Measurements are conducted on individual evacuation of simulated patients aided by working nurses using an actual hospital ward. Three types of auxiliaries for evacuation, stretcher, sheets and wheel chair, are selected. All components of the time to evacuate from bed to temporary refuge area are quantified. The analysis suggests as follow, (1) aided-evacuation with stretcher is repeatable, but the time to shift from bed to stretcher is longer than the other means, and weak narrow or curved evacuation route, (2) sheets is unrepeatable, but suitable for refuge from a fire room.
This paper intends to clarify block formation and building types of Pettah, Colombo, Sri Lanka, and then to analyze their transformation process. This is the part of the further studies based on the project called `Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities', whose major targets are Dutch colonial cities all over the world. Comparing spatial formation and transformation of the colonial cities in South Asia will be the next important milestone of the research. South Asia is the region where many colonial cities were built due to Dutch great efforts on developing the areas. Another purpose is to elucidate the Dutch way of houses construction in their colonial cities, e.g. Pettah, Dutch developed the form of town houses for high-density living. Colombo was once a head quarter of Ceylon, one of the five administrative districts laid by Dutch in South Asia. Pettah also played an important role as a commercial centre in British colonial period when the city experienced rapid growth. At present, a large part of town houses are reconstructed but street network, block formation and plots are still remaining. Based on field surveys, this paper focuses on Keiser Street, which is one of the main streets in Pettah, to clarify the transformation process of Dutch town houses to modern high-rise commercial buildings. This paper suggests that Dutch colonial town planning still plays an important role on the organization of spatial formation of Pettah.
This study focuses on the transformation of dwelling units in Dojunkwai Edogawa Apartment House which was built by the Dojunkwai Foundation in 1934. The aim of this study is to figure out the meaning of courtyard which is one of the greatest characteristic of this apartment house, and to find out features in change of ability of space which dwelling units had by changes of dwelling units itself Analisys was taken under 2 points of view, "extensions", and "renovetions". Findings are as follows: The space of courtyard side is important in cohabitation. The structure which composes the dwelling and the height between floor slab and its finished floor and the planning of main drainage pipe are the factors to decide ability of space which dwelling units had.
The purpose of this study is, as the elderly living in urban housing complex is the subject of this study, to examine the change of their living environments and the process of transition. The variation of residential relationship between parents and children depends on "the stage of their ages" are examined in Part 3. The results are summarized as fellows; 1) The residential relationship between parents and children is, it often exists one of children lives nearby area. From the viewpoint of "the stage of their ages", parents and children of families mostly live together at the stage 1 and 2, mostly live separately at stage 3 and stage 4, the rate of living together increases at the stage 5. 2) The underlying root of the relationship is the affection between parents and children, and there exist relation of supporting each other on the top of the affection. 3) The important thing is offering the system, by which parents can choose the residential relationship between parents and children by individual initiative.
The purpose of this study is to find valuable ideas for district facilities in community, through the analysis of indoor playgrounds in cold and snowy region. Babies and mothers, children, parents and grandparents naturally come and play together at the playground year-round. The characters of space and management which allow the situation are as follows. (1) Open atmosphere and few play restrictions. (2) Attractive play points and surrounding plaza for various physical activities and play. (3) Close relationship between play area and rest area which allows easy visual contact. In addition to these characters, warm woody interior and floor heating raise the comfortableness especially in winter. As mixed generations play and have relaxed time in the same space, communication between them becomes active. The vital condition of the indoor playground from a living environmental standpoint has important meaning for other district facilities to follow.
The purpose of this study is to consider the way of effective utilization of the tourist plazas in Rome. This paper is to clarify how the nighttime lighting direction at the plaza is influenced by the spatial dimensions and by the pedestrian planning. The lighting directions are classified according to the continuities of lighting method through adjacent buildings. This paper point out that the plazas only for pedestrian enclosed by buildings are totally designed with the lighting direction, which is focused on the monumental architecture at the plaza.
This paper aims to study on elucidation of the amount of material transportation from the view point of the management and supply systems. This study is same point of view as a previous report. This paper is based on the investigations of the amount of material transportation at 3 general hospitals in 2003- 2004. The following is results of study. (a)Introduction of medical information system is effective in decreasing the quantity of busy material transportation such as slip kind, paper chart and X-rays films. (b)The difference in supply form and practical use have effect on quantity of material and load of the frequency of transportation. (c)The five main posts account for about 70% of the number of connects. (d)Increase in the periodic material transportation is connected with the reduction of the load of the frequency of transportation. (e)The data to simulate the amount of movement line for the material transportation could be extracted.
The aim of this study is to make clear architectural environment of rehabilitation ward for convalescent stage from the aspect of treatment space. For this objective, two surveys were carried out. One is a nation-wide annual survey for all rehabilitation ward for convalescent stage, which was repeated 5 times, from 2001 to 2005. The other is a detailed survey for two wards whose layout of beds and toilets are characteristic. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1)Typical architectural environment of rehabilitation ward consists of 10% single-bed rooms and 65% four-beds rooms. The number of four-beds rooms with a toilet and a washbowl has been increasing. 65% of patients suffer from a brain vascular disease. And average hospitalization days of those wards is 85 days. 2)The bed usage that adapts paralysis side is approximately possible even if the bed is immobilized. It is important to consider the number and the placement of toilets with four-beds rooms depending on paralysis side.
This research aims to clarify the expression of urban and architectural space in the western paintings. The western paintings have played the role as media that transmit the myths and the religion intuitively plainly by using a sight expression for people who cannot read the letter.We choose the West painting from Renaissance age when three-dimensional space expression in screen until neoclassicism age on the model of high ethics of ancient Greece and Rome art and analyze 1051 paintings
This paper aims to clarify the process of transition in the roof frame of vernacular farmhouses in Tsukuba City. Dealing with 58 houses in Tukuba city and surrounding areas, and analyzing the composition of core and periphery structure, the arrangement of several tie beams and methods of forming overhung eaves such as Segai and Chikara-taruki, it's revealed that until 18th century frames were gradually transformed occupying piled beams and periphery space and adopting Segai, however in 19th century correlation between core and periphery becoming to adaptable, various type of frames had appeared in both making piled beams and forming overhung eaves.
Since our societies have diverse people and built environments, studies must be needed to develop systems assuring people's safety in potential emergent situations. We have developed a multimedia guidance system available in evacuation. In this paper, we compared the guiding effectiveness of three spatial information presentations: (1)the arrow indicating the direction of movement, (2)the floor-plan map with the present place and the exists, and (3)the map with the suggested route from the present place to the nearest available exit. The results showed that the third was the best in giving successful guide and spatial knowledge to the subjects.
This research aims to evaluate the space size and the height of bed for home care with Less Lumbar Stress. The Joint moment of lumbar vertebra when transfer operation of nursing care was measured by biomechanical anarysis. The psychology load was measured. And the following matter was clarified. In operation of changing ships from the bed to the wheelchair, it is effective the height of the bed reduces the joint moment of lunbar stress. The psychology load is reduced according to the space size.
In this research, the authors conducted a field survey to obtain basic data that would be helpful for designing and providing better street space for the low-vision people who are expected to increase as aging of our society accelerates. The field survey was conducted in two ways: one was by distributing questionnaire sheets to the low-vision people to extract what they are afraid of and how they feel when they walk through the existing street space, and the other was by conducting a field experiment using existing street space to identify obstacles and useful items in street space. Using the results from those two activities, the authors identified the challenges for the low-vision people in the present street space, and discussed the methodologies to provide the street space that would allow the low-vision people to walk more easily and more safely in night time.
Orientation of place is ability for people's daily life. In order to know the reasons for distortion of orientation, we contract the real plan and sketches draw by subjects after visiting a museum exhibition hall. In their sketches, subjects are asked to shown 6 places of painting visited. Some places in different floor are also asked to be shown in subjects' sketches. Based on the sketches, regarding on the orientation of places in same floor, it is found that : 1) Length of walking, winding road and unit of path choice have effect on orientation of place; 2) In a closed place, distortion of orientation occurs frequently; 3) A path with continues painting has effect on visitors' orientation. Regarding on the orientation of places in different floor it is found that if people have not noticed allocentric orientational systems, distortion of orientation is easy to occur. As a conclusion, to design a legible exhibition space, opening space, space without exhibition, wellhole style or windows help people orient themselves.
This paper will make the transition of functional properties and forms of task chairs clear from 1966 onward. The functional properties to the number of 845 were picked out from a monthly magazine which was published from 1966. Those items were classified in seven groups by qulitative analysis(KJ method). The most important functional property was to deal with seat comfort. There is the mechanism that seat pan is connected with back for seat comfort. The forms of task chairs to the number of 254 were picked out from the magazines. We classified the data of those forms by the Quantification method of type 3. There are 8 groups that are mainly classified by the size of backrest.
This paper aims to clarify the relation between the spatial component and the spatial cognition tendency quantitatively. the content of the spatial component, which is important for knowing the structure of the spatial cognition tendency, has been extracted for the analysis. As a result of the matrix analysis of the spatial composition type and the spatial consideration type, it is understood that the type of the spatial cognition of the ceiling height and the boundary distance is ; ・At the sightlines of [low ceiling height and long boundary distance], the spatial consciousness is distributed in [natural enclosed sightline concentration type] and spatial composition is distributed in [background type]. ・At the sightlines of [high ceiling height and short boundary distance], the spatial consciousness is distributed in [artificial enclosed sightline concentration type ・ natural enclosed type] and spatial composition is distributed in [inside vertical type] and [outside horizontal ・ outside vertical type] in general. By the result of this paper and previous 2 papers, the basic material of the design and planning of Landscape-Architecture is shown with summary.
Preventive measures against flood were surveyed and prediction of flood disaster was made in Nishi Ward of Osaka City, which contains high flood risk areas. The findings are as follows. (1) More than 80% of surveyed buildings have a potential flood risk due to lack of flood protection measures. (2) Flood protection board is good for barrier-free entrance, while mound-up is not. The problem is not all entrances are not planned or designed for convenience of setting up flood protection board. (3) In order to make preventive measures more effective, so-called software measures are requisite in disaster prevention planning.
Ordinarily personal spaces are argued under statistical treatments after psychological subjective views by experiments, and sometimes means creates maps of bubbles of 2 or 3 dimensions. While this paper argues with the result of projection through a fish eye lens by solid angles, and analyze elements of the comparatively objective data by accumulating reductionally to show structural organization between the person and the observer. This time, solid angle ratios as probabilities of occurrence of possible event create the first type of personal space with entropy, and solid angle ratios with each values create the second type of personal space by using a entropy model, as shown in the charts. Thus a system of "person-in-environment" makes possible to be realized.
This article studies the formation of the purpose at Shimoshinjo-Sakuraen. A method of this article is interview to master of this Community-Cafe. This article clarified following things. The purpose of Shimoshinjo-Sakuraen is offering an opportunity of social contact to people. Participating in activity was thought to be important at this Community-Cafe at first. Now, Shimoshinjo-Sakuraen is the place where people can spend without participating in activity. This means various type of the social contact come to be permitted there and means the substance of the purpose has been formed through management of Shimoshinjo-Sakuraen.
This study had analyzed eye fixation objects, eye fixation directions, and eye fixation times of the sequential urbanscape at the night, which shows the different fixation characters compared to that of the day, in order to clarify the eye fixation characters of the night. Scenery observed from car window was focused in this study due to its popularity as the mean of transportation. Scenery from car window is the urbanscape of a strongly public nature, shared by many users. As a result, informational urbanscape factors were clarified to be the important eye fixation target at the night, showing the largess transition rate among all. Data of eye fixation directions showed less response to the spatial features, concentrating the gaze point: mainly to the foreground view. Eye fixation movements in both night and day had a tendency to gain their range in horizontal directions compared to that of vertical. Such range of eye fixation movement was most influenced by the presence and absence of the sky in the view.
In Japan, streetscapes of urban cities are changing by repeated deregulation and redevelopment. In this study, we clarified the impression change in the street by the difference of the height control. And we analyzed the correlation of physical components and unique facades in Ginza, Tokyo. We compared three street models on Virtual Reality and clarified impression of street and facades by the examination of the evaluation experiment using SD method, the multivariate analysis, and the indication method.
In this study, we modeled changes associated with alterations in land use of 50 large industrial sites. Changes resulted in increased night-population and municipal tax revenues and decreased environmental load, and were achieved by shifts in land use from factories to large-scale developments such as retail-stores and distribution facilities, or small-scale uses such as residential areas, parking lots, or combinations thereof, using genetic algorithms (350 genes). In trial C, under a tax restriction of 11 billion yen and 20 thousand employees, most factories in coastal industrial areas remained unchanged. Two large-scale retail-stores and 3 distribution facilities were selected.
This paper analyzes the noise and air pollution data in Shirakawa-Go, the World Heritage, to evaluate how fast-growing tourists affect natural environment. It was found that the entrance point of that area exceeded the lower limit for noise pollution even at the least crowded days, but air pollution was not recognized all of the measuring points. The fact of maintained clean air might be a surprise for the local residents, who are worried about increasing visitors. These data will be useful for discussing a feasible policy to balance the environment protection and local tourism promotion now and the future.
The regional economic scale directly influences the regional development of the construction industry. As the negative product of the high-speed development in China, the remarkable difference of developing level among regions has become an important subject to be solved. Under this background, it is necessary to understand and analyze the difference of the construction industrial structure and distribution status of every region. This article regards provincial administrative regions of China as the research objective, and has carried on the multiple statistical analysis to the relevant data of construction in different regions. It adopts the method of factor analysis, and selects 3 common factors; construction industry's market scale factors, production efficiency factor, and business efficiency factor as the evaluation index. Under this background, it calculates every factor of each region, and according to this, It investigates the difference of regional construction industry and distribution characteristic of regions.
Ikenaga house, built in 1936, Hashimoto, Wakayama, retains 18 architectural documents and 18 drawings. According to the documents and other townhouse's cases, several maintenance methods of residence were indicated as follows; 1. The Ikenaga residence was maintained by gradually reconstructing each building for approximately 20 years. 2. Since it was an effective method to maintain residences while securing the life basis, the method was generally accepted in Hashimoto. 3. The method could have been adopted in other towns for similar situations. The historical materials of Ikenaga house are precious to indicate the process of maintaining residences in the modern era.
In conservation and restoration of monuments, investigation of a deterioration damage factor is the necessary and indispensable matter. By conservation and restoration project of Prasat Suor Prat, in this paper, the basement and platform were exposed a focus which were gathered to the main factor of deterioration damage to the tower. The architectural techniques of the Prasat Suor Prat towers, particularly on this subject, architectural techniques of the basement and platform of the Angkor monument were advance studied. Those studies were based on knowledge provided from the project carried out by Japanes government team for safeguarding Angkor (JSA).
In Meiji period, The Western architectural design was newly inserted in "HINAGATA" book that was guidebook for Japanese carpenter. The special characteristics of the form and content of the Western architectural designs in the total plans found in "HINAGATA "books are analyzed in this paper. It is pointed out that the principle of proportion are described in a book, and also that correlation the design of the total plan with that of the detail plan are found in some books. As those characteristics of the form and content are similar to "KIWARI" which was design system before Meiji period, we can find that system has an affect on understanding about the Western architectural design.
This paper investigates various aspects of the residential developments of suburbs in Keijo former Seoul. They had spread out of the city walls of Hanyang former Keijo, during the period of the Japanese rule. Before the middle of 1930s, people had chosen residential areas as good environments and surroundings in the suburbs. After that, Keijo-Fu had planned residential development by land rejustment. While it had taken long time, private companies had constructed many residential developments avoiding the sites of land rejustment. People chose residential areas as not only the sites for dwellings but also investments.
Fujibo Co.,Ltd, established the factory in the foot of Mt. Fuji in 1896. In 1926, The Houmon-kaikan was built for culture and health of local resident and employee. The main building of Houmon-kaikan was reconstructed the residence of WADA Toyoji (1861-1924) , in Mukoujima Tokyo. He played a major role to the expansion of the company. His residence was built in around 1909, and went through the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. SHIMIZU Tekichi reconstructed the building and reproduced it faithfully. We derived these results from the historical documents.
This paper focuses on a social meaning of the preservation of ancient shrines and temples in Kyoto at its early stage, through tracing the work of MATSUMURO Shigemitsu, the first supervisor of the preservation in Kyoto Prefecture. Though he entered in the field of preservation later than SEKINO Tadashi, MATSUMURO had his original philosophy. He always regarded historic buildings as a part of their precincts or the city, and his architectural thinking was consistent from new construction design to restoration works. His key concept 'urban remodelling with preservation' had relevance to the urban planning theory in Kyoto during the Meiji 30s.
This series of papers focuses on Prince Khaemwaset's stone structure discovered by Waseda University Team in the Abusir-south hill in Egypt, and the current issue especially examines the inclination and height of the walls of the structure. Since dressing works of the wall surfaces were unfinished, the planned inclination of the walls could only be estimated indirectly. In this study, the author calculates the planned inclination by hypothesizing the building process of the walls. The height of the walls also is estimated by applying the analysis of the wall decoration and the height of the column in the portico. Based upon these results, the elevation of the entire structure is presented.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the planning of the Lion Tomb at Amphipolis. Through the analysis of the dimensional proportion of the building, the following conclusions were given. In the planning of this building the proportional relationships between the dimensions are simple. The planning is started from deciding the width and depth of the upper crepis 30 feet (1foot=0.299m). Many dimensions are defined by successive system of proportion, and especially in the planning of the elevation it seems that the axial intercolumniation at center part is used as the module.
This paper deals with 3 houses which were planned by Adolf Loos from his middle to late period. The purpose of this paper is to show a process of forming the Raumplan known as Loos's architectural manner, analyzing the inside of each house, especially paying attention to a fragmentary character of elements and the relation between them. To be brief, in villa Mulller, the fragmentization of elements seen in villa Strasser appears again, the integration *of elements with a vertical axis seen in villa Rufer further develops, and the mediation element has for the first time been inserted between fragments.
It is the intention of this paper to develop an understanding of architecture from an interdisciplinary point of view, based on an analysis of the concept of "architectural" in Tanizaki Jun'ichiro's essay JOZETSUROKU. Tanizaki argued that the value of novel's plot is like an architectural beauty. We interpret and clarify this argument by using other Tanizaki's essays. "Architectural" means the quality of a work which contains an organic composition. To create a work of art with well trained and sophisticated sense of beauty results in a work which holds a nature of "architectural".
This paper aims to clarify the change process of the meaning and the guide after the Second World War of a famous place for both the citizens and the tourists in Hiroshima City, Hijiyama Mountain. Analyzing the guide texts, the interview to the tour guides at that time, we can find out that the guidance about the history related to the war was simplified, because the bus routes in Hijiyama Mountain reduce to the northern area. Therefore, the guidance about the prewar history was omitted. As a result, the urban history guided in Hijiyama Mountain became to be flat.
Although Minoru Ooka and Kiyoshi Asano first set up the restoration policy until the fire in 1949, their idea, regarding original design of architecture as the concept of preservation, was not fully realized due to the following problems caused by those buildings' peculiarities. To preserve artistic value of the wall paintings in the Main Hall brought many arguments, until the fire, for and against complete dismantlement method that was considered to provide a basis for their policy. Additional structural reinforcement, aimed to remove all the structural supports of Edo-period, arouse hostile objections from those who advocated technical (e.g. structural system) or material authenticity. Those buildings' well-known appearance to the Japanese public functioned as a constraint not to change the profile of buildings. Having these difficulties, this project can be reinterpreted as a symbolic case that overtly shows an aporia in architectural preservation.
The number of low unused ground increases along with the revolution of the industrial establishment though the waterfront in our country has been used as a space that fills the port function. It can be said that the land readjustment project is waterfront development and exists in an important location because such a situation is based, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has given low unused ground in the seaside part as a region where the land readjustment project is emphatically used. However, the land readjustment project in the waterfront is thought that the maintenance technique only of the waterfront is necessary in land use and forming from an environment it different from the inland of adjacent to a vast sea area the spectacle. Then, maintenance that was able to enjoy the charm of the waterfront was led to become possible because it maintained the road without obstructing the view to the investigation of the maintenance requirement for the land readjustment project in the waterfront, the arrangement of the park and the green tract of land in the waterside, and seas in this research.