The purpose of this study is to evaluate quantitatively the combined effects of passage illuminance and passage width on choice of egress route at a T-junction. An experiment was carried out to clarify the effects of passage illuminance and passage width using a full-size T-junction model. From the results of the experiment, the following point became clear : evacuees can be led to a narrow and high illuminance passage most effectively if the relative ratio of the width of the wider passage to that of the narrower one at the T-junction is 1.3 and the relative ratio of the illuminance of the two passages is 5.0.
It is commonly believed to be important for safe evacuation in fire that two or more escape routes are arranged in different directions. As a rule, two or more exits are required by building regulations etc. from any point in a building. This intends to assure at least one available egress route if the other is blocked by fire. Limitation of common path length and requirement of two or more stairways are one form of this requirement. In building regulations, a certain length of common path and a single stairway are accepted as a result of compromise between safety and building economy in broad sense. Still, building plans are significantly affected by the limitation of common path length. Due care should be paid to the adequacy of the provisions. In this paper a standard, which is based on the consideration on expected number of occupants unable to escape, is proposed as an alternative to the limitation of common path length and a single stairway. The average level of evacuation safety of the proposed standards are supposed to be equivalent to existing provisions. However, advantage of the proposed standards are they allow to take into account more factors affecting the safety of single escape route within a logical context. This method will allow much more flexibility in building plans without deteriorating the current level of safety.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the relation between the shape of balcony and acoustical properties under overhangs, and to derive a design criterion for balcony configuration in auditoria. Impulse responses are calculated in models of auditoria by means of computer simulation based on geometrical acoustics when the depth and the height of balcony-opening are varied. The evident effects of overhang can not be found in common acoustical quantities (.SKL, C_<80>, Ts and LE). This means that another index is required for evaluating the lack of auditory envelopment which is often perceived under balcony. Then the relation between the directional characteristics of early reflections and balcony configuration are examined. The result shows that the ratio of vertical energy component to total reflection energy ER_V is extremely reduced under balcony in comparison with that in main orchestra and it is closely related to balcony index of d/h through a regression expression, where d and h are geometrically defined by the positions of sound source, receiving point and balcony edge. Applying the difference limen of ER_V to this relation, it is found that the maximum limit of d/h, within which the degree of auditory envelopment under overhangs is equivalent to that in main seats, lies between 0.7 and 1.3.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the lighting condition for the qualitative lighting design of schoolroom in case of seeing blackboard as visual object. The author tries to measure reflected light on the specimen (blackboard and chalk) surface by every 10° incidental angle and incidental azimuth angle. The luminance of reflected light was measured. But, the luminance of the characters on blackboard is irregular according to adhesion of chalk powder. Therfore, the author tries to measure the area ratio of chalk's and blackboard's part, and the contrast of visual object is obtained from this area ratio. The author reveals the reflection characteristics of the position of the light source(Θi, Φ) and the luminance contrast by the area ratio.
This paper reports the relation between readability and brightness of the printed paper based on the experimental result with eleven subjects whose acuity is from 0.5 to 1.5. The readability, the brightness and these relationships have relations to the visual acuity. The readability has relation to the scene of reading even if the visual angule of letter is the same. The brightness of task surface is independent of the difficulty of task. If the illuminance on the task maintains brightness at a feeling of satisfaction, it is satisfied the proper condition for reading.
In order to design more efficient and comfortable atriums, it is important to comprehend the factors that affect their indoor climate. We have carried out a long term observation for the indoor climate of a real-scale atrium. The boundary conditions were clear and well measured. The results are as follows. (1) The differences of envelope materials result in clear differences of the indoor climate. (2) The vertical temperature distribution is not significant because of natural convection driven by the solar heated floor and the cold glass. (3) The solar heated steel frames in the atrium affect the indoor climate greatly.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the thermal radiation environment using mean radiant temperature MRTr which takes configuration factors and equivalent black body temperatures the effect of the inter-reflection and blocking effect of the human body. Numerical analysis of inter-reflection radiant exchange were carried out using Net Radiation method. MRTr was calculated from radiation rate, emissivity and configuration factors on each surface. As a result, The difference between the MRT considering the effect of inter-reflection and the ordinary MRT stood within ±3℃ when the emissivity of a floor changed from 0.50 to 1.00 under the following floor heating condition : the floor surface temperature 37.5℃ and the other surface temperature 21℃. The MRT was influenced by emissivities of each surface in the non-uniform thermal radiation environments rather than uniform environment. It is necessary to evaluate the non-uniform thermal radiant environment using the MRT considering the effect of radiation inter-reflection and blocking effect of the human body.
Ventilation system for single family house supplying cold fresh outdoor air through crawl space with vertical edge insulation is presented and discussed through experimental study on the experimental house in Sapporo in this paper. Results are as follows; 1) Stable ventilation rate and fresh air intake can be gotten by this system in winter under the condition of condensed housing area. 2) Low temperature caused by cold air intake to crawl space is limited to small area around the air intake opening in the space 3) A little influences on indoor thermal condition such as floor surface temperature by cold fresh outdoor air supply through crawl space is found during heating season.
On the basis of the results of the temperature measurements made in a full-scale test room, a simplified prediction model for simulating room air flow patterns in the underfloor air distribution system was developed, consisting of two vertical areas and three horizontal zones. The model and some derived relationships regarding air flow and heat reproduced the measured temperature profiles with practical accuracy. It was shown by comparison with the uniform room air temperature case, that the underfloor system consumes less energy and allows a lower temperature rise with an increase in heat load.
It is required to study an arrangement of the fixtures in the lavatory from a viewpoint of use frequency . In this paper, the authors constructed the fixtures selection model that was an intentional deciding process of users in the lavatory under connecting use between different fixtures . Objective lavatories were two types , and the authors carried out an evaluating experiment by the theorem using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process . Then, the authors compared prediction results and measurement results, and confirmed efficacy of the proposed model. Also, the fixtures selection model presented in this paper is able to clear the selecting fixtures trend of a user. Furthermore, the most frequently used fixture and useing trend of each fixture can be predicted.
We got some kirids ofcbservation data by artificial satellites. In recent years. It was thought that the accuracy of classification should rise when the rumber of bands to analyze increase. Bit if unfitted bands were used, The accuracy should be down. The purpose of this paper are two. The first one is to analyze the appropriate number of bands to use. The second one is to define the choice index of bands to use. It was concluded that the accuracy increased with the number of bands increasd until 6 bands. But in the case to use 10 bands, the accuracy fell. About analysis time, it increased according to the number of bands. The choice index (the expectation correct answer percentage) was defined to search fitted band in many bands. Expectation conect answer percentage is calculated using the standard regular accumulate distribution function from the distance of maharanobis distance during eachcategory of dassifcation. To use the index, the appropriate combination of bands is found with comparatively simpoe calculation.
To investigate the characteristics of exhaust heat out of air conditioning equipment to outside air is very important. Using four representative types of heat source systems, an analysis was made with a model building by varying the quantity of internally generated heat, both with and without total enthalpy heat exchangers. The quantity and characterisitics of exhaust heat differ with heat source systems in summer. In winter the quantity of exhaust heat from the equipment is small overall. Next, the characteristics of artificial generated heat are changed to the characteristics of artificial exhaust heat that include all latent heat transfer. The chracteristics of artificial exhaust heat are different from characterisitics of artificial generated heat or characteristics of exhaust heat out of the equipment
In this study we evaluated the quality of vegetation for fire prevention for the safety evacuation area in Tokyo ward area using satellite remote sensing. We analyzed multi-temporal data of Landsat TM to get the distribution data of deciduous vegetation. The safety evacuation areas are classified by their effective area and composition of land cover into eight types to consider measures for more preventive of fire spreading. As solution, we showed necessity to put evergreen broad leafed trees on the fringe of the safety evacuation area.
Recently, there are utilized many simulation-package for dynamic thermal load calculations. It is importance to make clear the computational validation of numerical accuracy. Accuracy of transition matrix for two-node state model was compared between analytical solution and taylor-series method by SAPLO. The result showed the matrix of SAPLO was almost equals the analytical solution. Next, the backward finite difference method and SAPLO was examined in annual load simulation of simplified model. It was found that the room temperature was as same as them. The largest difference of them was found at the heating loads during start-up period.
The purpose of this study is to grasp behavioral characteristics of people with thaiidomide-induced upper limb disabilities in Japan and Sweden. Subjects had congenital disabilities caused of thalidomide tablets during their mother's pregnancies. We had interviews with 27 cases in Japan and 9 cases in Sweden. Their devices to compensate for disabilities were as following: 1) Managing daily behaviors with their feet instead of their hands. 2) Introducing housing adaptations to make physical environments to be adapted to their disabilities. 3) Using daily utensils that was fitting their need. They were roughly divided into l)+2)type and l)+3) type.
In the present study, we have investigated the changes and developments of the arrangement of houses and rooms of urban independent residences built after the World War II in Fukuoka City. Conclusions; It was during the post-War Showa Period when the "front facing style" had been replaced by a new one. The old principle, originated in the samurai residences of Edo Era, lasted through the Meiji and Taisho Eras until right before the World War II. The process of this change was quick. The new principle characterized by "a style that respects south facing" is the root of the housing plan of these days. Zashiki rooms, which used to face the north due to the north entrance of the house designed according to the "front facing principle," moved to the south which used to be the family space. The idea underlying this change was the house planning principle that respects south facing.
Recently.many children use public libraries with their parents,which we call 'family use'.The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation of the children's book corners to the adults' book corners in public libraries.The results are as follows;There are three types of the family use; the first is the case in which children alone make use of the library, the second is the one in which parents alone do so, and the last is when both of them come for their own purposes. In the last case, each of them goes to his own corner accompanied by the other, or they occupy their separate corners for their own purposes, separated from each other. Most children come for their own purposes, but about 28% of their parents do not come for their purposes. There are two types of corner locations at public libraries ;the children's corner adjacent to the adults' book corner and the corner not closely connected to the corner for the adults. When the children's book corner is next to the adults',more children can separate from their parents to use their corner than when both corners are far apart.
The spatial conversion of the community facilities to shelters after the Kobe Earthquake were surveyed in Nada and Higashinada Ward in Kobe City. Through this survey, the followings are made clear, (i)Large scale shelters such as school buildings served greatly as the base of relief operations, (ii)Small scale shelters supported refuge life in cooperation with the neighborhood, (iii)Open space was used in more ways than indoor space, (iv)The problems of the shelters for refugees result from the damage of lifelines by earthquake, the imcompleteness for living space, mass life, and the restoration of their original functions.
In this paper , spatial composition in circulation path is typologically analyzed in terms of articulation and connection of "room", in the domain of Japanese contemporary architecture. The "room" is classified by its volumetoric characteristics such as interior "1 story-room", "2 story-room" and "exterior room". In the room connecting circulation path, several connection-patterns such as "linear","loop","tree" and "passage" are found, and also another characteristics such as "entrance","node" and "temae-oku" are relatively given to rooms. The typological compositions of circulation path are defined by the combination of room's volumetric and relative characteristics in the connection-pattern. In conclusion the rhetorics of spatial composition in circulation path are clarified as accentuation, superimposition, elimination or combination of spatial feature latent in the room-connecting composition, such as "interiority","traversability","circularity".
Recent increase in an attention for lifelong learning has occurred from changes in life style which is diversified and individualized in communities and then lifelong learning service has considered as not only to newly develop regional facilities but also to utilize effectively regional resources such as natural environment, community planning and human resources. The present paper studied on the level of public services of lifelong learn ing supported by local municipalities all over Japan, analyzed the direction and problems for the activities depending upon each level of lifelong learning projects, and also extracted the factors for its improvement. Here, the level means width, quality, and effects of the lifelong learning. The lifelong learning activities in each municipality and the municipal support to the activities were searched from view points of consolidation of the steering projects and the situations of utilizing regional facilities and resources.
The purpose of this study is to clear the process of urbanization in Tsukuba New Town from the data of our long-term surveys and to appear the relationship of the factors that described from the three sides of urbanization. We conclude: 1) There are three types of the changing pattern of urbanization described by the factors. 2) As the phenomenon of urbanization there are three turning points. 3) Although the former two turning points are influenced by governmental and social phenomenon, the latter results from inside factors, in which the period of maturity can be divided from the phase of new town.
This study is based on the findings of investigations carried out on two occasions, in 1975 and 1990, into leisure activities participated in Takashimadaira and Shimada. The actual conditions in which the facilities and spaces in neighboring districts were utilized by people during their leisure time were analyzed. This was followed by the consideration of the mechanism of correlations between leisure activities and the leisure facilities in neighboring districts. The findings indicated that in the case of leisure facilities in neighboring districts, there was a particular correlation between the facilities distribution and the time spent for leisure activities.
In the field of City Planning, of course the meaning of the city itself has been clarified from all sorts of angles, but. at the same time, the meaning of planning itself ought to be clarified, as far as the essencial meaning of City Planning is "to plan the city". Especially in these days when some targets of planning are not understood or supported by all persons concerned, it is very important for us to study on the meaning of the value in City Planning, however it may not be discussed objectively. The purpose of this study is to try to focus on the value in City Planning and to ascertain the human nature about the value.
Already 50% or more households live in apartment houses in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area according to Housing Census 1993. Tenure mixed apartment which is defined as mixture of rental units in a condominium is one of important topics in the field of management of condominium. This study is to propose the criteria to define rental unit in a condominium in the Housing Census 1993 and to find out the characteristics of tenure mixed apartments in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The findings are as follows. There are 70% or more condominium which have at least one rentalized unit. High-rise condominium have more rentalized units than middle-rise one. The share of rentalized unit is getting high along with increase of floor area of apartment unit. Recently the rentalized ratio is increasing at the beginning of supply. These facts burden the difficulties on the management of condominium.
Not a few munafudas (dedication boards) of Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples have except the main clause a name of god and Buddha. Most of the gods on the munafudas are either a guardian deity of architecture or the ancestral god of craft, or Mizuhanomenomikoto (the goddess of water); all are connected with carpentry or craftmanship. Buddhas on the munafudas we usually Indras, Brahmas, or Devas of the four directions. And A few munafudas have a mythical Amonofutodamanomikoto. Quite understandably, no Buddhas appear on the munafudas after the Meiji era, when the separation of Shintoism and Buddhism was proclaimed and enforced by the government. The most common names on munafudas after the Meiji era are Yafunekukunochinomikoto and Yafunetoyoukehimenomikoto (the god and the goddess of carpentry) and Taokihooinomikoto and Hikosashirinomikoto (both the guardian deities of craftmen). Buddhas appear up to the Edo period from the middle century.
The stages which have a shape like a boat used for the sagimai dance during shrine festivals in Nakai Town and Oiso Town, Kanagawa prefecture have never been studied in architectural history. These stages are unique in Japan, and one is a temporary building at present, the other which is an assembled stage at present was a temporary building once. In this paper I examine these stages, then the architectural character, use, date, reason of design like a boat are clarified this time.
We could trace back the building activities of emigrant carpenters from Echigo (present Niigata Prefecture) in Hokkaido since the seventeenth century to Meiji Era (1868-1912). After 1855 when the port of Hakodate was opened for foreign ships, there several large constructions fascinated many building workers including several capable carpenters from Echigo region. In early Meiji Era, the Kaitakushi (Colonial Department) gathered 51 carpenters in 1871 singularly from Maze, a tiny coastal village in Echigo, and next year 367 from Echigo for the constructions in Sapporo. Among them, and among those who emigrated after them, there were Kazaemon (c.1832-c.1892) and Yojiro (1864-1940) Shinoharas, Kyushiro Abe (1849-1910), Kametaro Ito (1863-1944) and others who founded their contractor companies of construction.
Based on consideration of an actual condition of a mesurment in the medieval times, Japan-P.Paquet presumes that the Pythagorean triangle, which easily establishes 16-divided-squares with a rope, was functionally handled to lay out a church on a site. Also with the idea of actual foot derived from two figures mentioned above, he analyzes the fundamental design system of several French medieval churches, including cathedral of Reims. This paper examines whether a double square which was put to practical use for designing a church can be applied in the fundamental design system of a facade of cathedral of Reims proposed by Jean-P.Paquet and shows that the geometrical figure was possibly employed in a design process of the cathedral.
A new category of garden building, namely Gothick sham castle, has been born in the period 1743-1760's. The socioeconomic meaning of popularity of these buildings is studied from the view point of the Anglo-French mercantile competition. English free traders appealed to arms to capture French trading posts, and to conquer the world trade markets. In these circumstances Gothick sham castles and castellated houses played an important role in raising their commercial chauvinism, in stirring morale to drive the people to wars, and in urging them to be united for victories, that is to say, formation of the British Empire and rapid increase of the volume of her world trade.
With the development of high-band width communication technology, designers' interests seem to shift gradually from a single-user, single-domain system to a network based group-work design system. So long as one regards that the design activity develops only in a concurrent, but asynchronous fashions, it is possible to say that file transfers through computer networks have already opened up the possibility of a hands-on collaborative design process in which all participants do not have to gather in the same place. However, few CAD systems support group design work that develops in a concurrent synchronous fashion. This paper discusses a basic model of group work CAD systems that the authors have developed for windows PCs linked with LAN. Reviewing procedure of system operation, the authors conclude that the system could stimulate and accelerate a process of group work design.