The contents written on the standard application forms of house adaptation were analyzed, and the actual conditions of activities which were supposed to be improved by housing repair were clarified. The three major activities concerned with the purpose of housing repair were “rising from and/or sitting on the toilet seat”, “getting in and/or out of the bathroom” and “getting in and/or out of the bathtub”. However, one third of samples did not indicate nor materialize the purpose of house repair. To carry out suitable house adaptation, the guidance of the standard application forms which materializes the purpose was required.
The purpose of this paper is to show the demands of new space in primary schools, by grasping required functions and the usage of multi-purpose spaces and vacant classrooms. Main results are as follows; 1) The new required functions for school activities are cleared, from analyzing the degree of realization about assumptive 45 functions and the demands of their improvement. 2) The process of functions arrangement is showed, through the transform of space requirements depended on surplus of spaces in school facilities. 3) The space demands of school facilities are clarified by the characteristic of free-space usage for the required functions.
This paper aims to clarify customers' behavioral characteristics at bookstores by focusing on building types, bookshelf arrangements, and customers' attributes of bookstores. We conducted plot research to investigate customer collection situation and trace observations in bookstores to grasp customers' detailed behavior. We found that customers' attribute and behavior vary by the bookstore, and that visual sequentiality of subject field of books as well as physical sequentiality influence how customers move around and browse books in bookstores.
In this paper the group size and the occupied area in children's free activities extracted by photos taken in each 10 minutes at children's nurseries were studied. Shapes of areas occupied by play activities were mostly consistent with the shape of situated activity areas they took place in and sizes of situated areas mostly matched the activity's needs. Following points also emerged: 1) Most groups had up to 6 members; 2) Area size of 2 tatami-mat, or even smaller in some cases, should be sufficient; 3) Shape types and activity kinds had different tendencies in size changing behaviors of activities.
The purpose of this study is to examine the actual condition of group home for children in residential care, and to clarify issues of the living environment. The main findings are as follows: 1) There are 194 group homes throughout Japan. 2) The types of the living environment are characterized by its property, the size of the housing and the member of the group homes. Not all the group homes afford enough space for the children and the staff. 3) The difference in living environment comes also from finances and welfare policy in each local autonomy.
Until now, common space was considered as space that anyone can use. In addition, the buildings are classified according to function of building type or building use, and a lot of studies from the viewpoint of function side and designs have been made. But the demand of diversifying user lets contain the various activity that accorded with purpose to buildings, and the conception of possession and common in the building space become meaning many things more by form of the activity to become complicated. In this research, we analyze about relationship of possession space and common space of the buildings and consider it by pay attention to home range of user, possession space, and common space as focusing on specific various buildings.
Architectural design means to not only structural formation but consideration about things from the every aspects. Architect constructs the best architectural form by architectural inspections which are based on a lot of knowledge, experience and social circumstances. However, if each architect designs architecture in the same site and requirement, they design different ones. That's to say, factors to design the architecture are not only external ones but also internal ones, and each people has different internal ones. This research is the first report about investigation of architectural design process and architect's thought, and to inspect the identity of thought, we examine it comparing with the requirements of architectural design competition. Then we aim to find architect's latent thoughts which appear in the design process.
Stairs are a must for going to other floors. And there are little studies of stairs that distinguish between ascending and descending. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between dimensions of stairs and ratings of impression with walk, and to suggest advisable dimensions of stairs. The following conclusions were obtained: 1) subjects can grasp various dimensions of stairs, 2) dimensions of stairs 150mm-170mm rise and 290mm-330mm estimated safety and satisfaction enough, besides feeling comfortably, 3) evaluation for dimensions of rise are different between ascending and descending stairs, 170mm-190mm rise get best evaluation for descending stairs.
Authors have been conducting the field research on urban villages in the developing regions. Kampungs in Surabaya, Indonesia are the first and continuous targets to trace the spatial formation and transformation. We carried out the intensive field survey on the same two Kampungs in 2006, which we had surveyed in 1984. This paper clarifies the changes of kampungs during these twenty years and discusses the transformation process of kampung formation and kampong houses. The changes of kampong houses are drastic but follow the transformation process we clarified in early 1980s. The kampungs become more densely populated and houses with two or three floors increase rapidly. It is remarkable that inhabitants groups are divided into two, the rich and the poor, the settler and the migrants.
This paper presents an insight of commercial activities in the Central Commercial District of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania known as Kariakoo. The study is conducted through questionnaire test and field survey targeting formal and informal commercial activities such as street vendors, shopping stores and other social-economic activities which are conducted by small and medium entrepreneurs. Based on the selection criteria, 64 blocks with 806 various buildings that contain commercial activities are analyzed. It is observed that commercial activities can be categorized in terms of nature of commodities, physical size and location. Additionally, it is clarified that more than 75% of the activities in Kariakoo are conducted by small and medium scale entrepreneurs prevailing social and economical contribution of informal sector as one of the essential sources of economic growth in developing cities. Based on users' preferences, several urban issues categorized as architectural, infrastructure and social that need intervention in order to improve commercial environment in the Kariakoo area are pointed out for improvement according to the existing condition.
The aim of this paper is to trace the change in shops in Osaka Nippombashi electric shopping street through the analysis of the component ratio by the type of shops through the year 1985-2007. The Nippombashi shopping street, which once flourished as the 2nd biggest electric shopping district in Japan, has suffered serious damage from development of large electric shops in the central district. By clarifying cause and characteristic of the changes in type of shops, this paper also aims to find some activation factors for revitalization, which to the best of our knowledge, in the first academic attempt in specialty shopping street in the central district.
During the 20th century, Asakusa was known as “Eiga-gai” which means “Cinema-City”, since it was a place with the highest concentration of cinemas in Japan. Nowadays, few cinemas are still opened and the popularity of Asakusa, as an entertainment district, has fallen inexorably. The first step in doing this study was to perform a land use analysis through several periods, including the Meiji, Taisho, Showa, and the present. The second step was to collect all data and compare them to understand how the“Cinema-City” was born in Asakusa and how the area developed, changed, and declined over the past century. The results of this study make clear the following points: 1) The Cinema-City presented the highest concentration cinemas in Japanese history. 2) The Cinema-City experienced many changes in architectural styles, land use, ownerships, and landscape. These changes are carefully examined and reported in the present study.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a Tsunami evacuation simulation model. In this model, which uses the concept of Multi-Agent Systems, each evacuee has an age, an evacuation speed, a number of neighborhood obstacles, a fatigue level and a consciousness of disaster mitigation as attribute data. Evacuation behavior is decided by interaction of these data and environment around the evacuee. This model was applied to Tomoura historical built-up area in Tokushima to evaluate six scenarios of disaster mitigation. From the results of these simulations, it was found that giving the Tsunami alert to all inhabitants quickly was the most important factor.
The purpose of this study is to consider the spatial quality of the environment around cemeteries in Kyoto based on the analysis of the transformation process of urban space on Rendaino area. Since the ancient times, ‘Rendaino’ which located in the urban periphery had been a funeral area on the hillside of Mt.Hidaridaimonji. Rendaino area was very different from the inner urban area of Kyoto in terms of spatial and cultural quality, but those two areas have long been interrelated with each other. Rendaino area, where many cemeteries, ancient tumbs, shrines and temples are located in had been greatly changed with the process of so-called modernization from Meiji Restoration. This paper clarifies the changing process of land uses of Rendaino area based on the field survey. This paper concludes that the environmental changes around cemeteries, ancient tumb, shrines and temples brought the deterioration of spatial quality of Rendaino area.
The aim of this research is to construct and apply a “Cleaning quality control method using occupants' evaluations” based on the FM method, to obtain findings to facilitate the smooth execution of cleaning quality control. Specifically, this paper clarifies the evaluation points such as “subject of focus”, “type of dirt on subject”, and “state of dirt” in each of the respective cleaning categories in government buildings. In addition, based on the results, four levels of evaluation criteria for cleaning quality are established for each cleaning category, and used to survey the evaluations of cleaning quality in multiple government buildings.
This study examines the issues of management on the leasehold flats in England. There are approximately 1.5 million units of flats. They are owner-occupied housings, and are divided into freehold and long leasehold. Long leasehold flats are common. There are many problems in long leasehold flats which are pointed out such as; depreciating asset, imbalance of stake holding, landlord abuses, poor management, lessee ignorance, noise, insufficient of knowledge concerning the management company and the board of director, troubles between the management company and managing agents, lack of cost of maintenance, absentee owners (leaseholder), freehold purchase and leasehold extension, service charge and so on. And then, freehold purchase and new management system was established in 1993 .And commonhold system was established as a new tenure of block of flats in 2002. One of big differences between commonhold and leasehold is tenure of unit. The commonhold has unit with freehold, on the other hand, the leasehold has unit with leasehold. Central government makes law and regulation.. for commonhold, and then establishes the organization for advices.
This paper is a study of environmental evaluations method of outdoor walkways on campuses. Based on the results of “selection of each route” and “risk factors for walkways” surveys, in this research 10 evaluation criteria were developed for environmental evaluations of outdoor walkways. These 10 evaluation criteria were then used to implement a survey of environmental evaluations of outdoor walkways. Through an analysis of the survey results, 4 items were identified as requiring improvement: ‘the length of slopes should be short’, ‘slopes should be gradual’, ‘the distance to the destination should be short’, and ‘the pathway should have a roof.’
This study is to clear the method of restoration of architectural monuments which Suekichi Kameoka(1865-1922) concerned. This paper take up 3 architectural monuments, the front shrine of Ujigamijinnja shrine and the main shrine of Kasuga jinja of Ujigamijinnja shrine restored on 1911 and other is the main shrine of Izumojinngu srhrine restored on 1914. Three were restored by Kameoka and were pointed out reconstructive restoration. This paper focus on detail of sculpture design and compare drawings and pictures of pre with post restoration of 3 architecture. Kameoka's method of restoration of architectural monuments was complete of detail sculpture design. It's methoed is Dismantling the latter fitting part and to fit detail by style of original by which Kameoka researches and creates. This method formed by knowledge which Kameoka collected detail design of architecture, and by an idea of compltement of design wichi the department of design of the Tokyo fine art school insists, and Sekino's idea of decision of architectural monuments age by sculpture design.
In Meiji period, the placement relations of auditorium and Noh stage, was changing from contraposition style to surrounding style. But when the end of Meiji era, the Noh theater space was beginning changed to new style. That is the traditional Noh stage located at indoor of theater and still being an individual building. I called it as Ireko style. This paper picked up two cases, one is Kongo Noh Theater, another is the theater of Hosho Noh Society. Though these two case study, I clarify the construction process of new style. In addition, I inspected the outbreak of Ireko style Noh theater how related with the Noh improvement movement for the same period.
After the Showa enthronement was held at Kyoto Imperial Palace in 1928, various constructions involved in the ceremony were presented to those who requested. The followings will show explication and analysis for the process of the presentation by mainly referring to Kyoto prefectural administrative documents. Through the process of presented constructions, intention of the people who were concerned is to be comprehended.
This paper treats a timber frame concrete block construction and its formative process through a case study of Ijokaku and Toa Cement Company. Wu Jintang who was the founder of Ijokaku and the proprietor of Toa Cement Company introduced Tensho Taoka's concrete block processing technology into his Company in 1908. They constructed 'Shokai-Bessou' that was the building of the Timber Frame Concrete Block Construction by using its own concrete blocks as an alternative material of the brick or stone by the earliest in our country. The direction of the block development of Toa Cement Company and Taoka did not achieve of low-cost by mass production, and not develop the reinforced concrete block, but advanced to the pursuit of the additional value of the design etc. as materials of the masonry construction. Therefore it was not possible that their projects succeeded. As a result, Ijokaku that was the model house was a really unique approaches in a short period between masonry construction Era and reinforced concrete construction Era in the history of Japanese Architecture.
This paper will investigate the relationship between the court ceremonies of the Rum Seljuk dynasty and architecture in medieval Anatolia. Until now, the study of the architectural history of the era has concentrated on the records and interpretations of visual elements such as ornamentation of buildings. Here, however, I will employ textual sources to reveal the functional elements of Rum Seljuk-era architecture. The text especially provides us detailed informations on court ceremonies, including descriptions of the buildings and spaces where they were conducted. The lack of written architectural documents in medieval Anatolia enhances the importance of the text.
This study discusses the transformation of stupas in the Gandhara Buddhist temples focusing plinth forms and masonry techniques. The first article studies the remains of two archaeological sites, Ranigat and Takht-i-bahi, located in “Central Gandhara” where is the core region of Gandhara in the broad meaning. It was found 1) the plinth forms are categorized into three such as one-story type, two-story type, step-down type, 2) one-story and step-down types are common in Ranigat site and two-story type in Takht-i-bahi site, and 3) the transitions of masonry techniques of two sites have commonality.
This paper discusses the fundamental principles of the methodologies adopted by Alberti and Brunelleschi. It can be said that their methodologies differ substantially from each other. In designing buildings, Brunelleschi established a logical and mathematical system, whereas Alberti often accepted a local and traditional assembly of parts, deviating from calculated rules. However, according to Cassirer, a reciprocal relationship between the necessity of nature and the autonomy of the mind was impossible for intellectuals in the early Renaissance. This may well have hampered both Brunelleschi and Alberti from integrating local traditions with abstract rules. Consequently, Brunelleschi would have sacrificed the former in favor of the latter, and Alberti the opposite.
In this research, we analyzed Mies van der Rohe's interior montages to understand how Mies imagined his space. In Mies's interior montages the spatial expression is formalized schematically rather than depicting his space actually, and it brings the contradiction between single lined perspectives and montaged sub-components that corresponds with Mies's separation of spatial frame and sub-components. Montaged components also marginalize the spatial aspects of single lined perspectives with their rich texture and lack of the thickness. Through the research, we understand Mies's interior montages express his spatial conception rather than actual subjective image of his space.