nijo-family at not the one limited after the conflagration Tenmei but the early modern period.
This paper will analyze the six types of bracket complex, namely “Tiao Jin•Liu Jin Dou Ke”, “Yi Dou Er Sheng Jiao Ma Ye Dou Ke”, “Yi Dou San Sheng Dou Ke”, “San Di Shui Pin Zi Dou Ke”, “Nei Li Qi Pan Ban Shang An Zhuang Pin Zi Ke” and “Ge Jia Ke” among the eleven types of bracket complex described in “GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE”(1734 A.D.). As a result, it could be clear that measurements of almost each member are decided by the module “Dou Kou”, and the KIWARI is thoroughgoing and systematic. Furthermore, while in order to support the beam, the width of the members of stooge direction of column set and slanted direction of corner set gradually becomes wider and wider from the lower stratum or united with the beam, measurements of other members match with intermediate set.
This paper is concerned with the geometrical examination of drawings to measure the rib-vault No.90 in Cologne Cathedral. There is almost nothing on this kind of measure. One reads here and there references on the rib-vault that have been constructed in the double-curvature. The rib-vault consists of arches, ribs and webs. This analysis is for the accurate configuration of the rib-vault. We researched the geometry of the transverse arches, wall arches and the cross rib, except we exclude the examination of wall ribs because of few measured points. These arches and ribs were turned out to have two centers. These facts will show too old rib-vault and if we have to guess, it may be possible to say two stages of construction in which the adjustment occurred on the way in webbing. The double-curvature of rib-vault is used by the circular shape of webbing in measured drawings.
The purpose of the paper is to analyze the design of the Asklepieion at ancient Messene in Greece. The sanctuary consists of the Doric temple and surrounding Corinthian stoas, and dates from the late 3rd century BC. Our proportional analysis of the buildings gave the following conclusion. At the initial stage, the temple width was given as 40 ft, and the axial intercolumniation of the temple - the module (U) - was calculated by the simple ratio to the temple width. The authors discuss that the main dimensions of the temple and stoas were calculated based on this module. Then, detailed dimensions were decided according to the simple proportional relationship and rounding of dimensions. Thus, whole process of the dimensional decision was logically explained.
The precinct of Zojoji temple had been developed by Tokugawa Dynasty in Edo era. More than fifly monasteries and many dormitories for priests had been built around the main temple and the mausoleums of Tycoons, This fine scenery resembled a small city. Then, the monasteries had been organized into four sections of bohtyu, bettoh, san-renja, and betsuin based on the years established and the priest's roles. The purpose of this study is to clarify the practice of the formation and the building-types of the monasteries from old records of Zojoji and Shosyu-sakuji-zu-tyoh.
This paper aims to clarify the spatial composition and evolution of traditional Japanese dwellings, or minka, in Chiba Prefecture from the early Modern Age to the postwar years. Focusing on the reintegration of horizontal and vertical dimensions, the spatial analysis of minka includes both the analysis of functional diagram of five basic activities - living(L), receiving(R), sleeping(S), dining(D), and cooking(K)- and the analysis of sectional development of the minka's lived space. Divided into the “old” tradition, the “transitional” tradition, and the “old and new” tradition, a small set of care studies from Chiba Prefecture offers a profound understanding of the socio-cultural context of the mainstream everyday life Japanese dwellings and the content of the minka's lived space in each evolution process.
The purpose of this study is to identify the architectural characteristics of Kyoto Tower Building, which was designed by Mamoru Yamada. The description of space composition and the features of the architectural design of Kyoto Tower Building, at the initial completion time, are based on a documentary film showing the building under construction and pictures and drawings held by Osaka Yamada Mamoru Architects and Engineers. On the basis of Yamada's studies of the floor plans, the rough drawings and perspectives, the design process of this building is analyzed.
This paper deals with the formation process of a rectangle block in Kyoto of Edo period. This consideration about the center gutter and neighboring boundary was premised on that the form of boundary line is equipped with objects corresponding to it. Generally, there were not any buildings in the inner part of the block, before neighboring boundary construction. Therefore, the land division was demarcated after neighboring boundary construction, in a rectangle block. However, partially, there were buildings in the inner part of the block, before bordering construction. That is, it was generally formed in order of the buildings, the neighboring boundary, and the land division.