This study is aiming to compare stair ascent transportation speed and physical burden of evacuation supporters according to the types of stair ascent transportation for vulnerable people experimentally. In this study, we measured heart rate of the supporters to indicate physical burden during the transportation. The subjects of this experiment were male students, age of 18-24. Experimental conditions were the ways of stair transportation and the weight of vulnerable people. The types of stair transportation were giving a piggyback ride, carrying a handy stretcher and carrying a wheelchair. Each experimental trial was video-recorded for measurement of ascent speed and observing supporters movement. As a result, this research proves that the weight of vulnerable people has an impact on the ascent speed and physical burden of supporter and giving a piggyback ride is the fastest in all ways of stair ascent transportation but the physical burden for a supporter is the heaviest.
The previous studies presume that the use of emergency vehicles will be obstructed by collapsed buildings after a large earthquake. In this paper, we investigate a method for assisting fire fighters for their effective and efficient access to the locations of fires. More specifically, first, we construct a simulation model that describes the movement of fire engines under the condition of street-blockages caused by collapsed buildings. Next, using the proposed model, we attempt to evaluate the effects of street-blockage information collected by residents on improving the accessibility of fire engines. Finally, based on the simulation result, we demonstrate that the access time to the locations of fires can be effectively reduced by using the street-blockage information.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the quantity of personal belongings that soon-to-be residents of serviced housing for the elderly wished to bring with them. The following points were clarified. (1) On average, they wished to bring 1.8 platters, 3.9 small plates, 1.5 bowls, 3.6 small bowls and 3.2 rice bowls. Concerning cookware, they expressed a desire to bring one of every type of item that they owned. In the case of electrical appliances used for cooking, they wished to bring all the items that they possessed to the new dwelling. (2) They expressed a preference for a table for two people, together with chairs, for situations when they received visitors. (3) They wished to bring the bed that they currently possessed. They did not intend to bring a sofa, but instead a low table and a “kotatsu” with cushions. (4) For each type of clothing item, they intended to reduce the number sharply when moving into their new dwelling. Instead of bringing a large chest of drawers, they wished to bring an average of 2.7 storage cases. (5) They intended to choose a small number from the many books, photograph albums and accessories that were in their existing dwelling.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how autonomous management by the initaitive of the residents themselves achieves sustainability focussing on co-operative housing in Japan. For this, questionnaires were conducted to the residents. The analysis has revealed that : 1) new-residents have a low activity level in the management of the community and community events compared with the original-residents. As a result, there is a difference in attitudes between original and new-residents with new-residents desiring a larger range of outsourcing of community management and maintenance. 2) For sustainable management utilizing the initiative of residents, there is a need for the introduction of new-residents coupled with the transmission of the know how of the experienced original-residents to them. The following two strategies are particularly necessary for the practical inheritance of know how to new-residents and to engage them with a feeling of community responsibility. (1)It is necessary to refine the method of education and orientation of new-residents on move in. (2)It is necessary that all residents experience an executive position within the community management association.
The purpose of this study is to investigate about constant effect about the plan of pioneer rehabilitation ward of large-scale rehabilitation room is not installed. It is the recovery period rehabilitation-ward adopted unit-construction in the space fixed a sickroom mainly on a private room. The following knowledge were obtained: 1. The way to spend times "out of Rehabilitation" and a design method of the space around the sickroom which is spent the time of about 2/3 at the daytime in particular in conjunction with it were important. 2. The number of steps to be generated in a time zone of "out of Rehabilitation" to occupy a time of about 80% between from 7:00 to 19:00 should be added at rehabilitation time. 3. It is important to adopt a mechanism and the idea urging by movement and going up and down, attitudinal variation at the near position in the sickroom of the patient to capture the hospitalization life whole for rehabilitation. As well as rehabilitation, designing to be able to use them as the space which patient can use routinely is important.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the required costs for the acquisition of the land and construction of nursing homes for the elderly, and method to raise money for each, using statistical analysis of nationwide questionnaire.The results are following. 1. The method of fund-raising for construction cost has changed; smaller part of expenses is afforded by subsidies from government, and larger part is afforded by borrowings. 2. Basic Costs of Residence has to be increased largely for business stability considering the construction cost per bed, calculated by the result of this article. Under the current system, if Basic Costs of Residence is 10,000 yen, institution management will not be able to be stabilized even in case of the multi-beds room. 3. The nursing homes in Tokyo were relying on subsidies for the land acquisition provided by the Tokyo metropolitan government from 1985 to 2008. These supports were helpful as the average of land cost per bed in Tokyo was larger prominently than the other area.
The purpose of this study is to analyze distance of action to health care in working place and to obtain knowledge to cooperation with enterprise and the medical institution from facility placement and boronoi diagram. From the analysis that assumes distance where cumulative percentage becomes 75% in high diurnal population atio district to be movement tolerance, the clinic of the movement tolerance was the shortest, and fitness were long. The use of the clinic is unaffected in the regional variation. But the use of fitness is affected by the regional variation of working place that depends on diurnal population ratio.
The aim of this research is to clarify the relationships spatial configuration of street network as open space and land-use change in historical residential district. Bukchon was selected as a representative case study because of well-preserved street network and various land-use of traditional housing district despite of its location in the center of Seoul, Korea. And analyze was advanced by comparing the street spatial configuration by space syntax theory and the processing of changing the street network and land use since 1930's. As a result, Bukchon high-density traditional housing area formed street network different characteristics of street spatial configuration according to street structure and its location. And it was clarified that the characteristics of street configuration influenced on the forming characters of dwelling area according to level of land-use change because it has the relationship with pattern and location of land use change.
Three surveys were made for schoolchildren's parents to obtain basic data for appropriate crime prevention measures on school attendance routes. Survey1. A questionnaire survey to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for crime prevention at the attending elementary school ways. Survey2. Point out the areas where parents feel fear of crime on schoolchildren in the school district by enclosing areas with a fear of crime with a line. Survey3. Building use and the degree of inward view of buildings from streets are surveyed. The results are as follows; (1) “Going to school in group”, “going to school with attendants” and “security guard by volunteers” etc., are appreciated as secure countermeasures. (2)The effect of natural surveillance from shops and houses will lead to the sense of security. (3)Parks, roads under the elevated railway, complicated narrow roads in old built-up areas are pointed out as the areas with a fear of crime. (4)Narrow roads cause the fear of crime because of “information of suspicious person's appearance”, “no presence of persons” and “darkness in the night”. (5) Roads whose linear density of buildings with a good inward view is 2.0 or more are not pointed out as the areas with a fear of crime.
The traditional houses in China have significant features in each region. These features are due to the regional difference in the climate, culture, economy, society and so on. Based on these differences, various relationships between interior space and external environment can be found, for instance lattice windows to create ambiguous space and intermediate region used as a living room to connect courtyard and private room. In this study, by using the concept of "interior/exterior" to comprehensively capture the internal/external space and barrier including intermediate region, the differences and commonalities among Chinese traditional houses in different regions are revealed.
The objective of this study is to represent the characteristic of the experience of space, such as a building or a garden, by the graphical expression of the schema framing the space. Particularly, we pay attention to the relations between the space and the person who experience there. The extracted characteristic of the experience of space would be able to be applied to new space design. And, we should be able to understand and explain the experience of space by the schema. This paper proposes a method of schematizing the characteristic of the experience of space and the schemata that are extracted from the experiences of the cozy garden sequence by using this method.
This research analysed examples of refurbished traditional Japanese timber houses according to the level of transformations made to spatial components that changes to walls and ceilings before and after refurbishing. Firstly wall composition patterns were classified into six categories according to format changes and wall changes. Secondly ceiling composition patterns were divided into categories according to the existence of structural expression and whether an upper floor was used in each room. In conclusion, among these patterns combinations, eight typical patterns were extracted, and it was clarified the spatial characteristics from the composition patterns of internal spaces.
The aim of this study is to clarify the correspondence of contemporary Japanese houses to the irregular shaped site from the both point of view of total and partial relationship between the outline of plan and the boundary of site. Total relationship is analized from adaptivity of the outline shape of plan, which is based on the external form of architecture, to the boundary shape of its site. Partial relationship is analized from parallel relations of paired lines of the boundary line of site and the outline of plan. Through this study, 11 types and 10 patterns of the correspondence are determined through these two frames of relations. Comparing the types and patterns, almost two characteristics are founded in a trend of conformity between total and partial relationship, those that are "adaptivity" and "autonomy" to the site.
This report aims to illustrate contemporary Japanese architect's "Thoughts on the Time", which is the thinking of architecture in consideration of the flow of time by investigating design theories on the extension and reconstruction. Firstly the contents of each design theory were analyzed, and several descriptions of "Thoughts on the Time" were extracted. These descriptions were considered in two aspects ; one is the perception of the changes of situation surrounding architecture, the other is the intention of how architecture should be modified. Secondly these two aspects were individually classified into several meanings. Consequently, several characteristic tendencies about "Thoughts on the Time" were founded by investigating the relationship between above two aspects.
The use of public streets by markets have been legally accepted and provided livelihood for people living nearby all over the world for centuries. The study aims to identify the effects of street markets in London together with the management system which transforms usual streets to market streets. In the result, the effect of markets are classified into three large categories; economy quality of life, environments which coincides with triple bottom line of sustainable development. The result also shows the market operation is formed with two pillars, an institutionalized rule and flexible and prompt actions on site.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title 'Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 2005. Focusing on the Spanish colonial urban process and formation in Philippines, authors wrote several papers on Manila, Cebu, and Vigan through the analysis of the colonial maps AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla) and data gained from the field. Binondo is the oldest Chinatown in the world. It is located across the Pasig River from Intramuros in Manila, this the district was the centre of commerce and trade during by East Asia and Europe during the time of the Manila Galleons. This paper discusses the formation of Binondo based on the analysis of the historical maps and clarifies the street system and formation of street blocks.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the factor of "the visible area", "the recognizable area" and "the non-recognizable area" of the Tokyo Tower from its surrounding streets. The study investigates the Tokyo Tower figure's recognition through pictures and interviews taken from different streets locations. The Tokyo Tower street visibility and its relationship between the visible areas and the viewing distance inside a 1000 meter radio were also examined. The study has identified that the visible areas decrease proportionally according to the viewing distance. By contrast, the recognizable areas present an inverse proportional relation to the viewing distance and these areas were found in streets located in the west, north-west and south areas of the Tokyo Tower. The recognizable areas are presented only in particular streets inside 200 meter radio where the recognition of the Tokyo Tower is hardly because is hidden by trees or buildings, but possible due to the top part visibility. Additionally, the recognizable areas were increasable identified in areas above 200 meter radio.
The housing estates developed in socialist era in Prague are regenerating in recent years. In this paper, the transition of the environment and present values of South City (Jižní Město, JM), one of the large housing estates in Prague, are shown by the interview with inhabitants in JM. The values designated by the inhabitants are classified by the reason as follows. (1)things which have utility, (2)things which are connected with inhabitants' good memories, (3)things which suit individual's taste, (4)things which are evaluated by the public. In the future, after the improvement of the environment achieve enough level, the memories of the inhabitants could be an important factor of the values of the area.
This study aims to evaluate restoring force in recovering area after earthquake based on analogy of SDOF Model, which is a general method for structural engineering. Research subject is population data of 9 wards in Kobe City after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Author estimated initial velocity, angular frequency, and damping factor of wards using grid search method. Based on regression analysis of estimated parameters, angular frequency, which indicates the largeness of stiffness and rapidity of recovery, has negative correlation with distance from metropolis. Stiffness also decreases as damage of the area increases. In some area like Nagata, which suffered from low and slow recovery, it is estimated that it had small stiffness initially before earthquake and moreover its stiffness decreased because of its serious damage. Disaster mitigation planning and reinforce considering characteristic of resilience is desired.
Brownfield Opportunity Area (BOA) in New York State was one of the beginnings of integrated approach of environmental protection and planning to distressed area struggling with brownfield sites in the United States. This research examines BOAs in the city of Buffalo as a case study. The BOA process requires a master planning based on environmental information including soil/groundwater contamination and in-depth market analysis of the target area. On the other hand, public funding for environmental protection is prioritized to strategic brownfield sites designated by potential and importance of area-wide revitalization based on the BOA master plan.
The lower part of buildings by the roadsides which forms the streetscape as one of the elements is important as the element of streetscape uniformity, prosperity, and street's personality and must be discussed prudently. This study is to analyze the relation between components in lower part and streetscape impression evaluation and clarify characteristics of streetscape formed by impression evaluation of lower part. Streetscape impression evaluation was defined by four factors, making use of the factor analysis. And it indicated that the relation between components in lower part and streetscape impression evaluation has a definite tendency by the cluster analysis and the quantification theory type-I. In addition, in section of subject in Midosuji, It comprehended four patterns of streetscape and clarified its distribution and components of lower part supposed to have high contribution ratio to four patterns of streetscape.
This paper explores the ways in which Olympic Development Authority (ODA) and Greater London Authority (GLA) developed inclusive design in the process of preparing for 2012 Olympic/Paralympic Game in London. It shows the ODA established Strategy to get consensus to develop inclusive design and Standards and the pre-coordination and advise system to implement it in the planning process of the site and the designing schemes of individual buildings. It also appears GLA launched initiatives to develop inclusive design in a way to achieve the creation of inclusive society, of which aim is explained as the preparation for aging society and also as the creation of sustainable global city. It explores the importance to base on real users' views on the implementations of inclusive design to deliver a practical success for all people to feel included in the society through their experiences with the inclusive designed urban built environment.
This study clarifies the transition of subway stations and exits by literature survey and defines the PVA: Physical and Visual Accessibility. Then through the cluster analysis using the data based on field survey, it evaluates PVA of exits placed with urban development projects. The results show that station space and PVA become altered along with various restrictions of station construction. In terms of exits placed with urban development projects, these have various types and these PVA are unstable because government evaluates not exit's quality like PVA but existence.
This paper analyses the influence of postal architecture's quality assurance from the view point of client side. Postal architecture is very unique tradition, having both clients and architects function in the organization. Postal architecture was born in 1885, with over 130 years' historical accomplishment. The era of postal architecture has been divided into 4 phases; 1) the era of in-house designers who lead building projects, 2) era of specialists, 3) era of project management, 4) era of externalities and privatization. This paper analyses the changing role of clients and how the environment society has been influenced these changes.
This is a comparative study on the contract of management services and the management services put into effect for building construction projects. Five contracts of management services and four management services put into effect for building construction projects are analyzed by the viewpoint of roles, tasks and responsibilities between stakeholders of each project. As a result, three findings are presented in this paper. 1. It is necessary to adjust the contract of management services and the management services put into effect for building construction projects. 「monogime」 management service is a key which raises customer satisfaction. 2. The adjustment services of building construction projects and 「monogime」 management service are important services for clients. 3. Since scope of service overlaps, the contractual division of roles and responsibility is important for supervision services and management services.
This paper is a part of the study on the acceptance of the French Architecture theories and the educational methods in Modern Japan. It focuses on Abel Jean-Louis Guérineau (1841-1929), French architect who received architectural education at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was employed by the Imperial Japanese Army academy (Riku-gun-shikan- gakkou) as professor of architecture design and drawing between April 11, 1874 and June 30, 1880. Firstly, the role of Guérineau is examined in the context of "military architecture" in Japan. Secondly, the role of Guérineau is examined as leading person of Japanese architectural culture in France.
This paper aims to elucidate the civic plaza in Imabari city by Kenzo Tange（1913-2005） through the analysis of the constrution process of the municipal buildings in the view point of the urban structure. In the case of the municipal building in Imabari city by Kenzo Tange, the civic plaza is related to the traditional area and the new town. We can point out the Tange's ambiguous idea about the modern open space and the traditional urban axis.
This study aims to clarify the typology of the way on the architectural site-plan drawings by means of paying attention to its direction, drawing range and the drawing arrangement concerned with the circumference environment of the actual condition. To achieve above, 215 examples published considering directions other than north; standard direction as the drawing upper part among the site-plans of "houses built by high-density city environment" where the more abundant numbers of datum are obtained is made applicable to analysis in this study. As the conclusion, it is extracted that 14 types of the description on the site-plan drawings and 3 sorts of meanings that the site-plans shown.
The aim of this study is to clarify the expression of comparing size of spaces by composition of stories in Japanese contemporary house. This expression is made by five characteristics in composition of stories such as ceiling height, floor area, position of entrance, relationship between bottom floor and ground, and relationship between top floor and roof. At first, we clarify composition of stories from the point of view of height and floor area. And finally 13 types are defined through the combination of five characteristics in composition of stories. And furthermore by the comparison of 13 types from the point of view of the contrast between the sky and the ground, the form is revealed that the expression of comparing size of spaces by composition of stories bring the diversity and complexity in contemporary architecture.
This paper aims to clarify the transformation process of the regional images along the Midosuji Street, which was constructed in the period between the Taisho and the early Showa era. Based on the magazines and the newspapers at the time, the planners embraced the image that the region along the Midosuji Street became transformed to the symbol of the urban space as the public territory whereas the inhabitants envisaged this region as the aggregate of the private territories. However, the planners and the majority of the inhabitants shared the image of this region characterised by the high-rise buildings.
This study aims to clarify historically the utilization of waterfront of Venice, which is known as a water city, back in 19th and 20th century. It focuses on the waterfront to see the main characteristics of the water cities and considers how it has shaped today's Venice. Particularly, it intends to clarify the change in the process of construction of terraces overhanging the canal and the utilization of the riverside (fondamenta) in the development of the infrastructures after the fall of the Republic in Venice - a city where boats and buildings are naturally blended, transformed the urban structure by. Since the end of 19th century in the San Marco area, along the Riva degli Schiavoni and Grand Canal waterfront, terraces along the waterfront create an intimate relation between people and water giving the current image of the water city - Venice.
The purpose of this research is to study architectural education in the future focusing on educational program and learning environment in view of the seamless and collaborative education jointly provided by Toyohashi University of Technology (TUT) and National Colleges of Technology (NCTs). In order to cope with the common problems of the NCTs, distance learning system that involves Virtual Design Studio of TUT is implemented and analyzed. Then, based on the results how architectural education and its environment can be improved is proposed by incorporating distance learning system that is designated exclusively for architectural education between TUT and NCTs.