Since 1980, commercial housing is implemented, housing industrialization and commercialization has become a trend which cannot be avoided in the current housing construction of China. The condominium housing in China was become special exchange of goods with money between developer and residents. In order to obtain higher profit, developers provided consumers with a variety of styles of apartment, and improve the housing price at the same time. As usual, developers has long controlled of the Chinese housing market. In addition to selecting the unit provided by the developers, the occupants have no other way to choose the style of housing they want, which is reflect the current status of Chinese housing market. Under such circumstances, the first cooperative housing case in China “Lixiangjiayuan” was completed in 2013, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province. The main purpose of “Lixiangjiayuan” is to avoid the housing market monopoly from developers and to achieve low cost for housing purchase. The nearest cooperative housing case “Guanshanyanyue” was completed in 2014, Changsha, Hunan Province. With the project participation of residents as the main purpose, residents in “Guanshanyanyue” can join in the project from planning and to achieve the purpose of self-financing. However, these two cases are also a lot of problems. In case of “Lixiangjiayuan”, although obtained land from the government by way of tendering, in the end, a large proportion of the inhabitants resell the houses in order to obtain a margin of profit. In case of “Guanshanyanyue”, although residents can design houses according to their own preferences, but because of the lack of detailed investment contract, there is a great financial risk of the project. Based on the monopoly of Chinese condominium housing and the implementation of cooperative housing in China. It is necessary to explore what kind of methods should be adopted in the future residential project in China. The purpose of this study is that: Make a comparison on housing choice, project planning and management between Chinese cooperative housing and Chinese general condominium housing, and revealing the characteristics of each, and to explore the possibility of the spread of cooperative housing in China. The orientation of this study: There have been a lot of references about Chinese housing industrialization, condominium housing project, and housing construction process in China. And the case of cooperative housing “Guanshanyanyue” has been cleared. As a continuation of “Guanshanyanyue”, the condominium housing in Changsha as the survey object, but also with “Lixiangjiayuan”, to make a comparative study on planning, raising, housing choice, housing design, management and others. This preliminary analysis has revealed that: (1).There are still many different options for occupants in condominium housing; For the purpose of low cost, “Lixiangjiayuan” has few options in housing choice; Although “Guanshanyanyue” is the best free on design, but have to spend a lot of time on the agreement. Therefore, it is provide a new possibility for Chinese housing industry. (2).For the general commercial housing, there are many different options for dealing with the diversification of tenants. For cooperative housing, it should also take into account the diverse needs of households. (3).The aspect of rule about contract: “Lixiangjiayuan” was completed, but however a lot of residents are only purpose for investing. “Guanshanyanyue” also has a situation where the residents withdraws his business halfway. Therefore it is important to make a rule for ensure the stability of housing project and risk reduction.
In China's cities, aging is developing rapidly. In urban dwellings, there is large number of unit-type apartments buildings. While residents living in apartment buildings are also aging in rapid pace. The improvement of their living environment has become an important issue. The apartment buildings were massively constructed in 1980s to 1990s. Due to lower residential performance, plenty of residents choose to reform the apartments. The households themselves were responsible for indoor remodeling. On the other hand, in China, not only the number but also the service of welfare facilities for elderly are far from satisfying the actual needs. The problem of elderly support at home has become the core problem of elderly support. Among these, how to solve the problem of elderly support at home for those elderly living alone is more urgent. This paper, based on the investigation of the CS apartment dwellings complex, we find out the following facts on the actual living status of the elderly living in unit-type apartments buildings. 1) 30% of the elderly renovated the walls of the apartments, most of them modified the water space. And the elderly who reform the apartments prefer to live in the apartments in the future. 2) According to the different methods of modification, we divided it into five categories. Among them, most renovated part in type I housing is integrating of water space and living room. This method of renovation allows the household to preserve the living room wall , improve the lighting situation and expand the usable area. In addition, the reform method has positive influences on increasing of communication space with their children and the maintenance of interest space. 3) By observing the relationship between the elderly living styles and the renovation methods of the house, we find out that according to the communication situation with their children, the elderly have different living styles and renovation methods. This paper will divide the elderly into three types, dependent type, independent type and intermediate type. In daily life, the dependent type of the elderly have most close relationship with their children because of stronger uneasy feelings. Their living styles and renovation methods are as much as possible to consider the comfort of their children's living. However, the independent type elderly are more self centered and tend to consider more on their own habits and hobbies during the renovation.
Based on the facts above, we have reached the following conclusion on how to improve the living environment of the elderly living in unit-type apartments. Due to the unit-type apartments have narrow living area, it is an effective way to improve the convenience and comfort of living by integrating the water space during reformation. In addition, it is also the responsibility of the residents' committee and the property company to make correct suggestions for the reformation to the elderly residents. We also believe that the dependent type elderly pay too much attention to their children's living space. So that the elderly sacrifice some of their comfort of living. Therefore, we should provide suggestions to ensure the separation of the living space for the elderly and their children. For the independent type elderly, we should focus on how to link their interests to their reformation of apartments and try to enhance communication with their neighbors. In the future, in order to support the elderly living in their own homes, we should not only pay attention to the indoor living styles of the elderly, but also to build the facilities that the elderly enjoy in outdoor space.
1. Purpose of research The purpose of this study is to understand the behavior of the elderly in the small local city in which a daily living area is to be established, and to also study the appropriateness of establishing this area.
2. Research method The research target is the entire official senior care service area (five districts) in Suzu City, Ishikawa Prefecture, which has four junior high school districts. To understand the actual conditions of the elderly's living areas, elderly subjects selected from the five districts were surveyed by interview concerning their attributes, home address, and destinations when going out. Specifically, a total of about 15 support or care-required elderly subjects who use day services and 15 healthy elderly subjects who participate in elderly club activities were selected from each district. They were interviewed about the location of their home and destinations when going out (supermarkets, local clinics, hospitals, beauty salons, banks, restaurants, day care centers and senior social clubs etc. Data were gathered from 87 elderly subjects who require care or support and 142 healthy elderly subjects, for a total of 229 subjects.
3. Results and Discussion Overall, it was observed that the elderly's living areas have a “unipolar propensity.” That is, the elderly's destinations tended to be clustered in the uchiura (inner harbor) region. Therefore the way the living areas are spread out in the uchiura (inner harbor) districts and sotoura (outer harbor) districts differs greatly. In short, in the uchiura districts, the distance to each facility is relatively short, so the living areas of the elderly are relatively small. On the other hand, the distance to each facility in the sotoura districts is relatively long, so episodes of walking to go to destinations are few, and the living areas of the elderly are quite broad. Next, we studied the appropriateness of establishing one daily living area in the entire city area. From the standpoint of population size and the living areas' “unipolar propensity,” we believe this establishment is appropriate. However, from the standpoint of average time and distance of the elderly's living areas, establishing one area in the entire city is somewhat too vast. Going forward, there is a need to study efficient placement of facilities in the entire city area based on the decline in the elderly population. Taking into account living areas' “unipolar propensity” due to Suzu City's monocentric urban structure, if facilities are established in the outskirts of the urban center, the elderly can receive services within their living areas, as they have to date. This is also efficient in terms of time and distance. However, there is the need to also consider the limits of time and distance.
Based on Jurgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson's classic theory on psychiatry and Harry Stack Sullivan's personality developmental theory, this study focuses on the environment of psychiatric hospitals that contribute to the restoration of patients' communication system by examining interpersonal relationships between psychiatric patients. The following four points concerning the inpatient environment of psychiatric hospitals designed with the purpose of healing patients is sought to elucidate: (1) from the standpoint of “total institution,” exploration of the issues and limits concerning improving the quality of space; (2) discussion of how medical staffs who contribute to patients' communication should be involved as “others”; (3) discussion of ideal hospital ward spaces that contribute to patients' communication, and (4) elucidation of features of young patients and identification of clues for constructing a theory of space for child and adolescent psychiatric wards. The survey target was “A” Medical Center. A “mapping” survey of all patients and staffs who use the common spaces of the hospital wards was carried out over a total of two days. Decrease in patients' desire for interpersonal communication and tendency to avoid others was observed in all adult inpatient wards. These trends were especially noticeable in both the Rehab ward patients with long inpatient stays and the MTSA. It can be said that both environments are stereotypical “total institutions.” The survey revealed the following: 1. It is important to keep a proper distance from the SS where the staffs stay to the common space where patients stay. For ideal space that contributes to communication between patients, there is the need to construct spaces that support the diverse needs of patients with different disorders. Also it is necessary to provide the space which could spend time alone in the public space for the long term patients. Therefore it is desirable to have common space configurations that enable creating spaces and environments that meet patients' needs by, for example, having rich flexibility of changing functions and being equipped with furniture. Practices such as lining up many dining tables in one place and placing a TV in the common space should be avoided to the utmost by, for example, adopting a style of decentralized dining. 2. Direct nursing intervention by the staff for patients has the effect of promoting patients' use of common spaces. Nurses' Observation promotes communication between patients. On the other hand, excessive Nursing Intervention carries the possibility of hindering communication between patients. 3. The spatial needs of patients in the child and adolescent psychiatric ward are different from adult patients. These patients enjoy staying in common spaces, and in many cases they are with others. They carry out many dynamic acts such as conversations, and they have not lost their desire to be involved with other people. Also, a characteristic of these patients is their ease of being influenced by staff and programs. Because their relationship with others differs depending on their desire for friends, desire for being needed, or desire for intimacy, it is necessary to provide stay spaces and play spaces on different scales as spaces in an adolescent ward. Because they have few stays in patient rooms, there is more necessary to expand the floor size of common rooms than individual patient rooms. Furthermore, there is the need to take into consideration the characteristics of different genders.
Most of elementary school buildings have a corridor in the north side. This form was established by government lead after the Meiji middle. It is indicated that Kumamoto prefecture insisted on the corridor on the south strongly against this current. In the Kumamoto prefectural government data, the document and drawing of the notification of an elementary school from Meiji 44 to Taisho 7 are left. And in the Kumamoto municipal assembly, the bill about elementary school construction was discussed at the same time. In this study, it is the aim to clarify the actual condition and the background of the elementary school building with a south-side corridor in Kumamoto prefecture from Meiji to the early stages of Showa. Therefore, the following four viewpoints were set up. 1. The characteristic in the guideline of an elementary school building of Kumamoto prefecture: comparison of guideline of the government and Kumamoto prefecture of Meiji and Taisho period 2. The characteristic in the arrangement composition, form, and corridor position of a school building: analysis of arrangement and plan in prefectural government data 3. The characteristic of the elementary school building with a south-side corridor: construction process, and arrangement and plane composition in history of school 4. The actual condition of the elementary school in Kumamoto city after the Taisho: guideline of city by municipal assembly data, and arrangement and plane composition in history of school The following results were obtained by analysis. 1) As for the guideline of Kumamoto prefecture of the elementary school, the standard was shown about arrangement composition and school building form in Meiji 25 earlier than the government. 2) About the arrangement composition of the school building, the type of school building on the north and playground on the south increased as time passes, and about the school building form, an one-line type indicated the high rate to be about 40 percent at any time, and the parallel type was increasing, so the tendency according to the guideline of the government and prefecture was seen. 3) About the corridor position of the school building, although it is said that Kumamoto prefecture insisted on the south-side corridor in school buildings, numbers of that building were few and their rate of a north-side corridor increased with a time. However, since there were many school buildings with a south-side corridor at the southern prefecture area and centering on Kumamoto city, it is thought that there was regionality of corridor on the south. 4) After the Meiji 40s, the Kumamoto prefecture changed to the guideline in which he leaves it to judgment of each corporation. Kumamoto city recommended the south-side corridor in Showa 3, and accordingly school building with a south-side corridor increased after that.
The aim of this study is to clarify the methods of top-lighting in the open-stack reading space in contemporary library. Top-lighting and
high side lighting were only way to let daylight in the reading area located in the middle of the space when the walls are ocupied by the
bookshelves before the artificial light were invented. Today, top-lighting is still important in open-stack reading space not only for giving
the light for reading under the requirement of energy saving but also for creating the atmosphere by light that cannot be achived by the
artificial light in the changing of requirement to the function of library fromlending type to staying type. Therefore, more variety can be
seen in the top-lighting design in the illuminated area of use, the location and form of skylights.
Introduction: University campuses started to be built since the late 19th century in China, strongly influenced by the Beaux-Arts planning style, characterized by monumental buildings with strong axis and enclosed open space. Such open spaces become representive spaces in the uiniversities, and building elevations facing to the space create the scenery of universities by forming a continuous panorama. Meanwhile, campus constructions in each stage are greatly influenced by the distinctive cultural and social background in China. For example, in the foundation phase of Chinese universities, the collision and blend between Chinese and Western culture were experienced. However, nowadays with the rapid growth of student numbers and the rethink of the university tradition, new time issues are raised. Under such historical background, this study aims to clarify the characteristics of scenery formed by the elevation and arragement of buildings surrounding open spaces in universities in China.
Methods: Open spaces faced by main buildings and enclosed by buildings or urban roads on at least two sides are extracted as "campus open spaces (COS)" from 54 campuses built before 1949, and elevations facing to COS are extracted as scenery forming elements. Based on such definitions, 54 groups of buildings, 183 main buildings and 996 building elevations are found. Firstly, by dividing the construction year of buildings into four phases according to the Chinese historical background, phases of buildings and building distribution in COS were examined as a brief overview. Secondly, in order to discuss the characteristics of building appearances, style and color of buildings were examined and compared in each campus. Thirdly, in order to discuss how tbuildings and open spaces are integrated, and how main buildings are emphasized, arrangement and volume comparison of buildings were examined. Fourthly, based on the results above, 12 scenery patterns categorized by the combination of comparison of building style and color, and the arrangement of buildings were discussed. Characteristics of each pattern, distribution of cases, relations and inclination of patterns were examined.
Results: 1) By the campus construction over the years, not only buildings but also main buildings facing the COS were built in various phases. 2) Most buildings built in Phase I are in traditional Chinese/Western styles with corresponding materials in specific colors, and such stylish characteristics continued to be utilized in buildings built afterwards. In the comparison of building stlye and color, cases that are "partly similar" or "similar in majority" are similar only in color, and cases "almost similar" are in the same style and color. 3) A multi-center arrangement can be observed in many campuses, where multiple axes formed by different main buildings have integrated different groups of buildings. Main buildings built after Phase II became in larger scale, emphasized by the standing-out volume. 4) Harmony of building appearance and integration of building arrangement are both considered in the formation of campus scenery in about half of the cases. However, because of the overlying constructions in different phases, some campuses have maintained either harmonious appearance or integrated arrangement. Some even developed in a disorder way and buildings reflect different features of the time.
Conclusions: This study has clarified that the characteristics of scenery formed by buildings surrounding open spaces in universities in China are related to the similarities of elevation appearance and the order of building arrangement. Under the Chinese cultural and social background, campus sceneries formed by these buildings reflect both the tradition of each university and trends of the time so that they contain various characteristics.
In the preceding manuscript, they clarified that the wide seat is suitable for sitting postures on chairs and contact site of reseat actions, but this study did not show that the reseating actions factor in the motion of a trunk, foot and arm. Additionally, sitting on a chair for a long time in a specific posture causes the bad influence on human bodies because of the continuous pressure on a specific part of a body. Though it is known that the scattering body pressure and contracting muscles, such as reseating actions are effective in preventing such the bad influence, this effect is not analyzed from a muscular load perspective. On the other hand, there is standing up motions in terms of motion on the chair. Standing up motions is compounded various ability that is muscle, balance and mobility of joints and trunk. Base on above, the objective of this study is to clarify characteristics of standing up motions and reseating actions by confirming muscle activities and joint angles. This study is comprised of act observation research, verification survey on muscle activities and joint angles, and motion evaluation. The results are as follows. Figure 5, 8 show results of the act observation survey. This survey clarified the contact site between arm, table and chair of standing up motions. Contact site is many edge of table. Figure 12, 13 show results of the verification survey on pelvic position and motion evaluation difference by seat shape. They sat on deep position when seat was T-1 and the edge of one's chair when seat was T-3. Also elders and adults evaluated T-3 highly. Figure 18 shows results of the verification survey of muscle activities difference by contact site. Thay had a low muscle load when touched [sides of seat / front] and evaluated [sides of seat / front] highly. Figure 23 shows results of the verification survey of motion evaluation difference by height of lateral seat. Standing up motions was evaluated height of lateral seat was ±0mm highly and +25mm second. Reseating actions was evaluated +25mm and +50mm highly. Figure 24 and table 4 show results of the verification survey on muscle activities and joint angles of standing up motions. In muscle actibities, males had a high muscle load of VL and TA second. Females had a high muscle load of VL and FCR second. Wrist joint angle is different in starting motion and point of maximum muscle strength. Figure 25 and table 5 show results of the verification survey on muscle activities and joint angles of reseating actions. In muscle actibities, males had a high muscle load of TB and VL second. Females had a high muscle load of TB and BB or FCR second. Joint angles are different in displacing front and displacing behind.
This study aims to identify the semantic range and differences in terms for the main structural members of vernacular timber houses in Japan and Britain, focusing on the understructure. Analysis of terms in glossaries and publications identified key characteristics of arrangement and terminology. The terminology of posts (hashira) and plates (keta) varies depending on the nave (joya)-aisle (geya) arrangement. Due to the truss arrangement, British beams are basically set crosswise, whereas Japanese beams are set crosswise and lengthwise and have various names. In Britain, curved timbers are framed symmetrically in a truss, whereas in Japan they are used supplementarily.
The purpose of this research is to reveal the Polymorph of “Scale” involved with building from the text description of
building by architects on Shinkenchiku in 1950 - 2011. Architects create unique building by use diversely the concept of
“Scale” such as absolute or relative one. So, “Scale” gives building to various character. Through this research, we defined Plymorph as character which expresses Architectural spaces through Architects operate Architecture on the basis of a
certain concept, and “Scale” as the substantive scale such as size of building or surrounding environment. By analyzing
and considering the Polymorph of “Scale” from “Scale”, Subject and Result, at least 26 different types of Polymorph “Scale”
were revealed. Overall we reveal that architects are creating concepts such as function or impression, that don’t exist as
substance while constructing buildings as substance by operating integrally captured space and things.
In this paper, we clarifyed the words frequently and the relation between words and words used in the text of architecture by measurement text analysis. By doing so, we grasp important words and frequent contents: we named that “language structure”, beyond the individual sentence's commentary and author's personality, and clear the formation process by compare it each age. Because there is a close relationship between language and thought, the structure guided here will be an effective knowledge for architectural design. The 40 years of text divided every 10 years, decompose and extract the text of each age into words. Measurement text analysis is performed on the occurrences of extracted words and the frequency of simultaneous occurrence in one paragraph. A word with the highest occurrences was taken as a “frequent word”, and the appearance trend by age was analyzed. In addition, those with the highest frequency of simultaneous occurrence of words and words in one paragraph were defined as co-occurrence, and “co-occurrence network” is drawn by connecting co-occurrence by lines. The co-occurrence network can be regarded as a linguistic structure expressing frequent contents by a group of plural strong words: high co-occurrence group, and expressing the centered word and the relation between words and words. As a result of the above analysis, the findings obtained are mainly the following five. 1) Differences in frequently occurring words in the work commentary are mainly caused by an increase or decrease in the occurrences of "all ages frequent words" at the top and a change in newly frequently occurring subordinate words. 2) "Space" was the central position of commentary in all ages. 3) A high co-occurrence group of a co-occurrence network is a group that mainly focuses on “space” containing a lot of words of concepts for creation and a group mainly focusing on "site" containing words of external elements in all ages it appeared in common. In addition, the group centered on the “wall” in the 80's and the 00's, the group centered on the “light” in the 1990s, etc. were seen as a characteristic group change. From the 1980's, concrete commentary conforming to the actual form of the building was on the increase 4) Because the words and words in the co-occurrence relationship increased as approaching the 00's by increase of typical description method, commentary has been stylized. 5) The contemporary language structure is formed by a group that does not expand and a group that expands by a stepwise process in which co-occurrence relationships already existed in the previous age co-occur with other words while continuance / compositing to have.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the generation of Yokohama's aspect of direction through studying the relation of between the town name based on Yokohama's direction and the components related to natural, social-cultural or historical elements through analyzing generation pattern of relative and absolute direction. The following is the approach taken to study this matter: (1)Collecting data on the current town names of Yokohama and Extract/sort them according to direction. (2)To grasp how town names are made accordingly to direction, that is, the generation pattern in time. (3)To examine the generation pattern in space which are the relation of town names and urban space's components by visualizing the town name's spatial distribution and relations. (4)To consider the awaking generation pattern of Yokohama's aspect of direction on basis of the above. As a result, the following has been able to be made clear of: (1) There are 1370 town names in Yokohama. Of them, 194 are based on direction, 33 on UP-DOWN of relative direction, 99 on NORTHSOUTH EAST and WEST of absolute direction, 11 on CENTER/CENTRAL, 7 on MIXTURE, 44 on NO DIRECTION. Particularly there were 31 town names including EAST, and the number of combination names were 69. (2) Most of the town names based on absolute direction have rapidly increased since 1969. (3) We have visualized spatial distribution and relations as an arrow using Geographical Information System. As a result, 106 arrows/double arrows were able to be drawn, mostly along the Sakaigawa basin and the former path of Tokaido with most of them having small angular difference. Also, the lag difference between double arrows and the actual axis of four cardinal points of formerly Tachibana county, Kuraki county, Kamakura county are lagged counter clockwise while only formerly Tsuzuki county is lagged clockwise. (4) By combining generation pattern in time and space, we were able to make clear of the following 4 points. 1, The UP-DOWN axis along the Sakaigawa basin and the former main roads most notably the former Tokaido were assembled before the organization awakening of the city of Yokohama, which impact could still be seen as of now. 2, After the enforcement of the municipalism of Yokohama the reorganization of Yokohama as an city urban space that is conscious of NORTH SOUTH EAST and WEST axis is formed at formerly south Tachibana, county, north Kuraki county. 3, From 1939 and later NORTH SOUTH EAST and WEST axis is recognized at formerly south Kuraki county, Kamakura county, Tsuzuki county. 4, East, which is the direction the harbor is at from the areas where town names are named according to direction, can be seen to be particularly focused on.
This research focuses on the city planning of Beppu city before WW2. Beppu is one of the famous tourist destinations in Japan since late modern period. Its start of city planning was a road development project started in 1906. It lasted for about 20years and the road of the Beppu city changed to grid patterns. After city status were given to Beppu in 1924, the discussion about the city planning of Beppu city started. Because Beppu had unique characteristics as a tourist destination, city planning engineers from the Japanese government had much interest in and expectation to the planning. On the other hand, engineers from Oita prefecture and Beppu city, who were in charge of the planning, struggled with the methodology to plan. The city planning law was applied to Beppu city in 1927 and just after that Mr. Hiroyuki Kayanoki, an engineer from the Home Ministry, visited Beppu city and decided the vision of Beppu city as “the city with a scenic view and hot spring”. Along the lines of the vision, engineers from Oita prefecture and Beppu city cooperated and worked together on the planning of streets in 1932 and land use in 1935. Characteristics as a tourist destination were reflected in the planning of them. As for the streets, the railway track and the street was planned as grade intersections to avoid the atmosphere of the tourist destination. As for the land use, the ratio of the industrial areas was only 3% of the city planning area. However, the planning regarding streets and the use of land only covered the city central area and most of the suburbs had no city planning. This situation encouraged Beppu city to make plans on its own in 1937, which was called as “Sento Toshi Keikaku (Hot spring capital city planning)”. Beppu city created the plan with the help of Dr. Tokutaro Kitamura, who was an engineer from the Home Ministry, and Prof. Eitaro Sekiguchi, who was a specialist of landscape architecture. It included the planning of streets, parks and tourist facilities. Also Dr. Tokutaro Kitamura was in charge of the planning of scenic districts. The scenic districts surrounded the city area. Not only natural areas but also tourist attractions and recreation areas for residents were also included in the scenic districts. Even after the Sino-Japanese war was started in July 1937, Beppu city continued making efforts to realize the plan. One large park was created following the Sento Toshi Keikaku with the help of a private company in 1942. Three large land readjustment plans were designed to control over lands, which were owned by owners outside Beppu city. In the previous research, it was mentioned that the city planning technique for the tourist destination before WW2 was the “park system”, which connects parks by roads. However, in Beppu, one of the famous tourist destinations in Japan, how to control land and space were one of the issues to be solved by city planning techniques.
Recent year, vacant properties and its negative effects have become severe issues in Japan. Japan government has formulated new law to demolish dilapidated houses, but its effectiveness is limited against vacant properties issue. On the other hand, in the United States, there are some cities trying to create “Shrinking” master plan from the middle of 2000s, especially in Michigan and other Rust Belt cities. In the urban shrinkage, it is difficult to achieve consensus on the shrinking city policy between the government and local residents, because there are some detriments such as relocation, cutting of infrastructures and public services. The Purpose of this study is to clarify the methodology for consensus building in the planning process of master plan and zoning code in U.S. shrinking cities. The city of Flint, MI is the one of the shrinking cities in the United States. Flint has experienced the profound population decline since the end of 1970s. They have lost 48% population in 50 years and suffered from huge amount of vacant properties. In 2013, the city of Flint started to update the master plan using federal grant and the support of local urban planners from Genesee County Land Bank Authority and the foundation. A lot of residents living in Flint were engaged in this process. Finally, an updated master plan named “Master Plan for A Sustainable Flint” was completed in 2013 introducing a new zoning code called Green Innovation (GI) Area. After that, the city of Flint started to discuss the zoning code based on the updated master plan. We focus on the success factors of those processes, and the following points are suggested. 1) In the case of Flint, the city government got a lot of agreement from residents by using community engagement process. To get enough agreement from public, the city involved a lot of residents and local groups in housing assessment and workshops. As the result, it did work as educational process for the public to understand the current situation of the city and importance of urban planning. 2) Green Innovation area is the zoning that supports neighborhood stabilization for the residents in the short-term, and in the long-term, it contributes for cost reduction for the government. The GI area is a flexible zone. It could be a zone to adopt the reinvestment, if not, it could be a green field. 3) On the other hand, there are difficulties to introduce land use regulation by zoning code ordinance, especially GI area. Because it would violate existing residents' right to housing. It means that it is difficult to limit people's right to build houses in high vacancy area or the area with low land value, even if it locates in the shrinking cities. 4) But the government can respond to that concerns by administrative procedure working with planning commission. For existing residents, the city of Flint decided to give the permission to rebuild the house, if the house was located in GI area. After that, the city also tried to create criteria to give permission for new single family housing development in GI areas. But this attempt was failed because of the opposition of local politicians. As a result, the city decided to use the criteria of GN areas as criteria for permission of new housing development in GI areas. After the master plan approval, for GCLBA and some CDCs and Local groups, it became possible to align their work with the master plan and spend their resources effectively. Master plan is shared broadly and utilized as a useful framework in Flint.
In 1968, in Japan, Area Division System (ADS) of the city planning act was established to prevent unregulated urbanization. The ADS divides city planning areas into urbanization promotion areas which prevent unregulated urbanization, and urbanization control areas which promote planned urbanization. The system achieved good result when the population was growing. However, in local cities, applying the system has been one of the factors that interfere with the activation of the city when population declines. In 2000, the city planning act was revised, the ADS became selectivity by the local government. By abolishing ADS, there are local governments who can control land use in accordance with the actual situation of each region. In this study, we target of the prefectural capital abolishing the ADS in 2004, as a case study. We aim to clarify the impact and factor of abolishing the ADS, and to consider the land use trend in the case abolishing the ADS. At first, we analyze urban structure by developments and farmland conversions. Next, we make a 250 meter mesh, and analyze the factors that influence farmland conversion by quantification theory. Moreover, we calculate the predictive value of farmland conversion using category-score of quantification theory. At last, we simulate abolishing the ADS of the city that operate the ADS. The results are as follows. (1) The result of comparing the number of farmland conversions before and after abolishing the ADS, farmland conversion increase outside of use district. (2) Before abolishing the ADS, “use district”, “distance to government offices”, and “population” have an influence on farmland conversion. After abolishing the ADS, the number of mesh with predictive value over 4.5 decreases, and the over 3.0 widely disperse inside or outside the use district. (3) As a result of forming the development potential map, we point out that farmland conversion increased in near the use district.
This paper focuses on probabilistic risk assessment of detached houses in Hino city of Tokyo, and analyses the probabilities that a detached house would be abandoned with respect to the categorical data of geographical and demographical condition. Hino city has been developed along Tamagawa and Asakawa rivers and on Tama hills. Therefore, it is appropriate area for our research focusing on how geographical and demographical condition would influence on the risk of occurrence of abandoned house. We use not only statistical survey data but field survey data, which revealed incorrectly counted houses as abandoned, since we thought that there must be unknown factors influencing the statistically observed data. From the analysis of this paper, we found that: 1) it was confirmed that the influence of the number of miscounted data in statistically collected data by applying Poisson regression analysis of the generalized linear model with integrated nested Laplacian approximation (INLA) using the number of abandoned houses (statistical number) and the questionnaire survey data, 2) the risk of occurrence tends to increase in the categories where the altitude difference is large. Its risk increases by nearly twice, 3) in the population categories, the risk of occurrence of the second and third categories appears high, there is a risk of becoming abandoned house where existing property and newly built property mix, 4) from the ratio of 65 years old or over, the risk of occurrence appears high in the district where the percentage of age group from 65 years old to 70 years old is high. With the aging of the population and the declining population, abandoned house countermeasures have been studied and implemented nationwide. As administrative response, we are struggling with how to treat the house itself, upon request of the residents. One effective means, however, is to take measures before becoming an abandoned. For that purpose, we propose to collect more detailed and individually surveyed data. In the Poisson regression analysis of the generalized linear model used in this paper, geographical and population requirements were selected as occurrence risk factors based on the location condition of Hino City, which is the analysis target, and the results of the past research. Of course, this is not the case in any city, and the factors selected depending on the location will change. However, analytical methods can be applied, and policy making based on risks is required. In the future, abandoned houses and unoccupied rooms countermeasures for apartment houses that were not covered in this paper are also urgent issues and I would like to make them future research subjects.
Tsumago-juku is an old post town along Nakasenndo in Nagano Prefecture and the pioneer of historical village preservation in Japan. In 1971, after the completion of a memorial project marking the 100th anniversary of Meiji, the residents of Tsumago-juku established a Residents' Charter in an attempt to protect the town's historical buildings, their surrounding natural environment, and residents' lives from both internal and external risks(Fig. 1). At first, the Residents' Charter was not legally binding; however, in 1973, the local government of Nagiso Town passed a municipal ordinance for the preservation of Tsumago-juku (1st legislation). Such an advanced step for the preservation of historical buildings and their surroundings helped initiate the establishment of preservation districts for groups of historic buildings (hereinafter, the Denken policy) in 1975. In 1976, Tsumago-juku, along with six other districts, was designated as cultural property under the Denken policy (2nd legislation). This paper elucidates the two-stage legislation process of the Residents' Charter by procuring and analyzing the minutes of the local assembly and the Council for the Preservation of Tsumago-juku. Moreover, it also considers the significance and limitations of the legislation of the voluntary rule, the relationship between the Residents' Charter and legislation, and the conceivable actions of the local community. The 1st legislation process of the Residents' Charter involved the following four main points: the significance of the legislation of the Residents' Charter, publicness of Tsumago-juku and its relation with other areas, property rights of residents, and residents' agreement (Table1). Tsumago-juku used a comprehensive perspective to address these points and limited the legislation to a single phrase: “We won't destroy.” They also emphasized the necessity of rigorous maintenance of the Residents' Charter and considered systems such as a special account for paid parking for balance adjustment between areas, especially between Tsumago and other areas. On the 2nd legislation process, discussion was concentrated on the area for preservation and practicable adjustments of the operation mechanism between local circumstances and national rules. The legislation guaranteed the preservation of Tsumago-juku by making it a part of ongoing preservation projects. Besides, it allowed for the reevaluation of the characteristics of Tsumago-juku under different frameworks concerning its publicness. However, compromises were made on some points, such as the area for preservation(Fig3.→Fig. 4→Fig. 6) and changes to be implementation(Fig. 2→Fig. 5). To put it differently, the legislation became a limited tool for the local community, and realizing this, they formulated local systems such as a Control Committee and thought up other measures (Table2 and Fig. 7). Thus, they succeeded in developing a comprehensive system to satisfy the requirements mandated by the Residents' Charter.
“Transfer of development right (TDR)” has been considered as an important institution for the urban regeneration since recently. The TDR system is first released in 1990 in Taipei city. Today, there are many TDR institutions in Taipei, Taiwan. The important point is that all of them could be utilized overall the Taipei city, so the integrity between TDR and existing urban plan is important. In this study, we first summarize several TDR institutions including Monument TDR, Urban plan TDR and Dihua Street TDR in Taipei city. Then we make clear the position and characteristic of TDR within the existing urban plan system. Then, we focus on compare the difference of new type of Urban plan TDR called Floor area bank (FAB) started in Taipei since 2014 with previous TDR. We first clarify the system of Floor area bank in Taipei city and the reason why it was established as the substitute of existing TDR institution. The difference between FAB-TDR and existing urban plan TDR is that, by donating land for public facility to Taipei city government, developers can get floor area same as the value of that land in the past. However, developers should pay the “Floor area fee” to the “Floor Bank” (Taipei city government) to get the floor area, and the amount of floor area will be decided by the “Urban design committee of Taipei city” based on the application of developer. We consider that all TDR institution is a kind of instrument for obtaining extra floor area. Actually, developers use several institutions for obtaining extra floor area including TDR and other institutions, for example, “Bonus floor area” institution is also one of that. However, the difference between TDR and Bonus floor area is that the floor area acquired from TDR is permanent. To protect the right of accepting site of TDR, certificate of TDR will be issued by Taipei city government. Besides, accepting site will also be recorded in the online zoning system of Taipei city. We then make clear the characteristic of FAB-TDR by operating the actual utilization cases. From the macro level, FAB-TDR actually solves the issues of unbalanced location of receiving site in the previous TDR institutions by operating total volume control. From the micro level, we can see how urban design committee plays an important role on controlling the nearby community of receiving site. What' more, by operating the evaluation of “Floor area fee” and the deliberation of urban design committee, it shortens the process of using FAB-TDR. Basically, it takes about 8 months. Finally, we summarize the key factor of the success of FAB-TDR and summarize the issues of it today. From the viewpoint of Taipei city government, FAB-TDR should consider about to provides some incentive for the user. From the viewpoint of user (developer), the cost of FAB-TDR is too expensive. From the viewpoint of appraisal, appraisal method of “Floor area fee” should be modified.
Community action groups are expected as new groups to support the life of the community instead of territorial groups. In recent years, “Community design” that the expert support to forming community action groups to solve regional problems is getting a lot of attention. It is important for community designer to select the action type of the groups taking the motivations of members to participate into consideration. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between the motivations of members to participate community action groups and action types of the groups through the comparison between “action type of player” and “action type of area manager”. “Action type of player” is an action type of the group to act oneself as a player to creative a new social action, and “action type of area manager” is an action type of the group to make a place, system and opportunity for player to act to change the area. First, We made 32-items scale of motivations of members to participate community action groups in reference to scale of motivations to participate volunteer activities (Table2). We performed the questionnaire survey by using the scale targeting 153 members in 10 groups. By factor analysis using answers to the questionnaire, it was clarified that the motivations to participate community action groups is composed of the following 8 factors: “self-growth needs” factor, “desire for social contribution” factor, “belongingness and interaction needs” factor, “having spare time” factor, “desire to return for kindness ” factor, “desire to help family” factor, “desire to get evaluation in the society” factor and “desire for recognition from others” factor (Table3). Second, the motivations of members in 10 groups were classified as follows: “type of using spare time”, “type of desire for recognition from others” and “type of self-actualization needs”(Fig. 2). In “type of using spare time”, there were tendencies to be a lot of members in their 20's or younger, 60's or older, and without occupation. They had motivations to want to get evaluation in the society and to do what was useful for family. In “type of desire for recognition from others”, there were tendencies to be a lot of members in their 40's, self-employed workers and public servants. They had motivations to want to return for kindness of others and to be needed by them. In “type of self-actualization needs”, there were tendencies to be a lot of professional members. They had intrinsic motivations to want to make better community by using professional skill, to grow and to enjoy acting with other members. Third, we investigated the relationship between the motivations to participate the groups and their action types. The result was that there were tendencies to be a lot of members of “type of using spare time” and “type of desire for recognition from others” in the groups of “action type of player” and to be a lot of members of “type of self-actualization needs” in the groups of “action type of area manager”(Fig. 4). In other words, it was clarified that most of members in the groups of “action type of player” had extrinsic motivations, but on the other hand most of members in the groups of “action type of area manager” had intrinsic motivations.
In recent years, Japanese Domestic carbon dioxide emission has been increased though the population has been decreasing. It is said that the reasons of the increase are the number of household has been growing, and lifestyle of people has changed and consume more energy by utilize many kinds of electronic devices. This paper analyzed Estimation of Population Projections and Domestic Energy Consumption according to family types. The survey was targeted especially elderly household in a suburban residential district in Tsuchiura City, Ibaraki Prefecture as a model case. The area had developed for housing project in postwar of Japan and the population has been decreasing every year, as the other similar type of suburban residential district in the surrounding area and the other suburban cities in Japan have same problem. The issue was analyzed the following procedure. At first, Population Projection for 2050 in Suburban residential district were studied in order to analyze trend of depopulation and what type of family has inhabited in Tsuchiura city. Secondly, the estimation of number of Household of Amakawa residential district in 2050 was analyzed in order to predict the number of vacant lot in the area and make the future Issue clear in the same kinds of suburban area. It clarified that vacant lot of 2050 would be almost eight times of 2010. Finally, survey of the energy consumption and questionnaire were held in Amakawa residential district in 2010 to revealed the lifestyle of residents and their household CO2 emissions according to family types especially for the elderly resident's household. The result was clarified that the amount of CO2 Emissions elderly single households were indicated high score compared to the elderly couple and the other type of household. And it is expected to be the same kind of situation might happen gradually in the other residential districts in the Tsuchiura city in near future. It needs further investigation of their lifestyle and the domestic energy consumptions by more examples.
The main tasks of maintenance workers are handing Failures and Troubles (F/T) at existing buildings and such tasks need to be handled rapidly. The time taken to repair an F/T is one of the most important evaluation elements for building performance and maintenance work quality. It is considered a Key Performance Indicator (KPI). The time taken to conduct repairs depends on individual aspects of the F/T, such as the technical difficulty of the repairs and how busy the maintenance workers are. If multiple F/Ts occur simultaneously at the same site, the workers handle them based on a priority in terms of the importance of the objects or their effect on users of the facility. Their priority thus influences when it is repaired. We analyzed maintenance data from several hospitals, and present the number of F/T instances and their times to repair for medical devices, air conditioning (AC) systems, sanitary systems, electrical systems and architectural elements. Moreover, we focused on maintenance load, which is defined as how busy the maintenance site is, and reported on the relationship between the maintenance load and the ratio of the number of tasks put off until the next day for the new daily number. This time, we received maintenance data from two university hospitals. They both have academic facilities and incidental facilities, such as staff accommodation, at the same site. The maintenance priority reflects the difference between them. The main purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between the maintenance priority and the time to repairs. First, we provide an overview of the two university hospitals and their equipment. Moreover, the collected data (31,109 items in total) and the way it is adjusted is presented. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) TheF/T number per unit of the area and the recording day in the hospital facility group exceeds the academic and incidental facility groups. In particular, it is notably large in the ward buildings. The mean time-to-repair for any F/T in the hospital facility group is statistically significantly shorter, although the group has many complex systems. Therefore, the maintenance priority of the hospital facility group can be considered higher than the other groups, while the mean time-to-repair is shorter. 2) As the F/T number increases at a site and maintenance workers get busier, the time-to-repair for the hospital facility gets slightly longer. On the other hand, as the F/T number increases, the time-to-repair for the other groups gets significantly longer. Since indoor environmental management is very important in hospital wards, the maintenance priority can be higher than the other groups. The number of problems in wards is shown based on their contents as requested by building users. The time-to-repair is shown based on environmental items and the mean time-to-repair for any indoor issue is shorter than the others. 3) The monthly number of thermal issues increased in summer and winter. Issues such as “Hot” and “AC equipment operational problems” increase in June, while “AC equipment damages” and “AC equipment operational problems” increase in August. Issues concerning “Cold” and “AC equipment operational problems” increase in December. 4) The Pediatric surgery, Orthopedics surgery (Pediatrics), and Pediatric ward had many problems. The main causes were “Noise from ACs”, “AC equipment operational problems”, “Clogging” and so on due to children putting foreign objects in the equipment. The results of this research reveal the particular issues afflicting environmental management in Pediatric wards.
I investigated old documents and records from the Hamano Genzaburo Family concerning travelling Shogunal inspectors in the Tenmei and Tenpo periods and discovered the following points. In order to prepare overnight lodgings, the Fukui-Clan requested the submission of floor plans for potential lodgings, made close inspections of the lodgings, created repair specifications and quotes, gave instructions for construction and carried out inspections during and after construction. The organization that was set up for preparation centered around kori-bugyokata(county magistrate). Sakujikata(civil construction magistrate) assisted by making close inspections to check repairs from a professional standpoint, creating specifications and quotes and making close inspections to check quote contents. Metsukekata(inspector) from the inspection department and local governors under kanjo-bugyokata(chief treasurer) also participated. Repairs were conducted by the owner. The Fukui-Clan assisted with fifty percent of repair costs, the village assisted with twenty five percent and the owner paid the other twenty five percent. Costs for fences were all covered by the village.
This paper explores Rinzō, the wooden revolving bookshelf used for storing sutras in Buddhism temples. Although this particular type of small architecture has attracted a quite number of scholarly attentions, the importance of Rinzō either in architectural history or in social history has not been clearly clarified. Therefore, the paper used the typology method to figure out a new classification of the type of Rinzō between Japan and China, mainly focusing on the existing Rinzō examples and several architectural technic books. Based on the structure and shape characteristics, and the type ideas found in the ancient architectural books, three types of Rinzō in Japan and China are classified by the author. A type refers to the Rinzō of Yingzaofashi, which shows a separated structure of ‘Rin’ (revolving structure) and ‘Zō’ (outside cover imitating the real architecture), and is thought to be an early style traced to Tang dynasty. B type, the most popular Rinzō shape of the two countries, shows the unified shape of ‘Rin’ and ‘Zō’ which can be traced back to the Chinese North Song dynasty. Moreover, the B type Rinzō is classified into three phases: the Rinzō with eaves, Rinzō without eaves, and multi-story Rinzō. C type refers to the Rinzō with decorated middle column, which only can be found in Japan. The C type Rinzō is divided into two phases: the Rinzō with eaves and without eaves. Besides, based on the type classification, the authors take a brief look at the age and regional distinction of Japanese Rinzō. Before the 18th century, the Rinzō almost showed the type of B-I, and the erection of Rinzō was managed by the classes of nobility and the samurai. C type and II phase Rinzō occurred in 17th century. However, B-I type was still the mainstream style of Japanese Rinzō. After the 18th century, based on the publishing of “Obaku” version Tripitaka, Rinzō was swiftly spread all over the country. By this way, the property of Rinzō had been experienced a revolutionary process changing from ‘official’ into ‘folk’. When it comes to the 19th century (before the age of Meiji), the C-II type Rinzō had become the most famous type. Moreover, the Japanese Rinzō can be divided into four districts: the district of B type (Kinki area, Shikoku area, Chūgoku area and Kyūshū area), the district of C type (Kantō area and Tōhoku area), the district mixed with B and C type (Chūbu area). In conclusion, Rinzō, which was originated in China, showed separated type (A type) and unified type (B type) in Tang and Song dynasty, then the unified type Rinzō was introduced into Japan along with the introduction of Tripitaka and Zen Buddhism during the Japanese medieval period. After that, the development of Rinzō of the two countries each underwent independent process. All in all, Rinzō is not only proof of technical communication between Japan and China, but also an epitome of religious prosperity in public.
In this study, an attempt to shed light on Pier Luigi Nervi's design philosophy(included architectural and structural field) is made, which was formed before he left SACC(the company of Attilio Muggia who was his menter), and its formation process by focusing on a class of S. Canevazzi which Nervi took in School of Engineering and Architecture of Bologna and bridge construction he was actually in charge of in SACC. In chapter 2, the collapse of Risorgimento Bridge in Rome which S. Canevazzi illustrated in his class in 1913 was explained in detail. In Nervi's book published in 1955 (“Costruire Correttamente”), he referred to a German theorist who pointed out that the bridge had points where it exceeds the limit of collapse and the limit of safety according to a result of architectural analysis using elastic equation. By considering this criticism, issues of the bridge construction at that time emerge: the difference between using rigid connection like Hennebique's bridge and using pin joint like three hinges of Robert Maillart(1872-1940)'s bridge. Also, it confirmed the possibility that construction of this bridge of Rome and its discussion invited the development of architectural analysis and construction method of statically indeterminate structure and moreover, the new study of plastic capacity of reinforced concrete parts. In chapter 3, owing to observe his design philosophy and its formation process, the construction of Pelota Arena's roof, Cecina and Pescie Bridges are looked into and magazine articles he wrote at that time are analyzed. For Cecina Bridge, he conclusively adopted a design of Truss bridge with parabolic girders instead of an arch bridge with rigid connection. In contrast, he adopted a bridge of Vierendeel type with rigid connection in joint for Pescie Bridge. In his magazine article, he emphasized the advantages of rigid connection which included strengthening the bridge resistance, thinning parts and reducing materials. Also, this article demonstrated his tendency of putting emphasis on substantive side to prove the safety not only by mathematical analysis but also by measuring actual deformation on site, and his interest in plastic deformation. As a conclusion, it is brought into light that Nervi directed to the construction of statically indeterminate structure after learning about Risorgimento Bridge from S. Canevazzi and also experiencing construction of the Pescia bridge of rigid joint with A. Muggia and L. Poggi in SACC. Nervi, however, did not simply agree with the thinking about safety of F. Hennébique and A. Muggia for bridges based on their empiricism. Nervi's thinking was not only based on his experience in construction but also his calculation about safety of a structure in a scientific way, such as an experiment and numerical calculations with formulas. Furthermore he tried to find a new way to check a safety for construction. Lastly a further issue is to discuss about an idea of “costruttore progettista” proposed by Nervi through consideration of his construction works and his documents after his independence from SACC.
The aim of this study is to clarify the design method of “Biodiversity-Friendly Architecture” all over the world. Biodiversity-Friendly Architecture is defined as the architecture and the construction that cares for both animals and people. 99 samples of Biodiversity-Friendly Architecture were collected and this BFA includes animal life such as, mammals, birds, insects, and so on (Table 1). First, the background viewed from habits of the animals, the composition of the animal space, the corresponding to habits of the animal, the adjustment to the relation between people and animal, the purpose of BFA construction, the surroundings, and construction material are extracted from the articles and drawings. The habits of animals can be classified <fragmentation of habitat>, <deficiency of nesting place: top, chink, narrow space, cave, on cliff, below cliff, precipice, combination> (Fig 2). The composition of BFA is defined by the features of space and life. The features of space can be classified <rope>, <vertical>, <horizontal>, <U-shaped>, and <enclosure> (Table 2). The features of animal life can be defined by space usage and layout. The space usage can be classified <individual> and <common>, and the layout can be classified <single>, <aggregation>, and <dispersion> (Table 3). The corresponding habits of the animals can be classified as <surroundings>, <internal environment>, <shelter from rain and wind>, <height>, <posture>, <territory>, <entrance>, and <shelter from natural enemy> (Table 4). The adjustment to the relation with people which are reflected in the BFA can be classified as <townscape/landscape>, <adding human use>, <recycle material>, <management>, <mass production> and <visual attraction> (Table 5). The purpose of BFA construction can be classified as <work>, <product>, <observation> and <collision avoidance> (Table 6). The surroundings around BFA can be classified as <buildings>, <buildings and nature>, <farm> and <nature> (Table 7). The main material can be arranged as <stone>, <brick>, <wood>, <metal>, <concrete>, and <excetera> (Table 8). Second, all samples are investigated with integrating the corresponding to habit of animal with the composition, based on the background viewed from habits of animal life and the types of animals (Table 9). Finally, the design method for “Biodiversity-Friendly Architecture” were clarified as the unification of considerations for animal life and people; I Controling the distance between animal and people, II Linking the networks of things around people and animal by material, III Making sustained mutual benefit for people and animal, IV Maintaining without people, V Making animals obvious, VI Adapting animals to people's living environment.
There are many buildings built of Oya-stone in Utsunomiya city, Tochigi prefecture, where Oya town, the diggings of Oya-stone, is located. Especially at Nishine district in Tokujirou town, where Tokujira-stone of green tuff same as Oya-stone was dug, there are many storehouses built of these stones and peculiar townscape can be seen. It is considered that architectural culture with locality can be found in these buildings with local materials through building industries and technologies. In recent years, some of these stone-buildings have been demolished and decreased, because chance of use has decreased and the owners have changed to their child generation. Therefore, preservation of the buildings and townscape are required. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to clarify the characteristic types of the stone-buildings and the townscape with features of local materials and technologies through investigation and typological analysis. Firstly, we found 62 stone-buildings at 22 sites in Nishine district. Almost 60 percent of the buildings are built of stone. Moreover, features of stone buildings were examined such as construction age, number of stories, function of buildings, construction method of stone, finishing and joints of stone, decoration of windows, position of entrance and roof form. Construction method of stones was mainly classified to laying stones, cladding stones and foundation stones. Functions of buildings were mainly classified to “Kura”; a storehouse for belongings with closed door, “Naya”; a storehouse for agricultural instrument or garage with wide openings on the ground floor, “Omoya”; a main residence and “Hanare”; a subsidiary residence. Through these features, the 6 types of stone-buildings were analyzed. They are namely “Two story-cladding stone-Kura” (A) which was built in old period like Meiji era with roofing tile of stone, “One story-laying stone-Naya” (B-1) which is the most simple building, “One story-laying stone-Kura” (B-2) which is relatively few in this district, “Two story-laying stone-Naya” (C-1) and “Two story-laying stone-Kura” (C-2) which are popular in this district, “One story-foundation stone-Naya” (D-1) and “One story-foundation stone-Omoya” (D-2) which is a typical rural residence with half-hipped-roof. Secondly, the composition of sites was analyzed through layout of stone-buildings and relationship to the main highway. As a result, there was a tendency that the stone-buildings are located in the front part of the sites which face to the highway. Moreover, boundary elements such as stone-fence or hedge and elements in the inner part of the sites such as stone-gate or small stone-shrine were examined. Finally, the townscape along the highway was analyzed through the types of stone-buildings and the compositions of sites. As a result, we found 3 characteristic types of townscape. In the west side of the entrance of highway (I), the townscape is covered with hedge in front of “One story-foundation stone-Omoya” (D-2) and so on. In the west middle of the highway (II), “Laying stone-Naya” (B-1, C-1) with stone-fence are located in the front part of the sites and multiple types of stone-building are located in the inner part of the sites. In addition, stone-gates and stone-shrines are located in the deepest part of the several sites, therefore, the townscape with depth are formed in this area. In the east middle of the highway (III), where stone-fence continues along three sites in a row, “Two story-cladding stone-Kura” (A) with decorated windows and “Laying stone-Naya” (B-1, C-1) are located in the front part of the sites. Therefore, continuous stone façade becomes the center of the townscape along the highway.
In the desert areas from the eastern Iran to western Afghanistan, traditional houses have curved roofs. As modernization progresses, such traditional houses are gradually disappearing from the region. However, in Herat, an old city in Western Afghanistan, traditional houses with domical vault are still left in their original form within the urban area. This study examines features of traditional houses with domical vaults in Herat through interviews of traditional builders and case studies of three houses including field surveys and interviews conducted with residents. Through this research, it finds that the structures of walls and domical vault vary depending on the time of construction, number of stories and size of rooms inside the houses. The study also finds that the materials used for walls and roofs differ according to the economic conditions of the families. Some conclusions are drawn about the architectural features of traditional houses with domical vaults in Herat.