Temperature rise and ventilation rate caused by a fire in a tall and narrow atrium are successfully estimated by a new model considering physical factors of atrium(floor area, height, opening arrangements), dimensionless heat release rate and Froude number. These two dimensionless numbers are estimated based on inlet-opening width, heat loss to walls, atrium aspect ratio H^2/A and inlet-to-outlet opening ratio. Laboratory measurements of temperature and ascending velocity in flame plume and atrium space, and velocity of flow induced at openings were carried out using a reduced-scale model(1/10) 1.8m×1.8m×7.2m(H) and a gas burner placed at the center of the model generating 1.5kW to 24kW as the arrangements of inlet openings were changed. The laboratory tests validated the figures produced by the model as did the results of previous experiments carried out at various scales and with various opening arrangements and heat release rates under natural and forced ventilation Comparison of the estimated temperature rise and ventilation rate using the model with the results of experiments indicates that the model can be used for estimating these values as a simple tool to evaluate the fire safety design of a tall and narrow atrium.
In the first part of this paper, a method to build a mathematical model of weather data is proposed. The elements selected to be modeled are temperature, global solar radiation, and absolute humidity. They are decomposed into deterministic and stochastic components, which are respectively modeled as a Fourier series and a time series model, such as an ARMA model. As an example, the parameters and the characteristics of the model of Tokyo are shown with the comparison to the original record. Secondary, a new calculation method of stochastic air-conditioning load is proposed based on the assumption that both the weather record and building thermal response can be approximated as output of a liner system. It is explained that the method can estimate the mean and the variance of heat load under the condition of intermittent air-conditioning without hour by hour load simulation.
The results of subjective experiments on the surface emission rate of perceived air pollutants with four different floor materials using a small scale box chambers are described. Defining the loading factor as the ratio of the test specimen area to the chamber volume, the effects of loading factor on Surface Emission Rate of perceived air pollutants (SER) and on Surface Emission Rate of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (SER_<TVOC>) from building materials were examined with four different levels of loading factor. The value of SER in olf/m^2 was calculated from the decipol value voted by trained panel and SER_<TVOC> from TVOC concentration in toluene equivalents. It was found that the greater the ratio of air change rate to loading factor, the greater the SER of perceived air pollutants and the greater the SER_<TVOC>.
A task and ambient air-conditioning method was proposed with new air-conditioning concept for intelligent office space, from the viewpoints of both increasing thermal comfort and reducing energy requirement The stand-alone heat pump unit, which is typically located under free-access floor, was applied to each occupant, and used as localized air-conditioner. Heating or cooling can be changed according to user s intention. The conventional air diffusion system, which has ceiling-mounted diffusers and floor-mounted intakes, was applied for ambient space. The indoor thermal environment was evaluated under actual work condition of occupants and actual heat load in the experimental room. The effects of ambient set-point air temperature and operating mode of the unit were mainly analyzed. Together with the task unit, the set-point air temperature of the ambient system could be decreased to approximately 20℃ in winter and increased to approximately 28℃ in summer, with maintaining moderate thermal comfort.
This is to report the results of studies on the growth of fungi under two types of combination of temperature and humidity conditions:(a) constant temperature and humidity and (b) constant relative humidity with varying temperature. The temperature variation was simulated to sine curves with 24 hours cycle. The groups of fungi tested were Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium funiculosum. The results show that every fungi, in environmental temperature variation cycles, are affected on the growth speed and on the time requird in germination. It proved that these variable factors should be adopted in future studies.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the characteristics of water balance and BOD-loading in areas, where the changing conditions of building' s composition and the combination of water reuse systems and rainwater treatment systems. The matrix is used to simplify the calculation, then basic data, such as water quantity and quality, are investigated. After this, case studies are conducted using a simulation program. The results are as follows. Although the rate between residential buildings and office buildings is approximately 1:3, water supply and demand are well balanced for water reuse, it is useless to reduce BOD-loading against sewage systems.
The purpose of this study is to estimate CO_2 emission amounts by energy use in buildings and to present some information for comparing air conditioning systems appropriate to each reagion. To estimate CO_2 emission from the air conditioning systems, it becomes essential to investigate the composition of electric power source sectors. In this paper, the data of CO_2 emission per 1kWh electric power use in Japan are analysed about 9 regions on hourly base, and CO_2 emission amounts from air conditioning systems are simulated in time series corresponding to building energy consumption patterns. Consequently, it is showed that the appropriate system from the side of minimizing CO_2 emission varies with the regions.
Daily variations of sensible and latent heat fluxes were observed on the same days in summer, autumn and winter in the center, the water front area and the Bay of Tokyo by eddy correlation method. Sensible heat fluxes in the center of Tokyo are approximately 50-100w/m^2 larger than in the water front area of Tokyo and latent heat fluxes in the center area are approximately 20-70w/m^2 smaller than in the water front area. In the Bay of Tokyo both sensible and latent heat flux are very small in summer, as solar radiations are absorbed by the sea. However these absorbed energy is discharged in autumn and winter. The average Bowen-Ratios in the center, the water front area and the Bay of Tokyo are 2.0, 0.9 and 0.3 respectively in summer and those values in autumn and winter become larger.
Basic sector classification input/output table were applied to analyze the construction cost of single family houses and multi family houses in order to obtain the energy consumption and CO_2 emission. Final energy consumption including direct and indirect use per 1m2 of floor area is 2,000-2,500 Meal for SRC multi family houses, 720 Heal for wooden single family houses, 1,200 Heal for light weight steel-framed single family houses. The amount of CO_2 emission are 900kg/nf, 250 kg/nf, and 420 kg/m2 respectively. Energy Intensity is approximately 7.5 kcal/yen for SRC houses, 4.5 kcal/yen for wooden single family houses, 6 kcal/yen for light weight steel-framed single family houses.
Post Occupancy Evaluation - POE - was applied to study newly designed office performance. Evaluation was dichotomized into measurement and interpretation, and the interpretation was dichotomized again into direction of change and the difference. Several kinds of human behavior were selected as indices of office performance, measured by means of a questionnaire, and interpreted from a view point of an office planner. POE successfully extracted a variety of information regarding cost performance of office investment, priority of design trade off, feedback to the office studied, and feedforward to another office planning. Further case studies are necessary to generalize and sophisticate the method.
The first objects of this study is to find out the actual conditions of dimensions of joint layout and sizes of siding boards and to grasp their relations. The second one is to simulate ratios of siding boards utility (RSBU) and investigate influencial factors. The third one is to study on primary idea of designing joint layout for increasing RSBU in a detached house. The considerations and the conclusions; 1. From the result of simulation of 4 cases in RSBU, The main reasons of the low utilization rate of material is due to the use of smaller size's siding boards. 2. To increase the RSBU, Using siding boards of various sizes at a same time on a same house is effective. 3. Sizes of siding boards used on exterior wall, which are smaller than "4Q" (Q=455mm) can not be explained by the factor of dimensions of joint layout.
This study is an experimental analysis of psychological effects of colors in interior-space, especially in distance recognition, aiming to make clear the effects of colors in space recognition. The results of analyses are as follows: 1) There are two main effects of colors in space recognition, Color Effect in two-dimension, and the sense of oppression. 2) The model with all surfaces painted shows the influence of Color Effect and the original image of the color most obviously. 3) Each sense is influenced differently depending on the position of the painted surface,but a painted bottom surface has influence on all senses. 4) The recognition of linear objects is influenced by painted surfaces placed right angle to it. 5) The original image of color is not always equivalent to the image of models painted by the same color. 6).The image of extent and volume are influenced by Color Effect and the sense of oppression, related to the change of chroma and value. And the image of depth, axis, and balance depends on which surface is painted, and not by the color which it is painted in.
We aim to make clear the characteristics and the meanings of the ownership of the apartment houses of Paris in the first half of the 19th century, through the analysis of the newly developed quarter Saint-Georges; we utilize as fundamental documents the notarial deeds, the First Sommier Foncier etc. The majority of the owners acquired a house in order to rent the apartments. They generally owned no more than one house in the quarter. The owners comprised people of various status; among them the so called "proprietaires" predominated. They depended on the credit and the debts less than the developers and the professional constructors, nevertheless the obligations could be a main cause of selling the property. The rate of rent generally exceeded the rate of interest(5%).
In this paper, we trid to clarify the correlation between development of housing sites and practical application of development permission and local housing guidline, through 34 municipalities in Kanagawa prefecture. The following result were given; 1) If the development permission will be necessary to the development over 500 m^2 in its area size, built-up control will be done effectively. Thus, the most of the small-sized and poor conditioned development will be able to avoid. 2) In order to apply the development permission and the local housing guidline simultaneously, built-up control will work more effectively.
The impact to the environments of residential destricts by buildings of service industries has shown great changes as the change of industrial structures. But the building use regulation system had not been revised for so many years in Japan. It had been a problem to waiting solution to inspect the propriety of the Table 2 of the Architectural Planning Law. The paper is a report of a case study which investigated the actual condition of the location of the service industry buildings in use class zones. And the following findings are also shown. I) The old version of the^ Table 2 of the Architetural Planning Law had several regulations with some problems to be solved, ii) The revised Table 2 by the revision of the Architectural Planning Law and the City Planning Law solves the problems above mentioned and the revision is an appropriate one.
"Uranihon" is a name of the sections of Honsyu along the Sea of Japan. But it sometimes means the undeveloped part of Japan, too, because the prefix "lira" has a negative nuance in Japanese. This paper analyzes frequence of using and the transition of meaning of the word by using old local newspapers in Niigata Prefecture since mid Meiji era, and investigates the historical background. In result,the periods when the word was frequently used were Showa tens and Showa thirties and in the both periods the meaning of the word deeply reflected the historical background.
Today, we have a lot of commercial photos, and find out the scene of the city in these photos. We think of these scene as the urban space which consumers like, investigate of the women's magazines from 1960's onward, and show that the scene plays an important role in the magazines. Moreover, this study makes clear the scene of the city by analyzing commercial photos in a popular graphic magazine "Non-no". By using quantification theory, we abstract 2 axis and make clear the structure of the elements. We classify the scene into 7 groups and examine each appearance rate. The result is that consumers have the tendency to like scenes which have well-ordered volume space and humanscale elements, but these scenes don't have the element which represents the human actibities.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the problem of the revised rent of public housing. We studied the revised rent by the theoretical approach and the fact-finding approach. In the theoretical approach, we estimated the rent of Kouei, Koudan, and Kousha. What we found are (1) the difference of the rent between old and new housing is moderate. (2) The main element of the rent of new housing depends on construction costs and the redemption of it. (3) That of the old housing depends on the value of land. In the fact-finding approach, we found that (1) the differences among the rent of Kouei, Koudan and Kousha are grave. (2) The difference of the rent between new and old housing is also grave. (3) The causes of the difference are the delay of revision of the rent and the value of land is not reflected in the rent. The results are (l)The estimated difference between old and new rent is moderate. (2) But between the actual rent and estimated rent, there is a difference when dealing with the value of land of new and old housing.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics on the areas of housing lot and dwelling spaces, and composition of rooms of newly built, detached dwelling in Higashi Osaka city as the city in metropolitan region. Main conclusions are as follows; 1) Typical areas of housing lots in Higashi Osaka city are 25 to 100 in. The newly built detached dwelling in Higashi Osaka city is, for the most part, 3 stories dwelling in case of housing lots under 100 m2. 2) Typical areas of floor spaces are 40 to 160 m2 in case of 2 stories dwelling, while are 60 to 120 m2 in case of 3 stories dwelling. 3) The typical composition of rooms in case of 2 stories dwelling are constituted by LDK, or LDK and one Japanese room in 1st floor, and two or three bed rooms in 2nd floor. 4) On the other hand, the typical composition of rooms in case of 3 stories dwelling are constituted by garage and storeroom in 1st floor, LDK in 2nd floor, and two or three bed rooms in 3rd floor.
Takase Shin Yashiki, which was created at the west bank of Kamo River between Shijo Ave. and Gojo Ave. in 1671, marked a turnig-point in urban dynamics of Kyoto in Edo period. This new residential area was typical of housing supply which went with plot division and no town houses at the beginning of urban growth. The three developers who carried this project to completion seemed to have come from Osaka. They ended badly in this new community that belonged to Takase Shin Yashiki, but they provided a new starting-point to establish an occupation called JimenShihainin who could manage new residential quarters in whole.
Katsurano-miya household had three villas in Rakugai(a Kyoto suburb) except Katsura Villa, and had two palaces, called Imadegawa Palace and Ishiyakushi palace, in Rakucyu(kyoto city). This is the study on the Ocha-ya in the Iraadegawa Palace.The results are as follows. (1) There were six Ocha-ya in Imadegawa Palace when Prince Yakahito lived in that palace. They were called Sekio, Unsetsu, Kairaku, Undai, Sakuyu and Machibito. They all had existed in 1758. (2) Sekio was build in 1727 at latest. This Ocha-ya was revered an anceptor, and was attached Futaba-tei tea celemony room which was the imitation of Shokin-tei tea celemony room in the Katsura Villa. (3) Compared with the Ocha-ya in Imadegawa Palace and those in the villas in Rakugai.they had something in common. Build on a height with a fine view, commanded a enjoyable scenery of rice field, and setting the space of revering an anceptor insaide. And so on.
This report describes the definite operation plan for the garden city project by Ohfuna Denentoshi Co,Ltd. Ohfuna Denentoshi Co,Ltd had 29 staffs. Building and repairs department, which had Mr. Kaoru Yamada, exclusive engineer, was consist of three sections of Building section, Civil Engineering section, and Garden section. Looking into its completed works at residencial area, we could see that its construction works were done by its scheme drawing with burying water supply and sewerage, and with barying electric power supply system, and with roads which were devided into driveways and sidewalks. For the neat rows of houses on the street, Ohfuna Denentoshi Co,Ltd had a contract not only to build houses, but also to build gardens, and constructed public facilities. However, we finded out that Ohfuna Denentoshi Co,Ltd's management condition had not been good from the beginning Ohfuna Denentoshi Co,Ltd had a large amount of debt in 1927, and wend down with only half completion of the residencial area in 1928.
In this period, the Academy thoroughly discussed the three subjects regarding the Ionic capital, that is, the distinction between the antique Ionic capital and the moderns Ionic capital invented by Scamozzi, the height of the astragal of the shaft of the column and the eye of the scroll, and the method to draw the scroll. In the beginning, the Academy respected the theory and practice of Vitruvius and his followers such as Vignola and Palladio. But the Academy began to deny and correct them by the authority of the ancient works in Rome that were presented to the academic members by Antoine Desgodetz's Les Edifices Antiques de Rome. Finally the Academy admitted, in the name of the ancient architecture, the modern capital, and the method to put the center of the eye at the level of the upper extreme of the astragal. The Academy also established a new method to draw the scroll by correcting Vitruvius and Vignola's method and respecting geometrical perfection.
This study is an attempt to clarify the contents of Peter Behrens' activity in the design process of AEG Turbine Factory. He collaborated with two engineers, one was Karl Bernhard, a well-known civil engineer in Berlin, and the other is Oskar Lasche, a production engineer at AEG. Three points mentioned below are dealt with: 1. Details of commission to Bernhard, 2. Difference of view on steel construction between Behrens and Bernhard, 3. Features of the collaboration of Behrens with the engineers. As a result, it is pointed out that Behrens was not only a form-giving architect but an organizer to supervise the whole design process through the collaboration with the engineers.
Zoning policy has been widely used for planning and decision makings in land use tor more than a decade. Most of the existed zoning plans are incompetent due to the outdated conditions. In other situations, the MCDM and G1S techniques have been applied tor land evaluations. One means of enhancing the zoning efficiency is by applying a similar approach. The aim of this paper is to show how integrated AHP-GIS methodology can be used effectively to support the formulation of recreational zoning. Aso National Park area is selected as a pilot study and selection criteria are developed and evaluated. Two cases of criteria evaluation are used to justify efficiency of the method. Zoning maps are derived and discussed.