This study has been carried out to investigate the spatial order, which forms the basis of dwellings of Dai Lue people in Yunnan, China, together with its change in recent years. The spatial order which creates dwellings of Dai Lue people can be explained by the spatial concept included in their way of behavior and the way of recognizing space . In this study. we have continued to search the non-daily life of Dai Lue people such as their ritual in marriage and funeral. The spatial order is well observed in non-daily life and has generated the dwelling style which has long been inherited. In daily life, the space concept has been changing whereas it is well preserved in ritual behaviors and space recognizing. The constitution of dwellings and its change can be illustrated by people's behaviors in ritual. With the increase of dwelling space, new space concept generates in marriage ritual. In conclusion, we consider the dwellings of Dai Lue people has been constructed taking principally non-daily life into consideration.
This paper aims to clarify the composition of the spatial units arrangements of the singles from the view point of Individualization, and the subject of the housing planning method correspond to the Individuarization. For this analysis, the planning method of dwellings by scenario approach was adopted to the 12 singles, and the composition of the 12singles' spatial units arrangements are clarified. Moreover, 15 figures of spatial units arrangements gathered by adopting this method to 5 double-income couples, and 12 figures of spatial units arrangements gathered by adopting this method to 12 singles were analyzed comprehensively, then "various connection relations" and "rearrangement of the connection relations by dwellers makeing decision making" are pointed out as the subject of the housing plannning method correspond to the Individuarization.
As a step toward formulating policy guidelines for planning and development, uses of inner-plaza atriums were examined to assess their public benefit. Twenty-two sample observation and interview surveys were conducted in the Kanto region. Three independent use-for-staying-space indices were extracted through factor analysis, and their explanatory variables were identified through multiple regression analysis: 1) the number of staying users, 2) the density of staying users and 3) the percentage of general visitors in staying users. As much as 90.3% of variance was explained. Use-for-staying-space indices thus proved to be explained by design factors such as the building area at an extremely, or at least fairly high level of precision.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the present conditions and the improvement direction of the welfare center for the elderly (the center) which is one of the leisure facilities for the elderly. We asked 317 centers established in the past ten years about the use policy, the management plan, the contents of activity, and the facility plan. The available answers were 146. The results were as follows. 1. 90 percent of the center put other facilities side by side, and 60 percent of the center has accepted users other than the elderly. 2. In the center, user's activities can be classified into three. They are participating in the center-sponsored activities, independent group activity, and individual use. From now on, independent group activity will take the lead. 3. The kind of user's rooms is increasing and diversified.
This study is intended to clarify the phenomenon of re-utilization of historic constructions in Milan. To investigate the characteristic of adaptation for the public use, this paper focuses on the spatial composition in the re-utilized monasteries. Analyzing typologically the ways to arrange such spatial compositions, some continuity to compose new functions such as universities and museums are identified. Examining these continuities, the spatial composition for the public use appeared in the way to use the courtyards.
Favorability of the scene of stations in a local railway was analysed with color photographs by following 3 view points, A:from a station building to in front scene, B:from a platform to it's surroundings, C:from a street to the station building front. With 60 photographs taken from 3 view points of 20 local private railway stations, evaluative structures were abstracted by using repertory grid method for 36 peoples. Next, by analysing of evaluative points, calculated by results of the repertory grid method experiment, the rural scenery from a platform and the small station building in a rural scenery were favored.
This paper aimed to perceive interpersonal distance of each other sitting in a line in linear urban open space for the sake of design planning. Day-long observational research carried out at different season and weather. The distribution of people had a relationship with time jitter, seasonal variation and circumference environment. Interpersonal distance was broken up into five phase: Exclusion distance, Limited distance, Psychological distance, Second psychological distance; Third psychological distance.
This paper tackles a logical expression of analogical reasoning in architectural and landscape design and understanding of them. Analogical reasoning is a form of thinking in which thoughts on a target domain facilitated on the basis of the analogies drawn between the target domain and a domain related to the target. This paper focuses on the process of finding analogical elements between the two domains and determine the correspondence of some elements in the target domain and those in the base domain and the process of forming new concepts and knowledge by enhancing the analogies and the correspondences on the assumption that the retrieval of a base domain is already done. The farmer process is formalized with the notions of analogy and correspondence. To formalize the latter process, it is assumed that the enhancement of concepts and knowledge is expressed as the formation of ad hoc concepts based on the analogy and the correspondence. With the formal model of analogical reasoning proposed, a 'Mitate' technique in rock garden design is explained.
This paper analyzed the relationships between children's behavior and street environments while returning home from school. Through plotting the course of children's way home and the point of contact with street features by children, and also taking pictures, we examined how children showed playful activities on the street. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: 1) When children are returning home from school, street environments provide opportunities for children to play. 2) The degree of children's playful involvement varies among different street environments. 3) Street features which stand out, have discrepancy in height, contain movable objects attract children's playful activities. 4) Changes created by locomotion provide playing affordances.
The purpose of this study over labor forces by non-resident members of farmers is first to identify their feature in each life stages of farmers and then to clarify their parts in farming in highland area. The followings became clear. 1)Roles which resident and non-resident members play in agricultural works changes upon their life stages. 2)Non-resident members provides labor force corresponding to their life stages for farminghouse with needs of labor according to their life stage. 3)Such complementary act has a prolonged structure corresponding to life cycle of each family. The family style shown in this paper will be more important in highland area as farming families ages. And the style itself will be diversified as lifestyle of each non-resident individual changes. Necessity of recognizing the viewpoint including not only the farmhouse alone but non-resident family members is suggested to support agriculture in highland area.
The purpose of this study is to show townscape and neighborhood characteristics of Narai post-town at Edo period. As a result of analysis, Narai prospered not only in business on post-town, but also in business on wood producing, manufacturing, and distribution with rich forest resources. Townscape of Narai reflects such a locational condition and the industrial features. Naka-machi had the best economical conditions among the three towns of Narai, kan-machi, and shimo-machi followed. In the later Edo period, the hierarchization came out in each neighborhood, in contrast with the hierarchization by each neighborhood became weaker.
Recently, unification of the university campus and urban function claims to be one of the important factors of urban renovation. However, since university campus is packed with university facilities, they are often built in neighborhoods around the university. In these cases, it is meaningful to find the problems of process and contents of the plan of university facilities when they are built in its neighborhoods, and to discover the new relationship between university and its neighborhoods. In this study, it is clarified that they are the distrust of the neighborhoods against the university and the problem of the planning contents. Based on these result, the assignments of the planning of the university town are clarified.
Study on the process and the subject of revival of a shopping center which consist of eating and drinking Restaurant Sannomiya which is the shopping center representing Kobe, suffered serious damage from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Higashimongai in Sannomiya is a shopping center which consists of restaurants 80 percent. The subject of revival of a restaurant town was investigated by observing the revival process of Higashimongai. The outline is as follows. Since the narrow division remains, it has been the obstacle of revival. Although number of shops increased till 1999, it is increasing slightly after that. Substitution of a store is intense. The rate of fixing of a store of the building built after the earthquake disaster is low. A store manager's consciousness differs. A new organization is called for.
This parper studies on an ideal method of residence improvement of kampung of Yogyakarta, Indonesia through general improvement progress of RMK(Romo Mangun Kampung). Major finding in this parper consist of following points. 1. RMK was a sqatter area until 70's. Resistance movement, improvement campaign of RMG developed into the right of residence recognition of inhabitants. 2. RMK is high density, the narrow residence, a low educational background district, but the young group is improved on both working and income side. Community activities are maintained as a place of argument among inhabitants, 3. Buildings of RMG design are narrow, and infrastructure of the area is unarranged. The enlargement of kitchen and living tend to be done by the front of a house in RMK. Voluntary improvement consciousness of inhabitants becomes high. 4. Satisfaction for residence environment and a domiciliation state are connected with encouragement of house improvement consciousness of inhabitants.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of pedestrian's eye fixation behaviors at signs by the walking experiment in a shopping street. On this paper, first, we clarified the characteristics of pedestrian's eye fixation behaviors of the whole view. Second, we clarified the characteristics of eye fixation behaviors for each types of the signs. And then we clarified the relationships between the characteristics of the sign formation and the characteristics of the pedestrian's eye fixation behaviors.
This paper deals with the improvement of houses by the Non-Profit Organization "PACT" in France. PACT was established in 1942 by Jean PILA through the merger of some groups which had been improving houses for the poor people. Since then, PACT has been improving houses by using various subsidies. In Cote-d'Or prefecture, PACT improves not only private houses but also public houses for municipalities and housing corporations. And its activities are classsified into three categories; namely activities for rented houses, asistance for living proprietors and activities for poor people.
In this study we proposed a system that supports town-planning workshops. That system has two aims following. 1) To disclose contents of workshops on the web to increase openness of that meetings for everyone. 2) To develop multi-media tools to enable ordinary people communicate with experts in architecture, difficult drawings or each other in town planning workshops. Firstly we proposed two prototype systems for each aim, and we interviewed a city-planning consultant who operates park-workshops to evaluate usefulness of them. Secondly we proposed ideal system that supports park-workshops. Finally we used that system for a real park-planning workshop and examined it.
This study aims at grasping the relationship between officially designated land (ODL) and actual land use (ALU) in the Metropolitan coastal areas. The relationship varies significantly between shore side areas and inland areas. We examined, using overlaid mesh data, the disagreement of the relations between the distance from the waterfront and officially designated land clusters, between types of officially designated land and actual land use clusters, and between officially designated landclusters and actual land use clusters. With the examined data, we investigated the cause of the disagreement. The investigation has revealed: 1 Both actual land use clusters and officially designated land clusters are greater in shore side areas. We explored the characteristics of land use structure in the coastal areas and methods of creating suitable plans and their possibility, by verifying. 2 The characteristics of actual land use clusters according to the types of officially designated land. 3 The characteristics of actual land use cluster that is caused by changing officially designated land clusters.
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has introduced some new Kouji-kanri methods to ease supervisor inspection by such as the third person for supervision, Management system to their projects. However, the confusion about the construction supervision in civil engineering public works and building projects is occurred, and it is, furthermore, difficult for public officials to define uniquely the construction supervision based on independence management, such as Construction Management. The objective of this report, mainly, based on the diversity of construction projects, introducing the concept of design briefs, partnering, CM, etc. makes clear for new Kouji-kanri in public building works.
In this thesis, systematic methodologies of various treatment procedures for asset summing up, capital expenditure, repair expense and loss on retirement for building life-cycle are proposed. The major conclusions of this thesis are as follows. (1) The summing up process of assets at the time of the acquisition of assets was systemized after the necessity of planning and managing the total life-cycle of the assets was indicated. (2) The code scheme consisting of the work classification codes, installed spot codes, asset peculiarity codes and asset summing up codes was formulated for the systemization of asset summing up, and the methodology to identify unit depreciation assets was proposed. (3) The asset life-cycle was defined from the viewpoint of the tangible fixed asset management, and capital expenditure and repair expense based on the arrangements by physical shape of works and the management of loss on retirement were systemized. (4) The proposed methodology was applied to a large-scale hotel, and we verified that this methodology could be applied to existing buildings.
Building maintenance service gives influence to the quality recognition for a customer (a resident). It therefore becomes necessary to determine the relationship between building maintenance work and the service quality for a customer. The purpose of this study is presentation of practical data for grasping maintenance work for building defects, by ascertaining building defects, and providing examples of maintenance actions taken against them, based on data recorded continuously over an extended period of time by building manager at small and medium scale office buildings. The results may give some information for structuring the maintenance work of building management.
In violations of the architectural control in the Hagi Clan, I studied illegal building acts in the architecture of temples and shrines, pointing out the followings; 1: In the Hagi Clan, they inspected any omission on applications for buildings, and building acts altered from the entered. 2: And as some of the violations of illegal building acts on them, some instances on fittings, decorations, the total floor space, the addition of Gohai, and building materials could be listed. 3: But these were the architectural acts that clients had wanted to do even disregarding the architectural control.
During Edo-Era there were 6 palaces in Hagi, the capital of Mouri-Han. Through the examination of historical materials, following results are ascertained; (1)Palace was built at first in Hagi in 1751〜1767 except one in Hagi castle. (2)Palace was used as a residence of lord's family. (3)Plan of palace was similar to one another but plan of main part of palace varied according to condition of dweller.
"Kunitachi Daigaku Machi" is a major suburban housing project by Hakone Tochi Co. Ltd.. In the center of the development area, new campus of The Tokyo University of Commerce (present Hitotsubashi University) is located. Old campus had been located in the downtown area, and was seriously damaged by the Kanto Earthquake in 1923. After the disaster, land of the old campus was exchanged for new land in "Kunitachi Daigaku Machi", and on the other hand, temporary use of surviving building and constructions of new campus were going on. Campus development'was an emergency project, and the urban design of "Kunitachi Daigaku Machi" was basically under influence of this circumstance. This paper presents several drawings, which indicate the physical situations of the old campus and new development area, and on which traces the procedures for land exchanging, and clarify the physical position of the new campus in the urban design of "Kunitachi Daigaku Machi".
This paper deals with the measure planning of a clay brick masonry brewery designed by Yorinaka TSUMAKI build in 1903, on the basis of documents possessed by the institute and the survey on site. The results are as follows. The measure entered in the drawing paper was abnormally so much detailed, because of the modular size of masonry units was considered only in the thickness of brick walls. On the other hand, the modular coordination was not considered concerning the sizes of rooms. A detailed adjustment technique was adopted in the stage of construction. On the same wall, modular size of masonry units was very rare to be altered into an irregular size.
This study deals with Chuta Ito's thought on the Japanese traditional architecture, who is known as the first Japanese architectural historian and critic. This paper treats 4 unfinished manuscripts in the middle of Meiji era. As a result below mentioned 3 points become clear, i) Before "Study on the Horyu-Ji" (1893), he tried to apply Western method to traditional knowledge on Japanese architecture. 2) In some draft, he showed unique concepts for Japanese architectural history. 3) He regarded his studys about curved line as the connection between the design and the standard.
This paper aims at an investigation of technology of Richard Neutra's architectural thought. And this study investigates that how Neutra understood technology and what significance he found in the technology from the 1920s through 1930s. This paper intends to analyze the meaning of technology for Neutra. His view of technology changed undergoing several stages as following; before he goes to the America and after he immigrated to America. As a result of this analysis, this paper revealed that technology played much significant role in the course of forming Neutra's architectural thought during this time. Moreover this study clarified Neutra thought that so-called "International Style" was to be made from standardized industrial products and it was to be attained by using developed industrialized technology.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of Aldo van Eyck's architectural thought through analyzing his diagram of "leaf-tree, house-city". The analysis consists of three chapters as follows: Chapter 2 illustrates the points of the analysis as a question of both texts and composition in the diagram. Chapter 3 illustrates the meaning of two large ovals as the identification of nature and human. Chapter 4 refers to the "image" to recognize the meaning of the third small circle as the "scope for poetry". Through this analysis, it is indicated that he intended to realize the ambiguity in architecture, which is drawn in the third circle suggesting the realm of embodied matters.
Through a study on the architectural designs of "Le Pavilion des Magasins des Galeries Lafayette" for the International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Art in Paris 1925, the followings were made clear: It gives the attractive spaces for beautiful works of decorative arts and, its plans, volumes and, silhouettes are very charming, because it is composed with geometries, and its designs are influenced by some condition such as "Les Magasins des Galeries Lafayette", the architectural competition, sites, site plannings and, the "gabarit".