This study aims to investigate the walking speed of children by age during an urban-scale tsunami evacuation drill of a nursery school, where 391 children were divided in ten groups and instructed to walk two abreast following the group's head conductor. Main results: average speed varies from 0.49 m/s (2+5 years together) to 1.29 m/s (5 years) in sidewalk, and from 0.19m/s (2+5 years together) to 0.60m/s (5 years) in overpass bridge stairs (measured in inclined plane); average speed tends to be determined by the group's head conductor speed; average speed in downstairs tends to be slower than in upstairs.
This paper discusses house types and their transformation of Fuzhou city in Fujian(China). Authors selected the old castle district of the central part of Fuzhou, which are called Sanfangqixiang and Zhuzifang at present, as an intensive field study and clarified the typology of dwelling units and the transformation process. The central areas of old castle are still occupied by low rise houses and shop houses and are designated as a preserved area. The formation of the target areas, the origin of which goes back to Tang dynasty, does not seem to follow a certain formal system, but we can point out the system of formation of street blocks, based on typology of traditional house dacao and its collective form. This paper classified 39 residences called dacuo , which we measured and collected from the others' documents, in terms of the numbers of spans and courtyards, into several types and discusses the collective system of dacuo.
This paper aims to clarify actual condition of permanent housing and its residents' livelihood rehabilitation in two resettlements respectively in and outskirts of Banda Aceh Municipality (BNA) constructed from six to eight years after Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004. Our research was first done by questionnaire survey to all the permanent houses followed by the detailed interview survey to a particular community unit. The paper focuses on Tzu Chi Resettlement in Kelurahan Panteriek in BNA and China Charity Federation Resettlement in Aceh Besar. According to the result of questionnaire survey, most residents from both resettlement sites turned out to live in BNA before, especially in the coastal Kecamatans. However many residents in Tzu Chi Resettlement were former house/land owners who moved in with various reasons. Contrary to that, those in Chinese Resettlement were mostly former tenants who rented houses in BNA. Examination on the livelihood rehabilitation chiefly focuses on occupation, formation of community and intention to reside permanently in the resettlement.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the hospital birth centers. The findings are as follows : 1) Many are modification or the existing construction. 2) 90 percent or more of users are satisfied. 3) The hospital birth centers are divided into three types by the exclusive degree of necessary rooms. 4) Bedding of delivery rooms have three types. 5) Futon and bare feet are important. 6) Delivery rooms have five types.7) There are four types of places which perform medical aid. 8) The device for sensing carefully is required.
The purpose of this study is to clarify conceptualizing the environment of private room based on "Personhood" of elderly with dementia in group care unit and relations between it and dwelling consciousness. The results are summarized as follows. The conceptual model of the environment of private room based on personhood of the elderly with dementia is structured by eight aspect including personalization. The elderly with dementia who think one's final residence has strong consciousness for personalization in conceptual model. In the elderly with dementia based on the recognition of the final residence, it is important that it promotes continuity and autonomy while maintaining personalization and secures social relationship and stability. On the other hand, in the elderly with dementia based on the recognition of the temporary residence, the private properties are not suddenly carried, and it is important to change their recognition little by little.
In this study, the area and contents of notices and posters on the walls in and around classrooms were surveyed in 6 special-needs schools for children with intellectual disabilities. It was found that 1) the area of notices and posters is different among schools, 2) the area of notices and posters related to school life in classes for children with autism is smaller than that in typical classes or that in classes for children with severe and multiple disabilities, whereas the area of notices and posters related to each subjects is not much different between classes.
This study aims to develop an arrangement system of evacuation facilities using GA to improve the evacuation safety of buildings. As a result of an application to a large-scale facility, this system was able to reduce the estimated evacuation time as the GA generation went by. Moreover, we evaluated the GA-generated plans using a multi-agent system to take into consideration for crowd movement. The value of correlation coefficient was 0.87 between the evacuation time of the GA and that of the multi-agent system. The difference of them became smaller as the GA generation went by.
The individual physical distances infants maintained from a robot as it moves toward them were studied. This research focused on a small mobile robot and identified the distances which the robot can approach infants. The following five results were obtained. 1. Infants tended to position themselves to the front of the robot. 2. There was no correlation and dependence between the speed and approach angle of the robot toward the infants and the individual physical distance the infant maintained. However, there was a slight distinction in individual physical distance depending on whether the infant was in a “standing” or “sitting” position. 3. There was no difference in individual physical distance between the robot and an infant on the basis of a robot height of 600 mm and 900 mm with the covers attached to it. 4. Infants tended to like a robot 300 mm high and 200 mm wide. 5. Infants maintained closer individual distances than adults.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the psychological and physiological effects of the seismic ground motion. So, a few exercises which testees were experienced the observed seismic wave including a vertical vibration, were performed and analyzed by the age. The main results of physiological change are summarized as follows; 1）Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased immediately after vibratory loading, and pulse beats rate showed the tendency which decreases conversely. 2）About the time jitter of blood pressure and cardiac beats rate, neither the youth group nor the elderly-people group accepted a significant change. 3）Blood pressure and pulse beats rate did not accept a difference with both a youth group and an elderly-people group significant in the relation just before vibratory loading and just behind vibratory loading. 4）The significant difference by the existence of vibration was seen in salivary amylase measurement.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the navigational effect of a sound sign placed above the route at a height of 3m. The experimental conditions are: 1) no sound signal, 2) one loudspeaker pointing toward the approaching subject at the goal (30m from the start point), 3) two loudspeakers pointing toward the approaching subject at the goal and midpoint, 4) three loudspeakers pointing toward the ground at 5m, 15m, 25m points. It was revealed that every type of sound sign is generally effective but the last one was found to be most effective and feasible for applying to a street.
Plane is a concept which has been dealt with as a basic constituent particularly in architecture. Plane is, in space, created on the surface based on the features and conditions of phenomenona. Plane exists mutually involved in those various phenomena on the surface. Architects image architectural space and characterize the space by using the concept of plane. From these backgrounds, a word: plane, which has been described for various meanings of words in terms of text description by architects. In this research, we analyzed text description of buildings by architects and finally define 19 types of polysemy of plane and their relationship.
This study is aimed to consider the regenerative method viewed from the relationship between the housing stock and the distribution of facilities in and around Kozoji Newtown. As the results we found that more people tend to live around the Newtown because more numbers of commercial facilities has been located around rather than within the Newtown. It causes that the Newtown has remained an only residential town because facility location is legally or as some rules restricted in the most of the areas except the center area. Therefore we consider that it is important to give each area some added value and attractiveness by promoting commercial use in UR rental housing blocks or detached housing areas in order to increase the numbers of new residents in the Newtown.
The aim of this study is to make clear the spatial composition and formative process of reclaimed villages by a case study on Kawasoe Area facing the Ariake Coast in Saga City. The most large-scale reclamed village "Inuido" is located at Kawasoe Area . Nomura settlement located on polder dike was formed as a separated village of "Inuido".We attempt to clarify the spacial variation of reclaimed villages, therefore we analysed the formative process of Nomura settlement. As a result we revealed the unique expansion process of the reclaimed villages.
The purpose of this study is to propose a method of quantification of the gap between buildings. The gap is defined as an area where a circle of radius r cannot sweep through on a building location map. To extract the gap area, the operations of image processing method are applied. By applying the proposed method to the building location of Tokyo and Osaka cities, the following results were obtained. 1) The quantity of gap cannot be neglected in urban area. 2) The gap ratios and indices of building density were correlated. 3) High gap ratio areas are located circularly.
This study aims to clarify the process of the incremental regeneration of unutilised inner harbour areas in Japan. The way of gradual regeneration in inner harbour areas by renovating the old warehouses is being developed in the several ports in Japan recently. These examples (Tokushima-Komatsushima Port, Hiroshima Port, Oita Port) are characterized in the long-term conversion of the not highly historical valued harbour facilities and the cooperation between private companies, NPO and public sectors. Staged regeneration can reveal potentials of attracting people in inner harbour areas and stakeholders play their roles on enhancing the amenity of people's spending time there. Especially, developing the public spaces on seashore by public sectors is important for chaging the usage on piers.
This paper focuses on the possibility of the generation changing based on the relocation between detached houses and apartments on the new towns. The major conclusions are summed up as follows: 1) Elderly households relocate from their detached house for release from snow clearing. 2) The youth households who have relatives and acquaintances in the new town tend to relocate into the existing houses in there. 3) The relocated households get the information of houses with the community information from relatives and acquaintances.
This paper intends to express and analyze the dynamics of retail zones on virtual space from a viewpoint of consumers' choice behavior. Related on this study, there is a series of the representative previous studies established by Wilson A. G. which mainly deal with simplified consumers' choice behavior and retail zone. To improve them, we improve model in the two points shown below; 1. It considers consumers' trip-chaining behavior in addition to single choice behavior. 2. It distinguishes the several attributes of retail zone. To improve these models, we suggest the methods to create different choice set according to each consumer. In this study, we find theresults which have not been discovered in previous studies by the above-mentioned model improvements. First, small retail zone tends to survive compared to the previous models. Second, each of the small retail zones belongs to the particular big retail zone and the consumers who choose two retail zones consume in small retail zones, therefore, small retail zones enable to survive.
This study understands the condition of the zoning area designation and presents the problems of the zoning area specification. We treat for the cities having Non- Area Divided City Planning Area where the zoning area has been newly designated after 1997. In this study, we clarify the followings. 1) Many cities designate the zoning area that doesn't come up to 40 person population density per hectare. 2) Development has not been advanced and the farmland remains in the zoning area. 3) In addition, development is advanced outside the zoning area and there is danger of the sprawl of development even if the population of the city decreases.
This study analyzes the influence of frequency in the use of convenience facilities, which changes with age, on the location pattern of these facilities and dwellings, considering the difficulties in shifting their location. To this end, this study obtains the optimum location pattern using genetic algorithm. The results show that in the case of shrinking population without shift of dwellings, the facilities are sparsely located in short-time optimization or linearly located in long-term optimization, while the dwellings are located in the gradation patterns around the facilities. Also in the case of constant population, the facilities are sparsely located.
This study aimed to develop a support tool for discussion of workshop to examine improvement draft plans in densely built-up areas, and to verify usability of using support tool to reach a consensus. The obtained evaluations are as follows. By providing disaster mitigation performance evaluation results and spatial townscape images after improvement using the support tool on-site of the workshops, participants can easily understand and share the effects of promoting safety from earthquake disasters and changes in the townscape. Moreover, facilitators can extract participant's opinions. From these effects, the support tool contributes to the promotion of a consensus building.
In Korea, from the middle of 2000s, new type of wooden houses increased which combines contemporary technologies and planning with Korean traditional design, “Hanok”. These new Hanoks have been built in newly developed housing areas as well as in preservation districts in urban areas. As a representative case of new Hanok, in Jeollanamdo, HAPPINESS VILLAGE PROJECT started at 2007 and effected policies of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs and other local governments. This study investigates HAPPINESS VILLAGE PROJECT, using data mainly from interviews with 33 companies and associations such as Jeollanamdo Provincial Government, contractors, carpenters, etc.
In this paper, we developed a residential resource evaluation method for reorganization of urban area. The results are as follows: 1. We introduced a concept of "residential resources", regarding residential stocks as resources. 2. "Residential resources" of houses were evaluated based on a model considering the effect of the construction year, construction material and disaster risks. 3. The detailed regional dataset of residential conditions was estimated to enable to apply the model for evaluating the value of "residential resources" in a quantitative way. 4. This evaluation method can reveal the districts which need to be improved or preserved.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss international cooperation project of the building local libraries in the townships in Columbia. To consider historic environments and community aspects of the townships in terms of architectural design is an important subject, so that we need to understand design methods of community architecture. We decided to understand the design methods and management of the local libraries. As a result, variety of architectural design, in relation with the historic environment and local climate were understood. And we understand that the conservation methods should be applied to the design methods of community architecture.
A Study on Components of Gangi-Dori in the Modern Ages was analyzed on following 3 aspects. 1. The width of Gangi-Dori was 0.9m to 2.7m in the modern ages. Wide Gangi was used for markets. 2. Many big sign boards were fixed on each roofs of Gangi-Dori in Taisho era. 3. Little eaves (Mago-Hisasi) were constructed in front of Gangi-Dori for the market.
In succession to the previous article, this paper aims to clarify the hierarchy in various edifices, existing within the principal section of women's sector in the Edo castle, called Ohoku Goten-muki, by taking notice of their interior decoration, during the Koka-Manen eras. As a result, the edifices served for the public assembly were categorized into three grades: the Gotaimenjo as a superior, the Gozanoma as a second, and the Goshuden as a third grade.In contrast, the Okozashiki was assigned to the edifice for the private life of the Shogun and the shogunal wife.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the realities of Heian revivalistic style of the court-noble's residence at the early modern period. In this paper, the residence of the Kujo-family especially were taken up and the history of the residences at the early modern period was confirmed. The shinden had the Heian revivalistic style since the former half of the 17th century. After conflagration Tenmei, strong intention to revivalistic style became clear, and this style was realized by the factor of the close affinity relationship with Nijo-family through the early modern period.
We analyzed the residential works designed by Isoya YOSHIDA(1894-1974) in order to clarify changes of the seating style of middle and upper class houses in Taisho and Showa era. The points of analysis are : relationship between the name of room and the seating style, rooms of floor-seating style, rooms of chair-seating style, room of chair-seating style and floor-seating style and differences in level of their rooms between them. The results are as follows. The changes are mainly happened in two terms; 1930-35 and 1955-60.
The result of previous studies of the Preah Vihear temple complex tend to conclude that the complex had been gradually enlarged by adding structures to previously built temple components. However, we would prefer to consider that the temple complex was originally designed according to an overall master plan, or a series of several plans developed consecutively. Understanding the method and process of design work, and scheme of composition is critical to understanding the intent of the architect. Based on our on-site measurement surveys and associated data, this paper attempts to clarify this issue by the analysis of the dimensional plan applied for designing the Preah Vihear temple layout. As a result of our research we have determined that the layout of the portion of the temple complex that is at the hill crest could be the result of a master plan employing a standard construction unit of 412mm like many other Khmer monuments.
Ancient Messene, Greece, was founded by Epaminondas in 369 B.C. Kumamoto University Architectural Mission to Greece has surveyed, since 2007, the architectural remains of the theater including more than a hundred blocks from walls, columns, etc., in order to reconstruct its form of Roman period. The authors analyzed remains and blocks in detail and tried to reconstruct the cavea in the last phase from the 1st to 3rd century A.D. We have reached conclusion that tha cavea was separated in 3 parts with 2 diazoma. The lower and middle cavea were separated into 11 and the upper cavea into 16.
This study uses historical maps and data to research the Buddhist temple area in Komagome. The temple and graveyard areas of the Edo, Early-Meiji Period, Beginning of Taisho Period and the present day are layered on a map, and the overlapping images are analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the following findings are observed: 1. In the Edo Period, many temples were transferred from the neighboring areas, for example, Kanda, Yushima and Hongo. Of these, nine temples' were using the Rinso-in's territory. 2. After land requisition in the early Meiji Period, in almost all cases, less than half of the bestowed land was authorized as a precinct temple area. Leased or taxed land in the Edo Period were authorized as a private land. 3. Some of the temple area was disposed and returned as private land due to the self-clearing petition appealed by the superior of the temple. 4. By the end of the Meiji Period, many temple areas, inside and outside the precinct were disposed. In many cases, graveyards remained on the original temple area. 5. The shape of the main street in the Edo Period can be seen in this area, and that of the town house block inherited from the Edo Period can be seen in some places. On the other hand, the high-rise apartment, located along the main street, overlooks the cemetery from the balcony of the apartment.
In this study, we focus on the triad of the process of Ideas Competitions guidelines, proposals and reviews. We rate Ideas Competitions as the trilateral dialog between the submitters of the guidelines, proposals and reviews. And we analyze the transitions and the characteristic cases of these competitions. Through these analyses, we would be able to do a survey on Ideas Competitions, in order to observe the changes and the turning point of the competitions.