In the near future the trend toward apartment houses as their home in the capital of Laos will be the important issue to be concerned in its housing policy. The purpose of this paper is to examine and clarify the present state of apartment houses and the lives there in Vientiane Municipality, with picking up 102 samples from contemporary apartment houses and tenement houses. The conclusions are as following: 1. The average area of the apartment houses (resident number 1, 2, 4, 7), and the average area of kitchens, toilets-bathes and shower rooms, corridors, rooms, and veranda are 81.1m^, 12.5m^2, 5.6m^2, 3.6m^2, 47.0m^2, and 12.4m^2 in order. 2. Most residents of apartment houses have a demand of larger kitchen and dinning room, however, almost half of them satisfy with current sizes of living room, bedroom, bathroom and veranda. 3. The furniture in the hall such as sofa, dining table, and TV, are placed with making a certain space at the center of it. 4. The ratio of the people who sleep vertically to the ridge of a roof in their apartment houses is 45%, and 70% for tenement houses. As the result of this paper we clarified the condition of habitation and lifestyle of Lao people in an apartment houses, that they have brought some of traditional lifestyle to live in the apartment houses, but aren't strictly practice. The result of this paper should be useful data-base to study the habitation planning in Vientinane Municipality in the future.
Iwaishima is located in distant island of Yamaguchi prefecture. The aim of this study is to lead the improvement of the dwelling environment, following the example of Iwaishima village. This study makes the elements of composition clear about the form of several houses in a village. Considering connections among the elements of composition, this study picked up the views of "ground-frame", "subsidiary-frame(the first old way, Stone-wall("NERIHEI"), intermediate area, the unit of multiple-dwelling area)", "alleytype-housing(ROKYO)". Thus it was showed as a tentative plan that the elements of composition at dwelling environment in iwaishima village had alleytype-housing depended on two frames.
Many of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the disease seen at a higher incidence in female population, can walk or go to the rest room without assistance but need assistance for cooking and have various difficulties in cooking. For the patients with RA, apart from kitchen remodeling to enable the patients to reach apparatuses, operate without force, hold apparatuses easily by the change of the shape and cook while sitting on the chair or wheelchair, use of electric appliances and self-assisting apparatuses is also important.
This study. Has been carried out to investigate the spatial order, which forms the basis of dwellings of Lafu Na people in Yunnan, China. In this paper, we understand how the housing aspect of dwellings of Lafu Na people is to evolve by partly surmising. In addition, we will understand the method of recognizing space and the method of behaviors of the people in special occasions as well as in everyday matters and find out the concept of the method of their recognizing space. By so doing, we will explain the order which creates structure of space of dwellings, and pursue how such an order is to change. The spatial order which creates dwellings can be explained by the spatial concept included in their way of behavior and the way of recognizing space. It is possible to find space concepts where dual things are opposed to each other such as higher rank and lower rank, internal part and external part, and being closed and open from the names of the recognized area, recognized vocabulary and. The method of behavior, which represent recognition of the dwelling aspects by the people. In this study,we have continued to search the non-daily, life such as their ritual in marriage and funeral. The spatial order is well observed in non-daily life and has generated the dwelling style which has long been inherited. The constitution of dwellings and its change can be illustrated by people's behaviors in ritual. In conclusion, we consider the dwellings of Lafu Na people has been constructed taking principally non-daily life into consideration.
There are a lot of studies on 'Theatre' and 'School' as well. While, there were few studies on 'The spaces for school dramas' in a school. In addition, there were very few studies not only on the architectural planning for high schools running courses and curriculums for drama but also for drama club activities. Therefore, it is the objects of this study to offer the basic information for the planning, designing and reformation of the facilities for 'Educational spaces for drama' by investigation and research into schools, especially high schools which have the drama club. As the methodology of this research, every 337 national, public and private high schools in 23 districts of Tokyo. And then, based on the results of this inquiry, the schools running the program of extracurricular activities for drama are investigated in detail by interviews. As the results there are many problems, especially the lack of spaces for training and performance, and storages of drama equipments.
The purpose of this paper is to obtain the essential factors for space arrangement of Day-Service centers, by grasping the relation between the Day-Service center and communities, investigating the function of the center in the user's lives and clarifying the effective use of the centers' spaces through the usual programs. Main important factors are as follows: 1) Security of the basic function (health management / information exchange / life foundation) in the core space, 2) Introduction of "Space Choice" or "Space Division" to improve the upper function (role/social participation) and 3) Space management supporting for the elderly activities.
Stations in Japanese metropolis are compounded with the commercial function. Station sign planning and indoor advertisement are intermingled in the public space. The present stations offset the communication effect by self-assertion such as a railroad company's advertisement, a business advertisement, a store signboard, a souvenir shop stand signboard, a clock, etc.. It is important that transfers acquire the information on the destination efficiently in a station yard. This study makes JR Tokyo Station a case study, and attempts an actual situation survey of a sign planning and an indoor advertisement as a fundamental study. Consideration for their coexistence is performed.
The aim of this paper is firstly to gather requirements of electric wheelchair users, secondly to clarify the problems of barrier-free environment for them. As a result of a questionnaire, interview, behavioral observation, and measurement of size, the following have been clarified. 1) Electric wheelchairs should be more widely used to heighten the users' Quality of Life. 2) They avoid various problems in activities and participation by getting personal assistants. 3) Therefore, the built environment of community facilities for them should be improved. 4) The size of electric wheelchair users does not fit barrier-free design guidelines for manually propelled wheelchairs.
The purpose of this study is to discuss about planning aspects based on the relation between the box occupied condition and the box choice behavior on coin-operated lockers. 28 coin-operated lockers around subway stations were surveyed to make clear the box occupied condition. 72 persons were asked to make clear user preference factors in the box choice behavior. Findings are as follows. 1) The peak of occupied frequency level does not become higher than 40-60% in any cases depending on user preference factors. 2) User preference factors, which become into four groups of physical, custom, security and cognitive factors, have different types of preference point map on a box layout.
Sitting behavior is changed diversely depending on the setting of bench even if its feature is almost same with others. We observed people with paying attention to sitting behavior each five-minutes interval in the morning (10-11 am), in the afternoon (1-2 pm), and in the evening (4-5 pm) on a weekday and a holiday. We analyzed the relation of sitting direction and behavior. The results of this observation are as follows: 1) The characteristics of sitting behavior have diversities with the user attributes (age-group, gender), term, and physical features. 2) People can utilize the space diversely according to the physical situation (park entrance, plaza). 3) In the case of the benches setting on between the pond and the sidewalk, the sitting directions effect an alternation of the place mood.
This research examines the geographical locations of temples in the city of Tainan, Taiwan. The research concerns temples as urban public spaces, and how the temples promote gathering activity in urban areas. Through field research, we reviewed the geographical distribution of 307 temples and categorize 80 of the temples in Tainan City's Central and East Wards. We classified the temples according to how they were used by visitors. We also explained the historical development of the temples and described the facilities available for extended stays. We interviewed all visitors to 35 temples, excluding children under twelve years old. The interviews concerned the profiles of the visitors, their aims in visiting the temples, the areas of the temples most often used, the visitors addresses, whether visitors were contributors to the temples or not, and the time spent in the temples. The findings were as follows: 1)People often gather at the Taoist temples because they have an atmosphere of security. 2)The larger the temple site, the more people visited the temple. While there, they engaged in various activities and exchanged information. We plan to examine the support systems and temple management in order to clarify how so many people can gather at the temples in a secure atmosphere.
This paper intends to clarify block formation and house types of Fort Cochin, India, while highlighting their transformation process. The research project on which this paper is based was launched under the title 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities', the major targets of which are Dutch colonial cities. To compare colonial cities all over the world, in terms of spatial formation and transformation, is the ambitious objective of this project. In Cochin, Dutch developed the form of town houses, for high-density living. The purpose of this project is to elucidate the Dutch way of construction of houses in their colonial cities. Dutch occupied many strongholds, which once belonged to Portuguese at early colonial period. They remodeled them and established new forts and cities. Fort Cochin is a good example of these reconstructions. This paper clarifies the spatial organization of Fort Cochin, by analyzing distribution pattern of its facilities, based on field surveys. Consequently, this paper focuses on residential typology of Fort Cochin identified according to their physical features and planning parameters. Finally, the transformation of these residential types processes are highlighted.
In this paper, a potentiality of home nursing service supply for elderly, is examined from a point of private company business management in the local district. The result is as follows: 1. From a point. Of business management, numbers of nursing the service user and their spacial distribution have large influence on the profit balance of a service supplier. 2. In Miyagi prefecture, there are some cities and villages in which home nursing service can't be supplied by private company because, of their profit balance. 3. The enlargement of service supply area and concentration of user have some effect, to improve business condition of home nursing service supply.
This study aims to clarify actual conditions of population changes and inheritance of dwelling in the scale of districts from a case study of urbanization control areas of Nagano City. Depopulation districts (DPDs) and population increase districts (PIDs) are located one.another closely. So there are little differences in the geographical conditions. A common point between depopulation and population increase districts is the decrease of family in old villages and a different point is inflow of new residents. Population of old villages in DPDs decreases better than in PIDs and undecided ratio of dwelling inheritance in DPDs is higher than in PIDs. Development guidance has to be considered from the viewpoint of relation between new developments and district population or inheritance tendency of dwelling. And it also needs to be considered in smaller and detailed areas of every district.
Numbers of mid-to-high rise condominiums have been constructed in latter half of the 1990th in the central districts of Kyoto City where many two-storied traditional houses still exist around them. This paper studies on the community development between the residents of the condominiums and those of existent houses around them, and find out the factors that interrupt two residents groups to communicate is the building figure of high and large condominiums that damage the living environment of houses around them.
Collecting rainwater in a river basin and slow flowing out can prevent urban river flood and create a pleasant walkway along a stream. We surveyed the location and area of waterway trails, river maintenance passages, and adjoining public and private open lands for rainwater in the Shirako River Basin. And we did a test calculation of flood control effect by outflow control of rainwater and measured collecting amount of rainwater and section sizes of the waterways. We also examined that the waterway can be a daily walkway along a rainwater stream. In heavy rain, the waterway is made such as to become a wider and deeper stream which controls river flood. In addition we examined that the present river which was constructed for a 30mm/h rain fall has enough section size for 50mm/h rain fall because of the controling devices for outflow rainwater at the adjoining open lands, waterway trails and river maintenance passages.
A new image recalling method of "the card presented image recalling method" was proposed. To study a definite case of sightseeing, some free composed tourist's walking route were abstracted with this method. As results, (1)many route were circular, (2)the average time of route was 7 hours 27 minutes, (3)the most number of the destination was the art museum, next were the shrine and temple, cultural assets and the church, (4)the road lined with trees was most preferred, (5)the position of the destination was about 45% of the whole route. The character of distributions of elements on route and consequences of elements were grasped.
A monument installed in a station square introduces its message related to be installed place because of the location. Therefore, it is considered that the expression structure consists of both the expression content is the message and the expression mode realizes the expression content. This basic study clarifies the expression structure and its tendencies of monuments in Shinkansen station squares by typifying their expression constituent elements and the relation between typified items. The following results were obtained about the expression structure and its tendency. The expression content is expressed by the motif. A motif is expressed with the form, the material and etc. The expression structure is constituted by the relation between classification items can be collected. There are combination patterns about the appearance of classification items. When two or more classification items appear, the tendency of the relation between classification items becomes complicated.
The paper aims to develop the methodology to evaluate energy consumption in the production process of detached houses. Contents are as follows: (1) Proposing the framework of the methodology application to evaluate the characteristic of different degree of industrialization of construction processes, and define the system boundary of the evaluation method. (2) Devising the method of evaluating each item quantitatively, considering both the theoretical consistency and attainability of parameters. (3) Trial calculation based on this method of evaluation: applying the method of evaluation above proposed (1), (2), after setting up the model houses that have the similar layout. And, demonstrate quantitative trial calculation of energy consumption in the production process of detached houses.
A Study on Construction areas of the Gangi Arcaah in the castle town. In the area called Gangi Dori, Komaya Dori and Kariya Dori, it was built in the town developed on the basis oh the post town function of castle towns. Furthermore, in the area called komise Dori, it was built in the town centering on the commerce of castle towns.
The purpose of this paper is rectorate Kotensyu in Yonago castle about original style. It was explained Kotensyu in late Edo period by previous paper, but it is altered style after repair in some times. So explain about some altered parts, and restorate original style of Kotensyu in about 1596.
In order to modernize its judicial system, the new Meiji government organized an inspection tour of courthouse and prison overseas from 1871 to 1873. The content of the inspection and its impact was considered as follows. 1.After the inspection tour to British Hong Kong and Singapore in 1871, the Prison Law("Kangokusoku narabini Zushilti") was distributed, nd the first cross-shaped plan for prison was drafted. It was completely different from the prison houses in the Edo Period. 2.The inspection mission eagerly looked into the courtroom (jury trial system). By 1872, unlike the trial system called "Shirasu" popular in the Edo Period, the court system came to temporarily take the style of jury trial influenced by the western thought, but not for long.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the use of lime in joint mortar of masonry buildings in the Meiji era. Main results of this study are as follows. 1. Lime mortar was used in joint before Nobi earthquake, and cement was added in the important parts. Later, cement mortar that was added lime became general, and cement mortar was used in the important parts. 2. There were two kinds of slaked lime, one was powdery and another was pasty. 3. It is difficult to presume the mixing proportion of joint mortar if it was not specified whether lime was slaked.
The main point of this paper is as follows:- 1.The background of establishment of some factories which refined sugar at AMAMI-OSHIMA island in 1865 was analyzed by a historical evidence, 'KEIOUNENKAN OSHIMA GUN NI OKERU HAKUTOU NO SEIZO', and the other collateral evidences. 2.Several British engineers and British firms helped construction of these factories. 3.Mr. T. J. Waters, who contributed for these factories, seems concerned with Glover & Co. 4.The description and the plate of 'SUGAR-a handbook for planters and refiners', published in 1888, suggested a plan and structure of one building of these factories. 5.These factories would have been built to bring a British merchant profit, instead of merely bringing a profit to the Satsuma.
This paper examines the medical services provided by the Tokyo Prefectural Government and the Tokyo Municipal Government before World War II. While the governments had operated infectious disease hospitals continuously from the beginning of the Meiji Period, the Municipal Government rapidly expanded its operations of the medical facilities targeted at the middle and lower classes in the 1920's. While the expansion was the reflection of the government's new policy to provide medical services to a wider population, the analysis of the planning process revealed that the plans to provide such facilities were formed in consideration of the private-sectors doctors' interests and the sentiments of the community residents.
This paper refers to the structural system of traditional, farmers' dwellings in the central and southern parts of Viet Nam from a historical point of view, being based on the surveys since 1998 in the five provinces; Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Dong Nai and Tien Giang. At first, the authors discuss the original meanings of terms for structural composition and its members, and then, the architectural features of the connecting details in the part under the ridge by comparison between the center pillar type and the two pillars type. We conclude that both constructional types might derive from indigenous ways maintained from the time before Vietnamese's conquest. A center pillar has remained mainly in the southern part, and a.king post has enhanced symbolic meaning in the central part of Viet Nam.
H. Repton proposed the style of Indian Architecture as the style of the most proper architecture for a palace of the Royal family, in Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton (1809). He developed some theories of his own, in order to prevent some objection against this style. He compared the characters of Grecian Architecture with those of Gothic Architecture, and picked up Indian Architecture as the third architecture. He thought, if it was adopted the style of Indian Architecture, it could be protected the general characters and the principles of construction which each architecture had. He considered Grecian, Gothic and Indian Architecture had their respective peculiarity on the principles of construction and the ornaments taking architectural effect, the origin of Indian Architecture was different from that of two other architectures, and Indian Architecture was the oldest architecture in the world. In his opinion about Grecian, Gothic and Indian Architecture, there was the near idea of the theory of architectural origin.
Messene, an ancient city in Peloponnesos, Greece, was founded by Epaminondas, the Theban hero, in 369 BC. The Sanctuary of Asklepios (or the Asklepieion) was the main sanctuary of the town and located in the center beside the Agora. The sanctuary was excavated by A. K. Orlandos during the years from 1950s to 1970s. However, he passed away after that, leaving the research uncompleted. The authors reinvestigated the remaining peristylar stoas of the sanctuary, and tried to reconstruct the Corinthian order of the outer and inner colonnades together with the roof structure. The investigation of the traces of the wooden structure revealed us that the roof was built sloped all the way toward the court being supported by sloped beams. However, the outer halves of the interior of the stoas had ceilings which sloped toward the back walls, forming the interior as if the roofs were built sloped toward both sides.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the theories of body culture for Le Corbusier and Pierre Winter, his collaborator, and the relation between them and their architectural theories. This paper deals with Winter's theory in the period of "l'Esprit Nouveau". Body culture was a way to be healthy in modern interpretation. "L'Esprit Nouveau" stuck to records and machine in the sports column. But Winter who wrote papers for this journal, argued it in relation to health. His body culture leads human body to 'le corps nouveau', his new concept. Furthermore it decides life schedule and structure of city.
This paper is an attempt to analyze three works of Aldo van Eyck (1918-99), that was designed when he was a member of Team X, from the viewpoint of repeated 'Spatial Units'. The results of the analysis as follows : 1) There are two types of 'Spatial Units' and 'Inter-Spatial Units' between each of them. 2) The outline of 'spatial unit' causes the relationship of 'figure- ground', that is the development of 'Poche' in the architectural principle of Beaux-Arts and also the universal space in 'Stempel Model'.
"The Emergency" was proclaimed in Malaya in 1948, following the outbreak of an armed Communist revolt. The British government implemented the squatter resettlement scheme, so called the Briggs Plan, as a result of which 763,600 rural people were corralled into 582 new settlements, the Chinese New Villages. The argument concludes by saying that the strategy provides the settlements profitable location, modern public infrastructures and social amenities, and consequently accelerates the development of the settlements and the growth of Malaysian Chinese organizations. They have permanently altered the settlement pattern of Malaysia, as 40 percent of the local authorities today are used to be the Chinese New Villages.
This thesis consists of three parts; general view on the removal of barracks sprung up after the Great Kanto Earthquake, studies on the fireproof buildings constructed after the removal and consideration on the reasons the removal and the construction stagnated. This concludes as follows; 1.) Half of those barracks were removed and the rest remained for the permission and moratorium. 2.) 20% of fireproof zone became fireproof and around 60-70% were realized both obligatory and self-determining. 3.) Not only the 3rd article of the Land-Rent Law but also set-back regulation and weakness of the real-estate demand caused the stagnation.