This paper clarifies urban formation and distribution of house types in the city of Quanzhou in Fujian. Quanzhou which is known as Ci Tong, had developed as a port city since the period of Tang Dynasty. Authors selected the old castle district of the central part of Quanzhou called as Li-cheng Areas for an intensive field study and discussed the spatial formation and typology of house. There exist three types of traditional houses which are da-cuo, shou-jin-liao, qilou, in quanzhou .Da-cuo is the form of quadrangle, si-he-yuan and Qilou is the form of shophouse with arcade. Da cuo mainly are located on the periphery of the inner cities. Shou-jin-liao are distributed on the south of the cities. Qilou which is a relatively new style of shophouse, are distributed along the street of Zhongshan south road. This paper clarifies the characteristics of distribution of house types and the urban formation process of Quanzhou city.
The aim of this research is to make it clear how the custom of retirement from the headship of family has been succeeded and changed in Iki island. The summary of this research is as follows; It is thought that the custom of retirement from the headship of family in Iki island has been succeeded, from the separate living type has been shown in over 60 percent of the examined two-generation families. However this custom has shown the aspect of the diversification, because the custom of economic independence and separated eating style has been collapsing in some districts. According these changing, the aspect of the act area in the residential site also has been diversified and can be classified into three groups, the type of mutual independence, the type of mutual help and the type of communal life.
The purpose of this research is obtaining the data for drawing a valid hypothesis about the life pattern of the elderly in connection with the basic requirements for the Adaptable Housing. The questionnaire which used the Delphi method was carried out twice to the experts who specialize in elderly people's home life. As a result, it was appropriate to assume the one-person household as one of the life pattern of the elderly. About the ambulation model, it was converged on "with wheelchair attended by carer" for moving outside, but not converged on one model for going to toilet at night.
The study aims at finding out potential capacity for admitting casualties suffering from devastating disasters occurred in the vicinity of hospitals within a limited time frame during ordinary day to day hospital services. Three stages of analysis on admitting casualties were carried out. As the results, quite significant implications were obtained, inter alia, number of CTs / X-rays as well as the treatment space are found to be critical factors in order to complete the treatment of casualties in limited period of time.
Accumulated memories of scenes at school might contribute to forming one's view of schools and attitude and attachment to learning. Based on this hypothesis, this paper aims to clarify the elements constituting memories of school buildings and scenes at school recalled by adults when thinking back to their school days. The classification and analysis of evaluation structures of scenes in memory and of contents of accumulated memories described by adults resulted as follows: 1) "Playing" scenes are the majority of memorable scenes. It shows that the “playing” plays a very important role in school life. Scenes relating to “leaning,” the main purpose of school, account for approximately 10 percent of all the memorable scenes. In addition, scenes relating to other school lives such as lunch time scenes account for few numbers. 2) The evaluation structure of “playing” scenes is involved in that of "learning" scenes. 3) In “learning” scenes, there are fewer memories of the elements of place and action with others than in “playing” scenes.
In this research, we aim to catch the impression of the facility users about the design of seismic retrofit braces and the hazard-recognizes from the buildings by reenacting damaged buildings through a cyclic force laterally at the Ropponmatsu campus in Kyushu University. In conclusion, we clarify the following points. 1) We have to consider the visibility for the outdoor and lighting for the indoor when we set the seismic retrofit braces on the rooms. 2) We have to proper the size or shape of the braces to ease the pressure for users. 3) It can be able to improve some of these problems to adjust their colors. 4) Cracks of the building make strong influence for anxiety of the building users. 5) And it shows the strong tendency when the important structural parts such as walls, pillars, and beams take the damage. 6) Also the secondary damage makes strong influence for anxiety of the building users however the damage it takes. 7) When we supposed to be an owner of the building, it may judge to be destroyed or repaired the building when the important structural part take damage. 8) And it may judge to be repaired when the part expected to the secondary damage take even a few damage.
This study compared workers' space use and verbal communication patterns in a big open plan workplace (WOP) to those in the same workplace with partition walls (WP) that separate the specialized spans, and clarified workers' space use and verbal communication in terms of post and specialty. It is found that in both workplaces, workers spent over 55% of time staying nearby individual workstations, where around 50% verbal communication took place. Without the partition walls, the workers tended to stay 3.5% and to communicate 5.1% longer at the “Other Specialty”. Finally, suggestions on improving current layouts are proposed.
In this study, pictures of components of imagined scenery, which were imagined from the words of 20 haiku, were drawn. To clarify psychological influences, psychological experiments basing on SD method, were performed. Both of the results were quantified to numerical value and quantification analysis was performed. As the results:1) Base on the factor analysis, 8 factor axes that have influences on the structure of psychological evaluation were extracted.2) Base on grid analysis, the results such as when considering a landscape, direction of the sun, in particular the south was being considered, were obtained. 3) Base on correlation analysis, the results such as the dusk, the sun...were effective elements which direct various scenery, were obtained. 4) Base on multiple correlation analysis, the results such as when an element of the background such as mountain was put into scenery, it would contribute to broadening the landscape, were obtained. Above various structures of imagined scenery, which were imagined from the words of haiku, were captured and the fundamental documents of scenery and landscape were objectively showed.
This study sought to clarify the reference domains of demonstrative pronouns in young children. Japanese uses three different demonstrative pronouns: KORE, SORE, and ARE. Subjects (aged 3 to 6) were presented with a referent and were then asked to use KORE, SORE, or ARE. Results showed: 1) Young children distinguish between KORE and ARE. 2) The area covered by KORE depended on whether the subject was sitting or standing. When standing, KORE covers an area in front and diagonally to the right; whereas when sitting, it covers an area in front and laterally to the right. 3) The KORE area shape was the same for males and females.
This study aims to consider effectsofcollaborative village supporting activities, and to clarify change of voluntary activities and consciousness change of inhabitants. So this study investigated the activities at Tanose village in Minamiaizu town, Fukushima prefecture.The conclusions are: 1) The supporting activities grew inhabitants voluntary activities. Especially many voluntary activities were grown on “Farmers' Market”. 2) The Inhabitants voluntary activities were increased by the supporting activities. 3) Most inhabitants improved their consciousness and became to be positive for the activities. 4) Effects of the supporting activities are improving their consciousness,increasing inhabitant actions and growing voluntary activities.
This study clarifies the characteristics of alley units and owner improvements of row houses with road contact failure in the Osaka Karahori area. The following are major findings. 1) The alley units which have small shrine or Jizo, ups and down, and blind alley, have tendency there are many individual regional resources. And small shrine and Jizo is important resource to continue the community within the alley unit. 2) Owners of row houses with road contact failure realize the living improvement by five classified methods on the basis such as individual spatial terms and living demands.
This study focuses on a facility management and community activities executed in Local Liaison Exchange Center (LLEC), which is a part of Prefectural Special Needs School (PSNS) in Harima Town. These community activities are based on collaborations between PSNS, Machizukuri organization and local communities. Thus this study aims to investigate effects by the facility management and community activities. Viewpoints of analysis are follows; 1) Making process of collaboration between PSNS and Machizukuri organization, 2) Mutual recognitions and expectations between PSNS and local community, 3) Clarifying of the utilization of the LLEC, 4) Effects that community activities executed at LLEC give to relations between PSNS and local community.
Burn-down risk of seven architectural monuments in Kyoto-Higashiyama area due to post-earthquake fire spread was analyzed. The analysis was conducted by the Monte Carlo simulation using a physics-based urban fire spread model formerly developed by the authors. Factors of uncertainty considered in the present analysis were the conditions on: (1) outbreak of fire; (2) firefighting activity at initial stage of fire; (3) structural damage of individual buildings due to seismic motion; and (4) change of weather in time series. The result shows that burn-down risks of Rokuharamitsuji, Hokanji and Kenninji are rather close to the mean value of all the houses in the target urban area. The result indicates that no fire-stops are maintained between these architectural monuments and densely-built wooden houses in their surroundings. Thus, integrated approach involving entire urban area is required on implementing fire safety measure in order to effectively reduce the burn-down risk of the architectural monuments.
This is a study on the measures taken by French authorities to improve railway station architecture and its surroundings' urban design. Mainly forced by EU directives for opening railway market and development of ecological transport modes, the center government, following propositions of a Senator, puts in place policies and organizations and local governments make the most of urban planning measures. Based on the principles of visibility and urban continuity, a specialized think tank (AREP), subsidiary of the French National Railway Corporation (SNCF), also contributes for that and some manuals have been elaborated to generalize their integrated realization.
Since the Landscape Law was implemented in Japan in 2005, it has been noted that the law is not enough to control wide-area landscape over several administrative districts. This study aims to research and examine cases of local governments trying to solve the problem, and to make clear the inadequate role of the law concerning a wide-area landscape control. By analyzing the relations between local governments as multiple actors, I point out four agendas. One is sharing consistent idea. It is especially important the landscape lies astride prefectures. Another is the system for delegating limited area of administrative district. It is necessary to adjust policies between prefecture and municipality. Another is how to reach consensus with various participants. It is necessary to take steps to create agreement for existing measure from individual regions. The other is the collision of wide-area issue and local issue. It is important to review the law for back up various measures.
In this study, it pays attention to the undertaking of healthy support center in Korea, and through this case study, we analyzed the possibility of the regional revitalization program that university supports and the role of the university at that time. The analysis result is in the following three points. 1. The university does self-management of the healthy family support center, and it have developed and improved the program that adapts for regional needs. This is reason why deepening of meaning and the width of the activity in the region. 2. By the university receives the consignment of center project, regional revitalization program can be developed by using various resources that have university. 3. The center has the possibility of becoming a management organization of regional society, if the center project is consigned to the university.
Considering serious losses of postwar modernism architecture in Japan, this study aims to clarify a social value fostered by civic action. Noteworthy example were found in Hirosaki City , Aomori Prefecture. 8 buildings planned by well known architect called Kunio Maekawa, which are communal facilities located in middle of the city, were conserved in particular way by citizens. By the research, it revealed that these group of buildings were playing an important role by being a group of life-stages of the citizens. This means that these buildings contains cumulative life-histories of people, which helps people to look back history of themselves and the city. Also by using this networks of accumulative life-histories, the value of these buildings were developing in a sustainable way.
This study aims at “Ro” architecture in Nara period. The research method used in this article is detailed study on both historical documents and existing buildings. There is a commonly-held view that people cannot go upstairs in pre-Kinkaku period. But some historical documents show that people went upstairs in Nara period. This research has five conclusions. 1. It is defined that “Ro” architecture was (N-1) storied architecture with N-layers. 2. The important function of “Ro” architecture was to be seen in Nara period. 3. There were no floor on the first floor, that is to say, the first floor of “Ro” architecture was dirt floor. 4. The importance of “Ro” architecture was to go upstairs in Nara period. 5. “Ro” architecture built after Heian period lost its function to go upstairs.
In the Kansei era, restoration styles were adopted for the ceremonial facilities in the Imperial Palace. The designing of the roof for Shishin-den, which is one of these facilities, started on October 19, 1788 (Tenmei 8) and was accepted on April 1, 1789 (Kansei 1). First, Okajima Kozuke, the chief carpenter of Nakai-Yakusyo, drafted a plan, and the Imperial court nobles made comments on this draft. Finally, after the retirement of Okajima Kozuke, Kigo Harima who was a carpenter at the Imperial Palace revised the draft.
The subjects of this study are major Okura-syo managed by Nagaoka Domain's substructures, kumi which have played their roles as the symbols of Domain's control over the area. The role was reflected to the spatial structures of Okura-syo, with elements like specified domain's facilities, fire and crime controls. Then the spatial structures of each Okura-syo were adjusted to their surrounding environments.
As for this thesis, Kyoto at the latter term of Edo period and the townscape in Edo examined a different reason in relation to the city fire prevention policy. The policy of improving the city fire prevention ability in Kyoto was executed after conflagration in 1708. However, the Tokugawa Shogunate has already come to think about the improvement of the fire prevention ability of Kyoto enough in around 1710. Though the building type which had a high fire prevention ability in 1721 was compelled in Edo, and not compelled in Kyoto. Therefore, the conclusion is assumed that the townscape in Kyoto and Edo was different because of the difference of the city fire prevention policy. The main discourse examines the townscape in Kyoto of Edo period and the relation to the urban policy. It is thought that the epoch making converted to an urban policy different in Edo and Kyoto is a fire fighting of Kyoto according to the reformation in Kyoho-era by Tokugawa shogunate, and it became an immediate factor that the townscape in Edo and Kyoto becomes the different one.
The design principle used to dimension eaves in the Middle Ages was fundamentally different from that used in the HIKIKOMI-TARUKI method prevalent in the early modern ages. In this study, restorations of the eaves of buildings in the Middle Ages were carried out to verify a hypothesis that the eave-dimensioning method used then was not based on the depth of the eaves, but on determining the positions of tomesaki (joints) of kioi and kayaoi members on a hip rafter in relation to its center line. This method will be referred to as the TOMESAKI method based on this result.
This paper focuses on “resort development” for foreign tourist in Modern Korea. The beginning was missionary's resorts by themselves and some western people in East Asia had also passed the summer such resorts. It was the important roles for the popularization of resort to connect directly them with the middle class by railway. Railway Bureau Government of Chosen which had managed foreign tourist and Kongo-san Railway Co., Ltd. had planned and developed facilities for foreigner at Kongosan during 1910s and 1920s. The opening of new railway for Kongosan had led populization to the public.
Unit Furniture (early 1960's onward) together with Pre-form Furniture (mid 60's onward) and Easy-order Table (early 80's onward) was called Semi-made-to-order Furniture, and it aimed at total interior coordination. Among the Semi-made-to-order Furniture, there are common factors to decide design of wooden furniture. They are forms, surface materials, colors, fabrics, and fittings. Standardized Furniture proceeded to Ready-made Furniture and then to the Semi-made-to-order Furniture in order to meet various demands from consumers. Architectural Ergonomics laid a basis to think furniture more systematically. As prefabricated houses spread over postwar Japan, an idea of considering furniture, one of interior elements, as a part of the prefabricated houses became popular. Rise of demand for total interior coordination and appearing of interior coordinators matured the Semi-made-to-order Furniture. However, Japanese wooden furniture manufacturer's Semi-made-to-order Furniture was relatively short life. One of the reasons was a management issue about appropriateness between item numbers and manufacturing / retailing cost. Another was caused by peculiarity of Japanese prefabricated house manufacturing system, which is‘Closed System including Open System.’
The purpose of this study is to reveal the course and the ideal of the national contest of the economic furnishings and the decorative arts for the public housing organized by the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (O.N.D.) in 1928-29. In this study the main stress falls on the controls of the O.N.D. over the result of the contest and its taste targeted by the O.N.D.. The O.N.D. programmed their intervention in its process to obtain the modern furnishings and decorative arts that had“italianity”. The ideal taste for the furnishings of O.N.D. was in the balance between“sympathy”and“simplicity”.
From the perspective to analyze on the 1920's Swiss modern movement, this paper aims to clarify the significance of the controversy began with Mart Stam's article on Dutch architecture, published in 1923. Stam introduced development of Dutch architecture oriented by H. P. Berlage, and considered on urbanism. Two Swiss architects, however, refuted Stam's assertion. In chapter 2, through tracing the process of the controversy, it was found out that the controversy consisted of four issues, ‘rational’, ‘spiritual’, ‘urbanism’ and ‘lively’. In chapter 3, through structuring each issue, it was considered that how Stam's issues was discussed by Swiss architects.
As soon as foreign merchants and entrepreneurs settled down at China's foreign settlements in 1840's, professional engineers and architects also moved there to take part in various development projects. Among the foreign settlements, Shanghai had the largest number of professional engineers and architects, who successfully established the Shanghai Society of Engineers and Architects in 1901 to contribute to the development of modern engineering in China. The first president was James Gabriel Morrison (1840-1905), followed by A.P. Wood, T. Bunt and so on. Although the members' background varied in engineering field and nationality, the number of members increased solidly to 100 in 1905 from 83 in 1901. The Society had to change its name to“The Engineering Society of Shanghai”in 1912 as architect members left the Society to form their own association. The Society published the annual proceedings to circulate the president's address, research papers on the China's modern development, members' latest projects, the reports of executive board, By-Laws and Regulations, and members' list. Therefore, the proceedings were essential source to identify the whole activities of the Society and its contribution in China's modern development. This articles attempts to argue about the role of the society through reading the contents of the proceeding.
This study conducted research on the Buddhist temples area in Yanaka district in Taito, the graveyard area, by using old maps and data. The temple and graveyard area of Edo, Meiji, Showa periods and the present are piled on the map, and the overlapping situations were analysed. As a result of the analysis, the following findings and consideration were obtained. 1. According to the Gofunai-Gisya-Bikou, six precincts of temples were the leasehold from Kanei-ji, nine were from Gyokurin-ji and four were from Kanou-ji. 2. Only one of the all 72 temples was abolished after the anti-Buddhist movement in the Meiji era. 3. Almost all of the temple territories that were confiscated by the Land Requisition Orders were secured for graveyard. 4. Almost all Government lands in temples in the Meiji and Taisho eras were used as graveyards after the gratuitous conveyance in the Showa era.