Previous studies show that the attachment of small weights to a thin steel plate improves the sound insulation at low-frequency range. The characteristic of sound insulation board is that the spacing between weights can control the tuning of effective frequency of sound insulation. This mechanism is useful for the noise control. This paper examines the sound insulation characteristics and the mode of vibration plate in the Experimental Modal Analysis. Results in this paper are as follows. 1)The natural frequencies at divided areas are different the basis of various conditions of the spacing between weights and the support. 2)The weights are vibrating at the effective frequency of sound insulation. 3)The plate above the effective frequency is under the stiffness control at each divided area. The one below the effective frequency is under the inertia control at one plate. Finally this paper suggests an estimation method of the effective frequency by Mechanical impedance.
This paper presents a series of equations for calculating radiance distribution on clear skies. In this paper, radiance of any sky element is divided into two components. The one is the component caused by primary scattering of direct solar radiation in the atmosphere. The other is the additional component which is caused mainly by secondary scattering of direct solar radiation and caused partly by tertiary and subsequent scattering of direct solar radiation as well as scattering of reflected radiation from the ground. Each component is affected strongly by the extraterrestrial solar irradiance, solar altitude, and transparency of the atmosphere. The equations for calculating these two components have been derived so as to be able to give the values of radiance itself by physically taking account of these three factors.
The purpose of the study is to find out the effect of the enhancement of natural cross ventilation on the cooling load of mechanical air conditioners for the residential buildings with voids in hot and humid region. We conducted the numerical experiment based on CFD analysis and thermal and airflow network analysis, together with two building models of different voids ratio, and the results are as followed : 1)The provision of multi-directional ventilation openings on the building facades is effective in the introduction of natural cross ventilation into the building using the outdoor wind condition. 2)The air change rate of natural cross ventilation increases with the introduction of voids in the building. 3)In Naha city, the residential building with void ratio of 50%, under the condition of increased natural cross ventilation during the investigation period, has20%reduction of the indoor cooling load compared to the one without. 4)In summer and during intermediate seasons, the thermal environments of residential rooms with void ratio of either O% or 50% are acceptable comfort condition with hybrid air conditioning system utilizing both mechanical and natural ventilations.
A priori test using the LES database created by the authors(2001)is carried out in order to evaluate the Algebraic Stress Model(ASM), the WET model and the linear eddy viscosity/diffusivity model. The accuracy and relative performance of various models are carefully examined in the flow field including supply jet, wall shear and impingement. ASM and the WET model reproduce well anisotropy features of Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes. However, normal stresses of ASM in the impinging region show slight discrepancy from the LES data. It is clarified quantitatively that this discrepancy is caused by the inaccuracy of the modeling pressure-strain term and algebraic approximation for convection and diffusion term. Furthermore, it is concluded that the WET model requires the use of appropriate wall damping function in order to preciously predict wall shear flows.
In the previous paper, we proposed a model for simulating the budgets of heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide within three-dimensional vegetation. And we applied the model to a single tree and investigated the detail of heat balance within the foliage. Then we investigated the effect of the environmental factors on the heat budget within the foliage, by varying the environmental factors. In this paper, we examined the validity of our model. We compared the results from the model with the measured data. Our model accurately estimated the measured data.
The courses of intrusion into houses are classified as "infiltration"and"brought-in by residents'activities". The authors reported on the first subject in the previous paper. This paper reports the amount and the mechanism of cedar pollen which are brought in into dwellings or other buildings by residents' activities : those deposited on the people, those attached to the "futon", beddings, exposed to the sun, and laundry fabrics dried outdoor. The deposition on people was 10-30% of outdoor surfaces The deposited pollen on laundry can be estimated from the time stayed outside and from the outdoor pollen concentration and can be reduced to half by shaking five times before taken in. The concentration of allergens in surface dust on the"futon"can be reduced to 1/2-1/3 by beating them.
Using PCM with a melting point at 55 degrees Celsius, the authors have conducted a variety of heat storage and radiation tests with a view to applying the heating system to housing. It has been discovered that the interior of PCM in the system entirely melted when heat storage was completed and the surface temperature of pipes topped 61 degrees. The measurement in the laboratory, LESCOM and calculation model for the interior of the system have verified that the system, when in operation, contributed to hikes in room temperature by up to four degrees. The simulation of application of the system to general housing has also shown that the system contributed substantially to increased room temperature. In conclusion, the system using inexpensive midnight power has been found effective.
In this study, the heat surplus ability of the existing heat supply plants, O plant, M1 plant, M2 plant, Y plant and N plant in Tokyo Station area has been analyzed. The backup effect of networking those plants has also been evaluated. In addition, we discuss the supply network pressure and heat loss in case of networking the existing district heat supply plants. The results showed there are heat surplus in the existing district heat/cooling systems. In order to make use of this heat energy, a network is necessary to connect the existing system. The way to connect plants is found effective when we connect directly those plants. The heat loss due to networking is small comparing with heat surplus of plants. Therefore, it can be neglected in the heat supply calculation.
Filling process in a valley and outflow process into a built-up area of cold air drainage are examined by a measurement and a model calculation. The valley faces a built-up area in Kobe city. Air temperature in the bottom of the valley is the lowest. This can be thought to reflect on the filling process of cold air drainage in a valley. When wide area land and sea breezes blow in this area, the cold air filled in the bottom of the valley is mixed, and it is blown away by wide area land and sea breezes. From the vertical potential temperature profile, the thickness of the cold air in the bottom of the valley is thicker than that of previous study on the slope.
In order to research the actual weather conditions in Nagano City, weather maps were drawing with temperature and relative humidity data. The authors obtained the following results : (1)Weather maps of level area were made by drawing with land use maps by observing remote sensing data and measurement data of weather. (2)Weather maps of hilly area were made by drawing with altitude maps and measurement data of weather. (3)Weather maps in Nagano City were made by drawing with level area and hilly area data. As a result, the difference were found each the weather data in 4districts, commercial district, residential district with detached house, hilly area at an altitude of 700m and 1,000m.
In a virtual weightless environment, pointing and modeling tasks were conducted to examine subjects'orientational skills. Subjects who wore a head-mounted display in a reclining chair moved from one end to the other end in several routes that were made by three or four modules that were connected by cubical modules, and pointed to the start point and made the experienced route by a scale model. Analyses of the results show the ability of spatial orientation varies with such variables as the number of bends, the number of embedding planes and the number of planes with respect to the body posture. Subjects who miss the tasks have a tendency not to take the change of the direction of their body axes into account.
This study aims at clarifying the characteristic of preference for the view from buildings located at a river side. The authors carried out the experiment that the subjects choose good and bad images by a 70mm lens sized flame based on the 35mm lens sized image of a view. The authors analyzed the size, the positions of the constituent elements and image features derived from textural analysis of these views. From these results, the authors clarified some characteristics of preferable compositions of views and the image features of these view, and the difference between inhabitants'preference and subjects'one.
In order to examine the relationship between the living environment and the health problem such as respiratory symptoms, allergy diseases and chemical sensitivities, a questionnaire survey was conducted to 1,410 5th grade students of 20 elementary schools in Miyagi Prefecture. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, the following results were found. Genetic factors and urban residency have a big influence on children's health. Housing environment such as structure of house, years after construction, smoking parents, indoor pet keeping, materials of the floor, and domestic chemicals have a big influence on children.
The aim of this study is to deliberate the potential of management of dwelling-environment in a townscape-oriented detached houses'area by the case study on the changing process of townscape in Takasu-woonelf. Originally, the main items of townscape in Takasu-woonelf were hedges, and rules were made to maintain them. However inhabitants gradually modified their houses, hedges and gates to individualize their properties. In this process, the new rules and attractors have been generated and shared as tacit understanding by the communication in neighborhood. This spontaneous rules and attractors function as the management system to lead the townscape.
The study is a part of the project "concept formulation and development of planning methodology of environmental symbiotic area". This research designs an experimental house fitted with building material type solar panels with an objective to curtail the environmental load and reduction in the construction cost that occurs in the usual mode of installation of the additional energy generating and saving devices. Besides solar energy system in the house, the design of the air cavity in the wall and the circulation of the air within the room that has been achieved through detail considerations in the overall design of the house, considerable curtailment in the cooling energy load has been achieved. It has been found that the experimental house installed with the 3kWh capacity, which is considered to be a viable scale to a dwelling unit, saves 70%of electricity compared to those houses that use dual energy source of gas and electricity, and 40%compared to those that use only electricity. It is remarkable that the resident users became more conscious on the energy consumption with this achievement in curtailment in the energy cost. The results of the experimental house has then been extended to make a simulation analysis in the residential area of Kizu-chuo.
This study aims to reveal the process that a newly residential environment like a new town becomes a stable situation. As a case study, this survey focuses on residential area in Ogata village, Akita, where was developed by a reclamation project of Hachiro-gata lake in late 1960's and built every environment newly after the reclamation project. By means of questionnaire survey, fieldwork, and aerial photograph, the study analyses a form of house changed by extension and reconstruction works of its residents and reveals following results. 1)There is the tendency that the house that have same site orientation and entrance orientation becomes same convergent form of house. 2)Because of the convergent form of house according to its site orientation and entrance orientation, streets in each direction have each particular streetscape.
This is an Ethnomethodological study for practical use of the space in the remodeled classroom. "Ethnomethodology" is used in the sociopedagogy to clarify the local practices in the classroom. This paper clarifies the mutual relations of the educational practices and the architectural spaces by describing the methods for the communications and practical use of the space. As a result, the feature of practical use of the space in the remodeled classroom is that the opened or the closed methods are complicated and then each method for the communications and practical use of the space are applied.
This paper investigates the singularity of the amount of work and a work schedule of a drama performance in a temporary theater. making the stage and audience seating including technical fascilities in itrequires a big amount of work and long production schedule. It brings also positive activity for all member of drama company.
The purpose of this study is to analyze how citizens are using facilities of their governmental buildings, by the questionnaires to the administrators of governmental buildings constructed recently. The results are following. 1)The facilities of smaller governmental buildings are more extensively used by their citizens than them of larger governmental buildings. Especially the governmental buildings in towns and villages have fewer facilities, but their citizens use them most extensively. 2)The inner and outer assembly facilities and the exhibition facilities programmed especially are most important for extension of citizens'use. 3)Main problems for the administrators are security of administrative spaces, their staffs'receiving citizens and limitations on their existing systems. Among these problems, the second and the third are easy comparatively to solve by flexible treatment of the administrators, but the first is difficult to solve so long as the administrators do not consider before construction of their governmental buildings.
This paper's aim is to clarify the characteristics of integrational form in spatial composition by analyzing typologically contemporary urban buildings by interrelasionships with surroundings. Initially, the external compositions in the sites are analyzed in terms of external forms of buildings and articulation of exterior space. Secondly, the compositional relationships with surroundings are analyzed in terms of arrangement of volumes, such as setting buildings in a row along streets. Thirdly, typological compositions are found by analyzing the external compositions and compositional relationships with surroundings all together. Finally, through comparing those compositions, the integrational form is structured with the functions of arangement of volumes such as forming a local set with a integrated building as a unit.
This paper presents the recognizable distance of the bicycle by the pedestrian at night. The experimental place is the intersection of a city recognizable area with the road about 4m wide. The result is the following : (1). The color of clothing of the cyclist and the light of bicycle have little influence on the recognizable distance. (2). When there is a corner cut-off, the recognizable distance is long. It is effective in preventing the accident to make a corner cut-off at the intersection. (3). When there is the bike with the light on at the opposite corner, the lights have influence on the recognizable distance.
Experiments were conducted concerning fixation movements while climbing or descending the staircases at a subway station. In climbing or descending, fixation movements differed, but tended to occur near the stairs and at occluding edges of floor or walls, and were greatly changed depending on if they were visible or not. When climbing the staircases, fixation also changed depending on where the subject was located at the stairs, whether making a turn or walking straight at landing. Fixation movements on the occluding edge, blocking off the turn following immediately after the stairs, inform us the danger that exists.
This paper describes perceived danger areas for backhoes. Two experiments were performed using a virtual environment system. The experiments assumed the scenes in which a backhoe was viewed from the front and the back. Twenty males, who have never worked at construction sites, served as the subjects. Logistic regression for repeated measures data revealed age and distance between the subject and the backhoe to be significant effects on danger or non-danger judgments for both experiments. Regarding the front view, the odds ratio for an increase of 1 m in distance was 0.05,and 0.91 for an increase of age range. The classification table showed a sensitivity of 0.9 for a cutpoint of 0.35 with an accuracy of 0.74. As for the back view, a sensitivity of 0.9 was achieved at a cutpoint of 0.2 with an accuracy of 0.7. Thus, the logistic regression analysis revealed that a sensitivity of 0.9 can be achieved with an accuracy of over 0.7 for both the front and back view of the backhoe.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the structure of life information demands for the aged. Categories of life information are classified into 9,including 45 items correspondingly daily life needs. Those items are used in the questionnaires for the aged living different regions. Main results of this study are as follows. 1. The aged in the urban area and housing estates tend to have life information demands on the spare time culture and safety, on the contrary, those in the town and country on the transportation and security. 2. Much part of the aged gets the life information from one's family, but also from information media. And slightly different tendency is found between urbanized areas and countryside. 3. The latter aged tends to have more demands for the information of safety, security and communication than the former aged. 4. The major life information demands are on the health keeping/life-saving and security. And the next demands are on the transportation, spare time culture and daily activities.
In this paper, we mainly clarify a structure of "Living-environment" for children's play. We also investigate how children grasp places and environment through the play. The method of this study is questionnaires and interviews with elementary schoolchildren in Tsubata town. Main conclusion is follows. 1)We make a proposal to divide children's plays into four types;purpose-intention, object-intention, purpose and object-intention and anonymous-intention. 2)We clarify that four types of play and playing places are closely related. 3)Especially "secret base playing" which categorized into anonymous-intention forms "Living-environment".
In the planning process of regional facilities, there are many interest groups who have the different opinions respectively. In common sense, it seems that the optimal construction process is determined by their opinions. In this paper, a basic model of construction process of regional facility is formulated. Using the theory of Maximum Principle by Pontryagin, we show that the optimal construction process is independent on the opinions of interest groups. Furthermore, we show the condition on the possibility of construction process.
The purpose of this paper is to define "Cubic-Volume house" as one type of urban detached housing and to analyze the mutual relation of composition between inner spaces from a viewpoint of "spatial connection". The results are as follows; 1)In comparison with common urban houses, Cubic-Volume houses show a tendency to have compact scale and to increase spatial connection of each room. 2)Through transforming Cubic-Volume houses into space connecting graphs, they are classified into characteristic groups by the sorts of access route which has effect on spatial connection ratio. 3)These analytic methods show a possibility to describe houses not only by means of spatial quantity but also typological composition.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the demand of the life information for the aged in the mountainous villages. The main results of this study are abstracts as follows. 1.The basic life information for the aged are classed in 45 index 9 categories. 2. As for the source of information, there is much human offering of house inside the neighborhood. 3. The aged women tend to demand information about health, daily act, and weather, but there are a few changes of expecting in the aged advanced. 4. Tendency types of demand for life information are classified roughly into 5,according to its extension or specialization.
To clear relationship between elements of housing lot in rural settlement, we analyzed the structure on the relative changes with the changes of waterway and road adjoining housing lot, on buildings, open space and border space in housing lot, and space out of housing lot. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1)With the changes of waterway and road, there are the relative changes on border space, open space and buildings adjoining waterway and road on housing lot. 2)With the reclamation of waterway, the poor drainage changes clay and trees to gravel and concrete. And with the discontinuance of use of boats, there are the demolitions of buildings and the constructions of garden and fence. 3)With the improvement of road, there are the changes of entrance and the relative changes. And through the introduction of automobiles and agricultural machines, there are the relative changes for elements on the path of flow and the storage in housing lot. 4)With the improvement of road and waterway, there are the constructions of sheds, fence, entrance, vegetable garden and vinyl houses on adjoining farm, and the relative changes for elements in the previous housing lot.
The purposes of this research is to analyze and categorize the citizen participation program of master plan from the viewpoint of the system formation of community biilding, which are decided by citizen committee in Kawasaki City. In the first half, We examine the planning philosophy of the citizen participation program, and in the latter half, We clarify the aspects of consciousness of the participant through the analysis of the questionnairing. As a result, We show the two type of the planning philosophy, "Type1 : Precedes the consensus building"and"Type2 : Precedes the multiorganization activity environment building", and We clarify the two type of consciousness of the participant, "Type1 : Role as functional organization"and"Type2 : Role as equipment".
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effectiveness of Image Types embodied through the developing process of community design tools based on the residents'goal images. The conclusions are; (1)The goal images, collected from 39 individuals, show how their views on community design are shared and interrelated. (2)Image Types obtained by integrating the characteristics of individuals'views can be applied as a design conference tool to embody goal images. (3)When employed with simulation systems at a community design conference, Image Types build a consensus among the residents about their goal images.
Questionnaire survey was conducted to the people who lived in Yashiro and Kannondai districts in Hiroshima city of Japan, which were severely damaged by the heavy rain fall and debris flow disaster at the end of June, 1999. This is a summary report which includes questionnaire results on respondents, their family and residence, damage states of building environment, emergency behavior just after first debris flow, evacuation and its reason, restoration process, disaster information problem, daily life inconvenience, consciousness for disaster prevention and preparedness of individuals, local district community and administration.
The basic urban structure of downtown Surabaya was completed under the colonial rule of Dutch East Indies. Examining available primary sources such as aerial photographs and cadastral maps, this paper investigates how the expansion of the native urban settlement, i.e. kampungs, took place in and around the former walled town of Surabaya during the course of the 20th century. By the end of 1920's the downtown area of the city experienced two major infrastructure developments, namely the construction of the new harbor and restructuring of existing national railways. These improvements and growth of the urban structure, nevertheless, did not directly prompt the expansion of the new kampungs because of the possible control over its irregular growth. However the areal extent of kampongs grew extensively wide within the first two decades after the independence. It is quite significant to point out that in this development, many of the kampongs occupied the territories abandoned by colonial authorities at the time of Indonesian independence, or by the private enterprises of the day when the colonial properties were requisitioned in the following decade.
This report explains a part of a study on the method for calculating construction period, and proposes an approximate equation to calculate the construction period of reinforced concrete distribution facilities having no basement, such as shopping centers and warehouses. This equation, being easy to use and fast to calculate, can be used as a business tool in course of sales engineering. Moreover, this equation can calculate the construction period by inputting only the total floor area of a building. We have confirmed the reliability of this equation by a statistical test. Some equations and softwares needed to calculate construction period are made public and can be accessed on the internet. However, users need special knowledge of the technology of construction to use these equations and softwares. Besides, there is no report of testing the reliability of results of calculating construction period by these equations and softwares.
This paper deals with the preservation of Onoda Bottle Kiln which was built in Taiheiyo Cement Factory in Onoda City. Cementitious rendering which had been spread partly on the furnace of the kiln until January 1999,were removed for repairing deteriorations. As a result, the old brick walls were found under the cementitious rendering. It was different from the other parts in bonding pattern. October 2000,the excavation started around the kiln so that three clay brick masonry foundations connected with the existing kiln and two small foundations in the east and one foundation in the west were found. From these investigation results and textual material, the existing kiln was clarified to have been built in 1883(Meiji 16).
This paper considers the architectural positioning of the restoration of the ancient shrines and temples in the latter half of Meiji era, by following the personnel organization and the origin of the engineers. In this undertaking, architects who belonged to a generation awakened to the Japanese-style of architecture were employed as supervisor, and carpenters who gathered from the whole country in order to participate in the construction works of the large-scale traditional architecture in Kyoto in 20's of Meiji era. From the point of view of their origin, we can place the undertaking not only as the early stage of architectural restoration, but as the watershed between the traditional architecture in 20's of Meiji era and the formation of the modern Japanese style architecture after 30's.
The "HIYOKE" is an architectural feature associated with the tea industry. It appeared in the port of Yokohama, from which Shizuoka tea was exported, before it became popular in Shizuoka prefecture. The "Hiyoke" found in Yokohama is similar to the earliest examples in Shizuoka. Two tea merchants who erected "Hiyoke" in Shizuoka at an early date had close links with Yokohama, and it is therefore probable that the "Hiyoke" of Shizuoka was introduced from Yokohama. The background against which "Hiyoke" became popular in Yokohama was the same as in Shizuoka. It was closely connected with legal regulations about the export of tea.
Lake Chuzenji in Nikko is one of the famous foreigners resort that became prosperous from Meiji Era in Japan. Several cottages are now on existing, but recently Lakeside area is more famous sight seeing spot than foreigners resort. The foreigner cottage area of Chuzenji lakeside is formed around the minister and the diplomats from opportunity, the 21st year of Meiji, and it grows to be a scale that it is called with the foreigner cottage zone in opportunity, the 30th year of Meiji. An embassy cottage was built, too, and a cottage had the character that moved the foreigner of the minister and the diplomats upper classes to the center except for the individual cottage. "Tokyo Angling and Country Club" of the "Marunuma Fishing Club" rest which aimed at the amusement which was characteristic of the foreigner of Fly-Fishing is made in Showa term since Taisho end. It has a role as a place of the interchange of the diplomats and Japanese upper class people. There was a reason that the most part of the cottage owner of Chuzenji lakeside was a foreigner, too, and fell into the decline with war's beginning.
This study aims to clarify architectural works of Chuta Ito (1867-1954) known as the first Japanese architectural historian and critic. This paper treats his works in the end of the Meiji era. As the result below mentioned 3 points become clear. 1) Definite shapes of 2 uncomfirmed works and detailed processes of forming 3 works. 2) After he returned from his travel to Asia and Europe(1902-05), he started to design introducing various Asian styles. 3) It was the method of its designing to arrange a compromise between historical architecture forms and design of details chosen in historical context.
The purpose of this study is to find the canons of the Buddhist monastic architecture in the final phase of the Anuradhapura Period (684〜993 A.D.)in Sri Lanka. This paper analyze the length of the ruler used for architecture. I examined the measurements of stone moldings of the base etc. of 5 pasadas in Anuradhapura, found the greatest common measure was about 8(average 8.18)mm, and resulted the digit was supposed about 33(8.18×4)mm and the cubit about 790 mm(24 digits). This is almost same as the carpenter's cubit of about 790 mm in the Kandyan Period(1592〜1815).
This paper aims to find out the possibilities of the study on the architect and theorist Vincenzo Scamozzi in the 16th century Italy, through various evaluations of his book "L'Idea della Architettura Universale". The public did not pay much attencion to Scamozzi, because he was regarded as a second-class architect. The main reason behind such an opinion was that his book was very difficult to comprehend. In this paper, we deduce the problem of "L'Idea della Architettura Universale" through the background of publication of his book in the Netherlands, England, and various evaluations of his book in the Germany, France and Italy. And we point out the need of the considerations of the theory and thought of the architecture that were not studied systematically heretofore.