Reduced scale experiments were conducted to measure the mass flow rate of door jet from a model fire compartment as the first step of the study on door jet plume and convective heat transfer in compartment fires. As a results, the following findings have been obtained. (1) The mass flow rates of door jet can be obtained based on measurements of O_2 concentration and CO_2 concentration. (2) The mass flow rates of door jet calculated based on the gas analysis and the temperature measurement agreed well when 0.52 is used as the flow coefficient in the latter. (3) Heat release rates of fire source calculated based on gas concentration agreed in average with the heat release rate obtained from mass burning rate of fuel in the free space, but some of them differed significantly from the latter. The difference is thought to be caused by the change of fuel vaporization rate depending on ventilation factor of the compartment.
Many fires generally occur simultaneously at the time of an earthquake. Therefore, the fire situation such as burn-out area and fire spread speed need to be expected more precisely as early as possible after a fire occurrence. First of all, we analyzed the fire spread speed formula of the urban area at the time of earthquake that considered complete collapse etc. in this research. Next, we attempted that predicts the fire spread condition in the early period on the basis of only the real fire data by using this fire spread speed formula. Multiple coefficients of correlation between real fire data and the prediction value were from 0.80 to 0.98. It is possible to predict the fire spread condition with quite a lot accuracy.
The dynamic evaluation method of visibility can be rationalized and be simplified by introducing the concept of effective luminance. Visibility can be evaluated dynamically with relationship between actual stimulus at a fovea and visual sensitivity at transient stage of adaptation. This report presents the procedures of dynamic evaluation method of threshold conditions and readability of printed matter in the uniform luminance field. The procedures express visual sensitivity and the effective luminance ratio in three diagrams which cover all interactions among six factors - size and figure of visual object, luminance contrast between object and background, field luminance, pre-adaptation luminance, raps time after the field luminance changed.
A new lighting calculation algorithm was developed. It is composed of three method, namely, the luminous flux transfer method, the virtual image method, and the ray tracing. The luminous flux transfer method is used for luminance calculation in an anisotropic diffuse reflecting interior. The image method treats the first reflection from mirrored surfaces, and the ray tracing treats the second and after reflections from mirrored surfaces. After lighting calculation, rendering calculation makes the image of luminance distribution by ray tracing.
The energy consumption structures of the single-family houses were investigated by the questionnaire. The houses for the investiga- tion were the industrialized house built after 1985 and an insulated performance that adjusts to the Japanese building thermal insulation standard. The results of the secondary energy consumption of an average single family were 15.5MWh. In average, 40% of the total energy consumption in residential house was use for domestic hot water heating, 26% for space heating, 24% for house hold appliances, 9% for cooking, 4% for space cooling. The primary energy consumption of an average single family was 22.7MWh. The carbon dioxide discharge rate of an average single family is 1.95t.
In evaluating a room environment, should be considered thermal comfort in addition to thermal sensation. In other words, different heating systems provide different levels of thermal comfort due to non-uniform temperature distribution. This study proposes a thermal comfort evaluation method for a room in which the temperature is not uniform. The experiments were conducted using test chambers set up in an environmental laboratory. More than seven hundred people participated to the experiments as subjects. From this experiment, determination of vertical airs temperature distribution such that the head was cold and feet were warm indicated high thermal comfort. Using this consequence, it was possible to estimate thermal comfort under a non-uniform environment by multiplying the heat load of human body parts.
It is required to know both radiative and convective heat transfer at each part of the body to evaluate thermal environment. Thermal manikin was used to measure radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients. Thermal manikin imitates the shape of a person. The skin temperature of a human can be simulated by heating internal heaters. The posture can be changed to standing and sitting without changing skin surface area. At first air temperature equaled to the mean radiant temperature was kept at 25.0℃ or 30.0℃, while skin temperatures were 34.0℃. At second, air temperature was kept as same as skin temperature at 34.0℃, while wall temperature was 27.1℃ or 28.2℃. Following results were obtained. (1) Combined heat transfer coefficient of standing human body was 9.1(W/m^2℃) and that of sitting human body was 8.6(W/m^2℃). (2) Radiative heat transfer coefficient with standing posture was 4.2(W/m^2℃) and that with sitting posture was 4.3(W/m^2℃). (3) Convective heat transfer coefficient of standing human body was 4.9(W/m^2℃) and that of sitting human body was 4.3(W/m^2℃). (4) Convective heat transfer coefficient of each part was determined as a function of air velocity.
For the economical operations of the floor heating system that constructed of latent/sensible heat storage materials using off-peak electricity, we analyzed the prediction control system of the required thermal energy of the early spring by using fuzzy inference in a building ofM aged facility. Next, we carried out study of Neural network by using result that was obtained by simulation that the performance of the system is evaluated. And we obtained the following results. (1) We presumed the stored thermal quantity of latent heat storage material by studying of Neural network by using actual values. And we derived the control system of the required thermal energy including usage of latent heating storage material on the melting way. (2) We constructed the fuzzy-neural network model corresponding to outdoor mean temperature for the floor heating system constructed of heat storage materials.
A new estimation method is proposed, which estimates the energy consumption of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system from data of a monthly energy consumption of electricity, city gas, petroleum for buildings, and the HVAC system energy consumption for the smallest month of 4 kinds of business facilities in 3 areas is calculated with the simulation method. As comparing with usual method, good agreements of estimation results of proposed estimation method with measured ones is confirmed for two buildings. Based on this method, the HVAC system energy consumption and the cold and hot load consumption of air conditioning of 4 kinds of business facilities in Fukuoka and Kitakyushu are estimated using the data obtained by means of questionnaires, and the local characteristics of the HVAC system energy consumption are analyzed.
In this paper the authors investigated the fundamental data which were necessary for estimation of the optimum number of the fixtures in a lavatory of the multi-purpose stadium. The sanitary fixture usage of baseball audiences in a multi-purpose dome-F and a Single-purpose baseball ground-N were surveyed actually by means of the electric methods. Then, the following results were obtained. 1)The ratio of female of audience in a multi-purpose stadium was important to estimate the number of fixtures in a lavatory of stadium. 2)The usage of the sanitary fixtures by baseball observers was concentrated when the supporting team was done batting. In the case of a lavatory in a ground-N, the waiting line didn't generated through the game in order to more fixtures toward the numbers of seat than it in dome-F. 3)The occupated period of the fixtures in a lavatory was equal with the past studies.
It is required to study an arrangement of the fixtures in the lavatory from a viewpoint of use frequency In this paper, the authors constructed the fixtures selection model that was an intentional deciding process of users.The fixtures selection model constructed on the basis of a model on Fuzzy and Neural network, and it made under the simultaneous use of fixtures. The authors carried out study of Neural network by using values of evaluation that was obtained with a previously announced report. And the authors confirmed efficacy of the proposed model from the prediction results. Also, the fixtures selection model presented in this paper is able to clear the selecting fixtures trend of a user, and using trend of each fixtures can be predicted. Furthermore, the accumulated knowledge and the prediction results are able to be reflected to the next problem, by applying a model on Fuzzy and Neural network.
Daily variations of sensible heat fluxes and vertical eddy diffusivities were obtained in early summer in Utsunomiya, 100km north of Tokyo. Observing sites were at 15m and 25m in hight above the surface in urban area and at 13m and 25m in hight above the surface in residential area. Vertical eddy diffusivities, Dz were measured with two different methods, which are the measure- ment with autocorrelation function and the measurement derived with relationship between heat flux and temperature difference between zl and z2 in hight. The values of Dz at higher places and lower places in residential area are equal : yet the values of Dz in urban area are not equal due to the effects of surrounding environment. Daily variations of Dz in urban and rural area are 0.1-1.0 (m^2/s).
The purpose of this study is to measure the ventilation rate, TVOC concentration and residents' behavior for air Conditioner use and window opening in occupied dwellings in Kagoshima City. Residents completed a questionnaire voting residents' behavior (i.e., when they opened windows, when they operated air conditioners, and so on) during the period of ventilation and temperature measurement. As a result of this measurement, it was found that there were considerable differences between TVOC concentration measured at night and that at daytime. While some residents operated air conditioners more often at night, other residents more in daytime. Therefore we calculated the time fluctuation of air conditioner use and the window opening for the two types of dwellings.
This study is to analyze experiments of first-visit patients' wayfinding behavior which are successive search of three rooms in two hospitals. Their wayfinding routes have been classified into three types, "the shortest", "the roundabout" and "the wrong" way. It has been cleared that the hospital shoud be planed and designed with the principle that the wrong routes are coused by "misconception", "wrong judgement", "oversight" and "misunderstanding of sign and conversational information", and so on.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the personalization of residents in nursing home. For this objective, four different types of nursing homes were surveyed by means of observation, furniture mapping, and deep interview. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1. By having a single bed room, residents can control their privacy better. 2. As the process of personalization, it is important to give the opportunity of controlling over space, time and personal relations. 3. In the planning of space, it is essential to take account of residents' psychology and feeling.
This paper is a topological definition of framing members for the purpose of comprehending diverse frameworks in Japanese traditional timber houses. Reconsidering the core and outer structure as zoning concept to be appliable to both rafter-framing system and sasu-framing system, zoning and direction of setting members are symbolized and unified horizontally. Focussing on the height of the border between main frame and roof frame in terms of the interrelation among members, three levels of possible arrangement of horizontal members are defined. Using the prefix according to the topological relation of members, the terminology of beams and girders is extracted methodically.
The purpose of this paper is to make it clear how workers decide design of joint layout of siding board on the exterior wall of a detached house. Questionnaires in reference of materials, considerations in deciding joint layout and the setting of joint layout in elevation models have been sent to 867 exterior wall workers. Main conclusions are the followings : 1) The more experience the workers have, the more frequently they consider drawings, conditions of construction site, outcome after completion, efficient utilization of siding boards, constructability, etc. together. 2)Theories about design of joint layout don't seem to apply much to the setting of joint layout by workers. 3) The setting of joint layout that workers believe to be efficient in utilizing siding boards, may not increase the ratios of boards' utility necessarily, and the layout believed to decrease the work-time improving constructability in most of the case.
In Nada Ward in Kobe City where many community facilities had been converted to shelters just after Kobe Earthquake in 1995, the range of shelters were surveyed on the basis of the address lists of refugees. It is made clear that (i) there are higher rates of the aged in shelters than those registered population in the corresponding areas, (ii) there is a tendency that suffered people took shelter in the nearer community facilities from their home, (iii) the range of both families composed by only the aged and ones with infants are narrower than the other types of families, (iv) the range of shelters converted from elementary and junior high schools are narrower than that from a high school or large gymnasium, (v) railway tracks were physical and psychological barriers to escape behavior.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the space organization of dwellings of White THAI in Vietnam. This paper is based on field research carried out in 1993 and 1994. This study clarified as follows : 1) The one-room type dwellings of the White THAI have a some low by living behavior. For instance, a position of a family altar and a sunken, a space of a couple. 2)The space of dwellings is changing by the tourism since the DOI-MOI.
In the field of urban planning, there are lots of planning methods proposed already. But there aren't enough studies on the thinking process of planning. In this study, universality in such thinking process is tried to find out with protocol analysis. Also, the study is done on the consortium method, way of planning with a fluid, creative team of specialists in a variety fields for the environmental symbiotic project planning through some case works.
This thesis will focus on the problem of understanding the "configuration" of urban landscape. Today cities present an infinite series of forms and aggregations, which often give the impression of being spaces ruled by chaotic configuration. What do we consider urban landscape? How do we perceive it? How can other fields of studies help us understand urban landscape, and why? In order to answer these questions the following areas will be analyzed : perception; new approaches in physics; architecture; and aesthetics; and then an eight point paradigm will be proposed.
This study aims to reveal the existing of physical urban transformation in the former colonial city of Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The analyses of the study was based on the investigation of the existing built archives in the core city area which was conducted in 1995. The study concludes that buildings transformation in the core city area had led to the change of land use characteristic, but still maintained the existence of balance between living and commercial activities. However, the rapid process of building transformation has triggered the degradation process of physical urbanscape by demolition of old buildings which displayed the highly architectural significance's.
There are various ways to support residents' activities for upgrading living environment in the Phillippines. Several approaches are available for people to accept governmental support including community based loan program. NGOs are key sector for participatory process of community upgrading, as they can assist the community considering their life style. Government can support these NGOs as well as community activity itself. This support can encourage NGOs not only by financial reason but also by valuation of their activities. It is also unique to support their activities on Non Profit Activity bases to widen opportunity for those. Finally, housing movement is also effective when government can sit on the same table with people.
Housing policy for the elderly must be established according to each regional feature. By using the data from the population census and the housing survey, housing condition of households with the elderly in Aichi prefecture was analysed. The findings were summarized as follows. 1. Local governments of Aichi prefecture were classified into 4 districts in point of housing condition of the elderly : the urban area, the suberban area, the rural area and the depopulated area. 2. A lage number of single elderly or elderly couple households lives in old rented houses. These rented houses are not in good condition. 3. To supply rented houses related with social welfare system for single elderly or elderly couple households is necessary in the urban and the depopulated area.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the actual conditions of "Settlement moving in one region" and the duty that the housing with a government grant-in-aid performs to maintain it. By analzing the networks and the dwelling style that several households have, it is made clear that "Settlement moving in one region" is nearly related to blood relation. So, by classifying "Settlement moving in one region" into four types by blood relation, it is given as a conclusion that the four types have special characters on the age and the intention to move into, and that the housing supplied by cooperative projects maintaine a child's familly to dwell and to return near their parents, and parents to inherit a fortune to dwell near their child's familly.
In recent years, housing renewal operations have been carried out for the housing units built in the late 50's by the Housing and Urbain Developement Corporation. The former residents of the public housing estates were classified into "transfer residents" and "returning residents". This paper shows the result of the questionnaires which have been conducted on the two categories of the residents and discusses about the change in the rent level, rent affordability, the way of feeling against the sliding rent and so on. The rent is planned to go up during the next following years until it reachses at the level which is supposed to be payed by the newly recruited households.
A combination of conference rooms to raise cost performance of office investment was studied. Many large rooms make reservation easy; however, do not use space efficiently. Smaller capacity as well as room number needs less space; however, make reservation difficult, which may result in a loss of business opportunity and a waste of workers' paid time. It was made clear that the balance of space efficiency and reserving convenience can be realized by analyzing the number of attendants and the frequency distribution of conference room needs of each planning capacity.
This paper is a study about the history of the urban development of Siena. Foundation of religious institution and construction of city walls provide the dates to prove the variant periods in the development of the borghi, and thus, of the city. This article shall define those stages, comparing relation and succession of those public-oriented constructions. According to this analysis, borghi were generated in two phases : the first from the 11th to the 12th century along the via Francigena, and the second from the 13th to the 15th century in the outskirts of the city, which were dominated by monasteries.
What is the existential meaning of the "room" of the of Modern Houses ? The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of the interplay between the forms and the rooms of Modern Houses .The analysis will be in two parts as follows : part 1 illustrates the themes of Modern Houses through describing the Savoie villa by Le Corbusier and the Jaco bs House by F.L. Wright. Part 2 explicates the Honikman House by Louis Kahn through analyzing the meaning of the four satellite-rooms and the synergistic relationship between house andsite. This house is further investigated through three diagrams derived from Kahn's sketches.
This paper aims to elucidate prototypes in a work of Le Corbusier's "figlise Saint Pierce" at Firminy as architectural seeing of the 'paysage'. This study investigates the geometric box and the spiral ramp as the first two prototypes. These prototypes compose a paysage and develop the architectural language. This process is an acquisition of the 'vertical' paysage at the lowest point of the basin. The. essential for Le Corbusier is a realisation of 'harmony' in paysage. This harmony, resounding the universal tone, was realised by prototypes which can be applied to 'anywhere', and defined concretly 'in situ' by existing paysage.