In this study, we aim to clarify the design method of ‘fixed infill’, as the role of a guide for ‘variable infill’, which is effective in order to realize diversity of space structure, through the trial design study on the remodeling experiment of a dwelling in NEXT21. The results are as follows: 1)We clarified the effectiveness of the method that ‘fixed infill’ is divided into several blocks and the method that ‘fixed infill’ is installed separating from a cladding wall. 2)We clarified the effectiveness of the method to change only functions of ‘fixed infill’. By using this method, it was possible to realize the same space structure realized by using the method to change forms and functions of ‘fixed infill’.
Although residents of Asto-Nagamachi Temporary Housing came from various disaster areas, they were able to smoothly build a community and establish a self-governing body. To examine the factors which lead to the community building and establishment of the self-governing body, a survey was conducted on residents' activities. The following results were obtained: (1) There were many residents who were not able to rent a private housing or move into temporary housing they initially desired. (2) Residents who moved in by groups became leaders of the residents' association, and promoted organization of small club activities. (3) Outside supporters provided various opportunities for communication, some of which inspired voluntary activities by the residents.
Depopulation in rural Japan causes the number of schools to decrease. So rural communities have started to use the beauty of their natural environment to attract people from cities and welcome new pupils to their schools. A new system, ‘The Study Programme in Mountain Villages’ enables city children to move into rural villages without their parents so they can attend the local school for one year or longer. Their education is enhanced by the range of outdoor activities. 26 villages have established ‘accommodation centres’ for them, these are similar to university halls of residence. The main objectives of our study are to grasp the impact of the ‘Study Programme’ on Mountain Villages and the characteristics of the centres. Also we discuss the possibilities of establishing them and extending the programme. Our study methods were; telephone inquiry, document research of 26 organizations and case studies of 3 accommodation centres. The results have revealed that accommodation centres can help the schools to thrive. Some centres open their facilities to the public and thereby benefit the villages in which they are located.
Kintai bridge is a five-span wooden arch bridge first constructed in the year 1673. During the past 340 years it has been constantly repaired and rebuilt nevertheless its form has been maintained properly. Consisting of two spans of girder bridges on both ends and three span arch bridges in the middle, it is considered to be the only wooden arch bridge of its kind not only in Japan but also in the world. To understand how it was designed and its value in the history of architecture we should know other bridges' features as well as their construction technique at the time. By studying the historical document about bridges' construction, we have compared the cost of construction in details between Kintai bridge and other wooden bridges. We found out that by using standard small section timber pieces a retrenchment in timber cost as well as the wood processing expenditure could be achieved. Also the use of large amount of metal components may also be conjectured as a way to reduce cost by reusing them on several reconstruction before they have to be replaced.
The aim of this study is to clarify the representation method based on construction and design on large span buildings by contemporary Japanese architects. Firstly, the characteristic of segmentation in structure is analyzed by the relationship between structural components and roof shapes. Secondly, the characteristic of segmentation in ceiling surfaces are analyzed by the relationship between types of ceiling materials and positions of ceiling surfaces. Finally, 12 types of segmentation are determined through the combination between previous two characteristics. It is pointed out that large span buildings have three spaces which have the relation between a central part and peripheral parts by segmentation in both structure and ceiling surfaces.
The following information was revealed about the role of main halls and their use at disaster. 1. Only 10% of temples were designated as evacuation space by local governments. However, people around undesignated temples expect temples to play a role as evacuation space. 2. Approximately 30% of temples designated as evacuation space have been used in the event of a disaster. 3. Temples with the intent to serve as evacuation space in the event of a widespread disaster accounted almost nine out of ten. 4. Only 36% of temples designated as evacuation shelters have built relationships with government agencies.
The purpose of this research is to identify the spatiotemporal characteristics of values of living environment, based on the analysis of housing advertisements within the Tokyo metropolitan area from 1980 to 2010. (1)Firstly the values were sampled as 102 groups based on their meanings, and their tendency of increase and decrease was revealed. (2) Secondly the housings were classified into 7 types and their geographical characteristics were identified. (3)And finally the qualitative changes of the values which reflect the transformation of the center of tokyo metropolitan area were revealed, which were represented as “being high-rised” of housings, “being imageable” of the nature, “being security - biased” of safeties, and ”being individual - biased” of families. At the same time in the whole metropolitan area, “being indoor“ of the comfortableness and diversification of families were also identified.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the transition and the configuration of vacant lots in the center of local city. Firstly, the configurations of vacant lots are analyzed through their connection and the adjacent roads. Secondly, the compositions of the city block with combination of vacant lots are clarified. Finally, transitions of configuration of vacant lots are clarified based on the compositions of city block in 1970, 1990 and 2012. From the above, it turned out that the configuration and the transition of the vacant lots are characterized by division, setback and fragmentation of city block.
‘Gozars’ are a centuries old spatial and social urban unit found in Kabul City. To date the neighborhood functions of contemporary Gozars have not yet been subject to any academic research. This paper identifies the neighborhood functions and the activities of the Gozars, and seeks to determine factors affecting the neighborhood functions and activeness of the Gozars. First, we explored the concepts underlying traditional and contemporary Gozars in the existing literature, and then prepared a questionnaire exploring the neighborhood functions which was presented to 82 Gozar representatives, and finally the results were analyzed by applying statistical tests.
This study focuses on the facility complexes in national parks. Then, after understanding the presence and scale of the village in the complex, we clarify the efforts and issues of the facility complexes for the promotion of utilization of national parks. We clarify the following as the results. 1) We classify 119 districts in the facility complexes according to the presence and scale of the village. As a result, we can divide it roughly into four types. 2) Approximately 70% of the rangers for natural conservation report “decrease of tourists.” as a issue. And, village type areas face more issues compared with the other types of areas. “Cleanup activities,” “schemes for tourists to experience or interact with nature,” and “construction and maintenance of roads, sidewalks, and trails” are conducted as present efforts in approximately 70% of the areas. The intention of the effort on the promotion of utilization is high at mainly the village type and cooperation with "community residents" is needed. 3) In Daisen-ji Area, which is a village type area, the residents play a major role in implementing the efforts for the promotion of the utilization of national parks
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of riverside landscape by focusing on Izari River in Eniwa city flowing through a diverse landscape including forests, urban and agricultural lands. This paper examines methods of improving the riverside landscapes by using landscape measure adopted by plural sections. Through this study, there are three issues about riverside landscape. 1. The effect of land use plan formulated by several sections is limited. 2. A few administrators concern that their river administration facilities might spoil the scenery. 3. The community activities for maintaining riverside landscape are conducted especially in public spaces.
In this research, we selected 40 Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings in Japanese urban area as objects. We aimed to quantitatively analyze the surrounding area which would affect the space connectivity of Preservation Districts significantly. By using Space Syntax Theory, we analyzed the connective relationship between Preservation Districts and surrounding area ranging 2,000 meters. These 40 objectives could be classified into 5 types. We divided the surrounding area into a series of ranges. We found the characteristics of connectivity of Preservation Districts and the main ranges of effect by analyzing the contribution ratio of connectivity value.
Although nominated subcontractor system in which an employer nominates a specialist contractor is widely used all across the world, it does not exist in Korea as separated construction procurement system in which electrical works and communication works are separately nominated is widely used. The purpose of this study is to clarify the structure of separated construction procurement system and coordination problems that can arise through analysis of legislations related to separated construction procurement in Korea. As the result, this study elucidated that though Korea made it mandatory to separately employ electrical works and communication works to guarantee the quality of specialized works from 1970s, standards of related legal articles are different from one another. Second, the study made clear the principal agents of design work, supervision work and construction work. Lastly, study revealed the contradiction that while responsible supervision is conducted in the coordination regarding design work, supervision work and construction work for public works, general contractors conduct construction coordination in private works.
In postwar Japan, many people have led conventional life-courses in terms of leaving parental homes and establishing their own independent households. Within the context of continued economic stagnation, however, young people have been increasingly confronted with a decline in housing opportunities. There has been a notable increase in young, unmarried adults who continue to live in their parents' homes indefinitely while increasing numbers of single-person households living in private rented housing have suffered from heavy burdens imposed by rent payments. This paper explores housing circumstances surrounding young, unmarried people on low incomes, placing particular emphasis on an increase in individuals who lead unconventional life-courses.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the following three points about Japnese wooden modernism. Primarily, the wooden structure frames similar to St. Paul's Catholic church in Karuizawa and, home and office of Antonin Raymond in Kougai-cho had already existed in early days of Syowa period in Japan. Secondly, these styles had been called in domestic technical terms in the same days. This means these frames were general-purpose technology in the days. To third, this paper will reveal one of the reasons these wooden buildings which Antonin Raymond designed arecategorized to Wooden modernism architecrure.
The renovation of the Kirifuru Church in 1906, agreed through consultations between Yosuke Tetsukawa and the missionaries, included extension work and ceiling repairs. The renovation was estimated to cost JPY 395. 60, including the construction work for the altar. The amount received was JPY 385. 60, of which JPY 379. 56 and 4 rin were used to pay wages for craftsmen, as well as for meal, travel, and miscellaneous expenses. The church made additional payments toward material and tool costs, either directly or through Yosuke.
Sashihijiki is a special kind of Chinese traditional wooden bracket which is used in Fujian Provence, Southeast China. The Sashihijiki is also known as a character of daibutsu-yo style, which was a Japanese architecture style coming from China in about 13th Century. The researches about Sashihijiki nowadays focus Buddhist temple, however, Sashihijiki has a wider range of use in vernacular architecture in Fujian Provence. So, a research of Sashihijiki in Chinese vernacular architecture can have a more complete understanding of the structure, history and distribution of it. This paper is based on fieldwork and references, and the purpose is to find the distribution of Sashihijiki in vernacular architecture of Southeast China and the relationship between the distribution of Sashihijiki and the dialects in Fujian. As a result, Sashihijiki is a traditional structure just used in the east area of Fujian Provence. Over 90% houses in East Fujian where speak East Fujian dialect are use Sashihijiki structure. And Sashihijiki structure are also widely used in south and west of Fujian, but not used in north Fujian.
This paper investigates the wall-passages, based on typological study on their ceilings. It is demonstrated that wall-passages in Norman Romanesque architecture were normally transversally barrel vaulted above each opening, whereas those in Gothic architecture were vaulted by one barrel vault per each bay, often accompanied by independent screen-like arcades, or covered by flat ceilings. This difference leads to the difference between the spaces they have realised. Furthermore, their structural characteristics also represent clear difference of attitudes toward the construction of wall-passages and walls themselves.
The order is to show the role on which women carry out a residence by reading ceremonious factor from the banquet of Yuan Xiao Jie of the annual event in “Jin Ping Mei”. Regarding the banquet of this annual event as a series of ceremonious acts by women in the each space in the residence, the series of ceremonious acts is a ceremony to pray a year's happiness. By completing this ceremony, women support the success of XimenQing and his family.
There are many kinds of style in Japanese tea house, “Soan” / “Shoin”, “Rikyu” / “Samurai” / “Noble” and tea masters' preferences. The purpose of this research is to discuss the criteria of classification of tea house's style by studying the typological structure of the morphological composition of tea house derived from the multivariate analyses of qualitative data: presence or absence about 40 elements of 63 examples of tea house in 16-20th century. The result supports some of knowledge of historical knowledge and discusses new different tendencies of the morphological composition between the styles.
Auszeichnung für gute Bauten der Stadt Zürich is an architectural prize first established by the Zurich municipal authority together with local architects in 1945. The intent of this paper is to clarify the feature of arrangement of the award-winning housings and the role for the formation of cityscape. The conclusions in this study are as follows; 1) The transition of the municipal building regulations is significantly related to the feature of the site conditions and arrangement of the award-winning works. 2) By focusing on the composition of Haus, the features of the arrangement of housings have been clarified. 3) In recent years, the awarded housings have been evaluated in terms of not only the cityscape but also the architectural quality with habitability.
This paper describes about building time, types and location of welfare facilities of Hirohata Works built by Nippon Steel Co.Ltd. (NSC) before W.W.II. Hirohata Works was one of typical example of the factory located on near the consuming place in 1930's and the first factory for NSC in that type. Hyogo prefecture led development on Hirohata with their ideal city planning. On the other hand, NSC built various welfare facilities for their workers as important urban facilities. However NSC sorted welfare facilities by job-ranking grade and product function. In addition its number were less than the factory at local towns
This study employs historical maps and data to examine the establishment and transformation of the townspeople's land Cyonin-chi in Komagome district. Few townspeople's areas appeared before the Edo Period. In the early Edo Period, some farmlands were requisitioned as infantry residential land (Kumi-yashiki) or other feudal government land. Furthermore, many temples were relocated along with commercial towns (Monzen) in the Edo Period. Eventually, the townspeople's land in this area began to expand. Many townspeople's lands were authorized as Machi-kata in 1737 and controlled by a town magistrate (Machi-Bugyo) in 1745. This analysis found that the townspeople's lands in this area were organized into five categories as follows: I . Hairyo-machi-ya: Bestowed townspeople's land II . Townspeople's land of Rinsyo-in's territory III . Townspeople's land of Dentu-in's territory IV . Hyakusyo-machi-ya: Townspeople's land inclusive of other temple's territory V . Monzen: Commercial town in front of temple
The present paper analyzes the relationship of spatial composition with the theme and layout of the paintings in the Chora Church to clarify the significance of the architectural space to the paintings. We created interior elevations and photomontages of the successive space from the exonarthex's south portal to the esonarthex and the paintings, and analyzed the spatial composition with the paintings. We opine that the architectural space was devised with the layout of the paintings to embody “Christ as God” and “Christ as a Person,” as symbolized through the Virgin, to represent the “Two Natures of Christ” through the esonarthex.
This paper attempts to clarify ongoing and transitional features of the editorial policy of Architecture in the Netherlands Yearbook through an analysis of the organization of successive editorial boards, its physical composition and layout, and the overall thematic of its essays and the typology of the works of architecture selected for publication. A persistently critical editorial attitude is noted driven by determination and willingness to reconsider all aspects of architectural evaluation. The Yearbook persistently assesses contemporary Dutch architecture from a cultural point of view, while at the same time paying close attention to its social and political contexts.
This discussion includes two articles as follows:－ 1. Transoms between Gedan to Ninoma in Tainenzyo are carved wooden transoms, and in Singoten are fretwork transoms. The fretwork transoms are simpler than caved transoms. Therefore, there is hierarchy between those two types of transoms. 2. Kin-un-sunago and kin-sunago are not the so called karakami wallpaper. Sunago sprinkled by painters. Therefore, there is hierarchy among paintings, sunago and karakami.
To the comment and criticism by the inquirer on the article concerned, the author has truthfully answered as follows: 1) To the former query on a distinction between a sculpture and a openwork transom by the inquirer, the description of the previous text has been rectified on the hierarchy in various edifices within the Ooku Gotenmuki, under the appropriation of the inquirer's argument. 2) Against the latter query on Kin-un Sunago and Kin Sunago as a finish of the ceilings, the author's judgement has been rather appropriate by reference to supplemented pictorial diagrams indicated in the text and notes of the previous article. 3) The conclusion of the previous article remains to be effective in spite of its refinement owing to the comment and criticism by the inquirer.