Flame size and heat flux correlations are obtained by experiments for circular flames beneath an unconfined inert ceiling, and are compared against those for one-dimensional flames in a downward channel. The both correlations have resulted in the proportionality of the area covered by a ceiling flame to heat release rate and the sole dependence of flame heat transfer on the distance from the source normalized by the flame length. Heat release rate per unit flame area is found to be significantly smaller with circular flames than with one-dimensional flames. It suggests a weaker entrainment of ambient air to circular flames than to one-dimensional flames. The weak heat flux from a ceiling flame suggests the importance of the preheating of combustible ceiling by hot gas layer for the fast fire spread generally observed in real and experimental room fires. Dimensional analysis offers a partial explanation for the weaker entrainment in circular ceiling flams than in one-dimensional ones. It also suggests the proportionality of horizontal velocity to the distance from the upstream end of the burning surface, and faster velocity with one-dimensional flames than with circular ones.
This paper introduces a new statistical method to estimate global and direct solar radiation values at hourly intervals by the pixel values of the geostational meteorological satellites images. The feature of the model is to utilize the three channels, i.e., visual, infrared, and water vapor channels of satellite images while other satellite-derived models use only the visual channel. The surface observed hourly cumulative global radiation and direct horizontal radiation at the Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory and corresponding pixel values of the satellite images for a year are screened and classified into three data sets according to the visual channel as an index of the weather, namely, clear, fine and cloudy. The multiple linear regression analyses for the global radiation or the direct horizontal radiation processes three data sets respectively. The result of regression analysis showed the reasonable accuracy of the model.
This paper focused on the townscapes in the public spaces at night and aimed at elucidating the evaluation structure and the relations between the evaluation factors and the physical elements. Analyzed by SD method and factor analysis, 3 independent axes of "orderliness", "familiarity" and "uniqueness" were derived. The factor of "orderliness" was related to the basic structure of the towns at night, and the "familiarity" and "uniqueness" were related to the attractiveness of the townscapes. All factors were highly estimated when the disposition of lighting was in order, while other physical elements influenced each factor in different ways.
To establish a comprehensive and qualitative prediction for corrective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) on various urban canopy surfaces, a series of outdoor experiments were precisely reported. Simultaneous multi-point measurement concerned on all the surface fluxes except for the convective element primarily indicated the real distribution of the CHTC. One of the most important fruits from this study is that a certain experimental equation expressed as the relationship between convective heat transfer coefficient and wind velocity was obtained. This was acquired from the strategic measurements focussed on the turbulent statistical values on a top-roof slab and a vertical wall of a test dwelling, being different in both scale and wind direction against the surfaces.
The author has set up a ceiling radiation cooling/heating system that made use of well water, one of the unused energies. Under the system, well water is sent directly to ceiling panels and cools the ceiling for radiation cooling. Unlike conventional air-conditioners, this system is regarded as comfortable, as cooled air is not blown locally. It has been discovered that this system installed in a room of a detached experimental house was excellent in terms of comfortableness and energy-saving, but that radiation panels alone were insufficient in midsummer, raising concerns about frosting.
A wide range of systems and techniques has been developed in order to satisfy the requirement of ventilation for residential buildings. However, there is still no clear and precise information for architects and engineers to determine the performance of the various ventilation systems and their availability of application. In this research, some new evaluation indices to highlight the occupant exposure to indoor air pollutants were introduced, and then numerical simulations were carried out by COMIS simulation Model to evaluate the performance of various ventilation systems. In addition, the influence of various factors and the relationship between indexes are discussed.
A non-isothermal flow in a two-dimensional enclosed space with horizontal cold jet was analyzed by Large Eddy Simulation(LES). Results from the LES computation were stored as numerical database for the purpose of investigating turbulence structures of the non-isothermal flowfield and evaluating the validity of turbulence modeling based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations(RANS). The reliability of LES computation was assessed by comparison with experimental data of the authors (1997). Mean fields of velocity and temperature predicted by LES showed good agreement with the experimental data. The LES database was used to evaluate each term in the transport equations of Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes. The role of each term in their equations within a supply jet area was examined, and the detailed mechanism of turbulence structure and heat transfer was clarified.
An international standard of acceptable indoor air quality in museums has never been established. The purpose of this study is to identify suitable methods for monitoring air quality in museums. In order to grasp the present situation in museums in Japan field investigations in a museum in Tokyo were conducted in both HVAC operation and non-operation time. The results found that the concentrations of ammonia, formaldehyde and TVOC in HVAC non-operation time were higher than those in operation time. For these pollutants the elapsed time effects on reducing concentrations could be seen. Regarding nitrogen dioxide, the concentration of indoor air was lower than that of outside, and consequently the concentration in HVAC operation time was higher. For some of these pollutants passive methods were proposed and their applicability was examined .
This paper presents simulation results of a thermal storage system with large temperature differences. 1) The systems consume 5-21% more energy than a non-storage system. 2) COPs of heat-pump chillers are 0.13-0.47 higher than that of non-storage systems. 3) The system saves deliver pump power of 9%, compared to the traditional system with usual (Δt=5K) temperature difference. 4) The high energy shifting ratio proves that the system contributes to the peak demand shifting for the energy utilities. 5) The relative humidity is maintained fewer than 60-63%. 6) The system saves their operation costs of 28-39%, compared to non-storage system. 7) The system saves deliver pump energy of 11% by reducing its volume flow rate.
The authors made into a prediction control model of the required thermal energy for an office room in which there was the combination system of the latent storage floor heating and the air conditioning. This model is based on the day series and the time series load prediction. The authors set a condition in constructing the model that the gained heat load should not be over the lost heat load in each hour. The following results were obtained.: 1)The gained heat load didn't come over the lost heat load in each hour. 2)The load was cut about 70% in total and 50% in a peak. 3)SET* had been kept between the comfortable range during the working time.
As a marvelous predicting and estimating methodology for the Heat Island in an urban area, Architecture-Urban-Soil Simultaneous Simulation Model, AUSSSM was entirely established. The revised AUSSSM is evolved from the former proposed AUSSSM by not only replacing but also newly adding several sub-models. Each sub-model expresses complex phenomenon such as one-dimensional vertical distribution of air temperature, wind velocity and humidity ratio in urban canopy, artificial heat generation from buildings and traffic, evapotranspiration from vegetation, transient evaporation from artificial surfaces shortly after precipitation, dynamic performance of cooling load and HVAC system in buildings. These sub-models have been developed in authors' former works. One of the most important features of AUSSSM is the fact that each sub-model has relatively same level of its accuracy, which leads practically correct and significant solution under the constraint of limited computational resource. And following theoretical description, the Standard Solution assuming a business district in Tokyo was presented.
This paper focused on the reliability of the virtual simulation system for the residential environment evaluation. Through the comparative experiments between virtual and actual space, brightness perception, space perception, length perception and a sense of reality were examined. In the virtual space the height and the width were well reproduced, while the depth could not be perceived so precisely. A sense of reality was influenced by the level of modeling and the way of texture maping, and it was found out that the level of modeling does not need to be unlimitedly raised up to get a high degree of reality.
A visual simulator was developed to synchronize the subject's walking motion on the treadmill with the video image shown on a HMD. Its validity was examined by comparing the accuracy of distance estimation with the conventional video image without walking motion. To investigate the influence of environmental features the subjects were asked to "walk" through a path consisted of two spaces of different physical feature, and to show the proportion of the length of two spaces. As a result, it is found that a narrow and small space tends to be perceived longer.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new definition of the Life Cycle Cost that is coordinated to the investment evaluation way of private companies. The conventional LCC definition has two discussion points. The one is that it does not include the influence of the difference of the tax reduction effect of the initial cost and the sustaining cost as the necessary expenses for the tax calculation. The other is that it does not include the evaluation of the risk based on the uncertainty of the estimation of the sustaining cost. A new definition of LCC is derived considering these two points.
Perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity were studied in an office that was renovated one year before the experiment. 31 female subjects were exposed to the two conditions in the same office with an outdoor airflow of 280 m3/h and 45 m3/h while all other environmental parameters were kept unchanged. They assessed perceived air quality and SBS symptoms while performing simulated office work. In the room with the low ventilation rate, concentration of the formaldehyde and the volatile organic compounds showed much higher. There was more increased prevalence of SBS symptoms for subjects dissatisfied air quality upon entering the office with chemicals more polluted. In the proofreading task, subjects worked with decreased productivity in the more chemicals polluted room.
This paper aims to clear the community life in apartment dwelling complexes in China from the viewpoint of sphere pattern of daily life. So, in 1999 we made questionnaire survey at 4 typical complexes in Harbin which are developed between 1960 and 1995, and we collected 643 households samples and 1350 inhabitants samples. And we examined following indexes; frequency of some outgoings for daily life, sphere of outgoings for daily life, frequency of activities on the park in complexes, frequency of activities on the street in complexes, frequency of taking parts in some community activities, attachment to community, view of permanent residence. And we analyzed mutual relations of these indexes.
This research represents actual conditions and the problems of the dwelling style of "taking off shoes and putting on slippers" in urban apartments in China. In this paper, we also attempt to discuss its developing trend and its horizontal floor plan that must be considered. 1. It is known that 90% of residents decorate their floor. 2. More than 90% of residents take off shoes and put on slippers from the shoe-rack at the entrance for the purpose of keeping their rooms clean. Furthermore, it is known that the dwelling style of "taking off shoes and putting on slippers" is becoming popular among Chinese. 3. More than 30% of residents have habituated themselves to the living style of sitting on the floor with development of the dwelling style of "taking off shoes and putting on slippers". An epoch-making change is occurring in the Chinese living style which had revolved around "sitting on the chair" till now. 4. Since there is no spaces for residents to change and to keep their shoes and slippers, it is necessary to make a floor plan of the entrance and a shoe-rack while considering this new habit of "taking off shoes and putting on slippers".
Playing activities composed of "field", "play (action)", "playing conditions" analyzed on physical and social aspects. In Nedu, "shita-machi" area in Tokyo, there is no larger playground, but around Nedu elementary school area connected some small playground organically functioned as a center core of playing environment for children based on sense of belonging on a community. On the other side, In a newtown, Hikarigaoka in Tokyo, they had two sense of belonging on a newtown area and a school district area so children chose a field for play made use of physical characteristics rather than social ones.
In this thesis we search for the optimal height of office building and the optimal design of banks of elevators from two viewpoints in the case that the conventional zoning system is adopted: 1) to maximize dwelling area of office building and 2) to maximize profit by constructing office building. The main results are as follows: i ) it was shown that the best design of banks of elevators which had been obtained by the model was almost corresponding to those in existing multistory office buildings; ii) it was shown that if we make office building higher too much the dwelling area of the building does decrease.
An analysis of the data from an in-depth observation survey in National Children's Hospital was conducted to develop design guidelines for playrooms. Children's activities and play environments were closely examined in seven playrooms in six inpatient wards and a multivariate technique was applied to explain the number and hours of play activities. Architectural factors relating to playroom and ward planning, together with human factors, accounted for a significant portion of variance ranging from 45 to 90 percent. Five playroom-related factors were identified: sickbed's distance from a playroom and playroom type among others. The latter in turn might be explained by the number of playrooms, connection to a corridor system, and sickbed's distance from the nurse station.
Designated common spaces in a nursing home are considered to promote a common consciousness and stability among residents. The objective of this study is to assess resident use of varied common space in a nursing home with private rooms. A case study of resident behaviors in the varied type of common spaces is reported.The resident behaviors could be divided into five categories,according to their use of the common spaces: From those who didn't use the spaces at all thoroughout the day to those who constantly use the common spaces and communicate voluntarily with other here. We conclude that these behaviors are related to the residents'Activity of Daily Living(ADL).In addition,we classify the use of common space according to resident's body orientation and physical setting (six categories)and,according to resident's viewing of other residents(into five categories). We also conclude that different common spaces provided settings for diferent behaviors, including private behaviors. Accordingly, common spaces in nursing homes may serve a wider range of semi-private as well as private needs. Implications include the need to reassess the configuration and placement of private rooms and common spaces in nursing homes.
By means of studying articles published by contemporary Japanese architects, this report aims to illustrate their ideas on public architecture. At first, the content of each article was studied, and some comments were extracted from each theory. Then, they were abstracted into two different levels: the level of the subject and the level of the representation. Next, the meaning of these comments was analyzed by applying the method created by Jiro Kawakita. Those theories were then distracted on the basis of certain ideas. The subject was correlated with the representation, and their relationship was studied. Consequently, a definite meaning was found. In this particular study, we have pointed out the design ideas of contemporary Japanese architects about public architecture after the Second World War.
This study is mainly considered in the points that follow, through the comparison of the Housing Survey, conducted every 5 years, about housing stocks and the statistics of building starts and losses. 1. There is a material about a number of housing stocks by construction year in the last 5 years every report of the Housing Survey. 2. In many cases, a number of housing stocks in a survey conducted-year is too large comparing the actual condition. But it in one term including the year is natural. 3. A remaining ratio of housing stocks is proportional to years passed since construction year for several decades. 4. A number of destructed-houses in the statistics of building starts and losses is too few. 5. A number of housing stocks estimated by the statistics of building starts and losses is very similar to it by the Housing Survey.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the sitting behaviors of visitors of art museums in a day of outing activities. We conducted a questionnaire survey to analyze three items, the numbers of sitting periods, the time of sitting and the sitting places. The results are as follows : The average numbers of sitting periods correlate with that of visiting; The average time of sitting of stay is closely related to that of stay, 20〜25% of that; The users who stayed in the department store, the shopping center, etc tend to sit in other places.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how areas of activity and consciousness vary through the river's form. We chose the Kannagawa River as a case, and grasped the river's form, and made a survey about the areas of activity and consciousness of riverside inhabitants. It became clear that the areas of activity and consciousness have different characters between the upper and lower reaches of the river. And the apex of fan is the conversion point, where the river's form changes significantly. On the upper reaches from the apex of fan river doesn't act as a boundary: areas form the unity, which get over the river. On the lower reaches, river acts as a boundary of the areas.
This paper discusses about regional types ofrumah gadang (the customary house) in the coreland of the Minangkabau (West Sumatra, Indonesia). The rumah gadang is usually shown as being of a stereotyped form, with regional variations being usually ignored. This paper questions this simplified 'popular' type and deals basically with ordinary people's houses (not houses of higher prestige). The coreland is divided into 3 valleys, each valley with its own historical background and particular characteristics. We chose two villages from each valley as case studies, and from each village we chose an old and a new rumah gadang ('RG') and analyzed their plans mainly in terms of basic domestic and ceremonial functions. We also analyzed front elevations of these houses in order to better understand the RG as a whole. Based on these samples of RG, we presented then a 'basic model' of RG highlighting basic common characteristics of the RG today from the three valleys, which is different from the popular type of RG mentioned above. Based on the analysis of functions and main formal elements in the plans and front elevations of the RG from our sample, we found out the main differences and similarities in between the RG from the different valleys. In the end, we suggested some hypothetical reasons for such a variation in relation to each valley's background.
This study aims to clarify the influence of the policy of bridge construction on the main industry, and proposes Islands promotions with the mainland - an island bridges as a turning point. So, this study considered KABE island in SAGA prefecture as an instance. First, from building process of YOBUKO Bridge, the policy of bridge construction and subordinate policy were defined. Second, grasping the planted area and the destination of farm products of each household, the change of agriculture, the main industry, was clarified. All household could be classified into six types by features of the change of agriculture. Finally, by means of reasons for the change of agriculture the influence by the policy of bridge construction was clarified.
In this paper, we took the densely inhabited districts as the developed areas. After making clear the expansion over time, we clarified the relationship between natural environment (geographical features, surface soil, the altitude and gradient) and built environment (densities of buildings and roads). Moreover, comparing analysis was conducted between gradient and shaking in order to analyze the danger of landslide with the expansion of developed areas. The comparing analysis was also conducted between damage of wooden houses and narrow roads in order to analyze the change of victims for collapse of houses and the change of danger concerned to rescue.
This paper analyzes the characteristic and the development process of Tai-Zhong City Planning underJapanese rule, especially focusing on three issues: (1)the contents of the city planning according to its periods ; (2)The characteristics of urban infrastructure project ; (3)the formation of urban structure. The results are as follows: (1) The urban development of Tai-Zhong City planning under Japanese rule is divided into 4 periods: the investigation and the planning; the establishment of the urban block and the urban axis; the beginning of the zoning; the application of the city planning system. (2) The characteristics of the layout and the pattern of the main infrastructure; urban blocks, roads, rivers and parks. (3) The Tai-Zhong-Castle area was vastly improved by the urban chessboard-pattern, the railway axis and the loop road axis and the change of the river basin. All this had an influence on the urban structure in Tai-Zhong city.
This paper is written about the relations between city planning and disaster prevention planning on five cases of destructive city fire -lida in 1947, Noshiro in 1949 and 1956, Tottori in 1952, Niigata in 1950- after World War II. It was cleared about following 3 aspects. 1 Relations between city planning and disaster prevention were changed for that dozen years. The planning theory of that term changed "Park, Parkways and Boulevard System". 2 Characteristics about city planning and disaster prevention planning were similar each other. 3 Speed and difficulty of land readjustments were different each other. Those cases show that regionality has effects on the operation process of city planning rather than planning process of city planning.
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in OECD proposed an evaluation model and reported that sustain ability is the most important aspect to evaluate Official Development Assistance (ODA) projects in developing countries. How to determine its development factors and their components is required. This report examined the importance and suitability of the components of development factors in architectural area through two questionnaires to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) experts and the registered consultants. From the perspective with technical cooperation in architectural area, 5-types of components were determined by cluster analysis method using result of two questionnaires. This report studied on the possibility of evaluating project' s sustainability with the determined components of developing factors.
This paper describes the sub-package problem in the building construction project which is defined to combine various resources under some constrained conditions and multipurpose. Multipurpose includes the term of works, the cost, the quality, the safety, and so on. Various resources include the labor, the material, and the temporary facilities and machinery, etc. The sub-package is currently arranged through the personal judgment of the site manager. However, this way of arrangement comes to the limitation. In this paper, the methods of the sub-package in construction firms are collected through interviews and surveys. Then, the decision-making support system of the sub-package is developed to achieve the optimization with mathematical programming model where the evaluation criteria are the overhead cost and the management time in sub-package problem.
When and by whom was Boshuhori Moat constructed ? The solution of the theme must be a great help to clarifying what Hakata was like in the early modern time. I can conclude from my careful study on the theme as follows: (1) the moat was constructed between 1600 and the early 1610's with the help of technological know-how from the fortification developed by feudal lords serving under Nobunaga or Hideyoshi; (2) the Kuroda family made their vassals and people settle into the border areas of an old big city ,Hakata, remodeling the areas with the construction of the moat; (3) the measure mentioned above was taken to include Hakata in the town planning for Fukuoka Castle.
On the ceremonial space of the aristocratic residence in the Heian period, the following points were clarified: 1. About the aristocratic residence in the Heian period, the Shinden(寝殿), the Tai(対) and the Dei(出居) ・ the Zoushi(曹司) ・ the Samuraidokoro(侍所) were used as the space of the initiation ceremony. 2. These ceremonial space were made proper use by the close and distant blood relation between the sponsor and those who becomes an adult. 3. Since about the beginning of the 12th century a Shinden came to be used by the legitimate son (the eldest son) as the space of the initiation ceremony and the others (illegitimate sons) used a Tai.
The area restriction of shrines, enacted by the proposal of the Ministry of Finance in 1872, was flawed, because the case of reconstruction was not considered. In 1873, the Ministry of Religion ordered those shrines directly controlled by the government to submit drawings of their buildings and surrounding sites The government made the decision to preserve the design of shrines based on these drawings, while the area restriction was to be applyed to only the newly established shrines.
Since a number of the traditional houses with historical and cultural values have been disappearing rapidly in Viet Nam, their preservation is an urgent issue. Making surveys and studies from this point of view, the authors refer to the features on the structure of the traditional farmhouses in the northern parts of Viet Nam, Bac Ninh province and Nam Dinh Province. At first, the surveyed examples, more than 850 in total number, could be classified into six categories according to their structural framework composed of wooden columns and beams. Discussing the column's size, the intercolumniation, the details of joints and so on, we suggest that these structural categories might roughly indicate the chronological order of the traditional houses in the northern Viet Nam.
The appartement de la Reine was conceived as counterpart of the appartement du Roi at Versailles, but this composition isn't traditional in the French Court. Examining influences of the court society and the French diplomacy on this plan is this paper's issue. The symmetry of these two appartements is confirmed by the fact the subjects of these plafonds were based on the Seven Planets theme. It became clear that the composition of noble hotels was applied to Versailles and the equality between the king and the queen reflected royal intention to make the queen succeed to the Spanish Low Countries.
This paper deals with Carlo Maderno's construction-principle of church facade in the first period of 17th century. This paper, especially, takes up S. Susanna in Rome, which regarded as a milestone of Baroque, and pays attention to typical churches of Counter-Reformation, for example II Gesu in Rome, and S. Fedele in Milan.The purpose of this paper is to show Maderno's treatment of wall according to analysis of architectural order on the facades, clarifying division of the wall from frame of the order. In a word, Maderno's method acquires plasticity of wall, independent of the order.
The purpose of this study is to consider the formal construction of German modern architecture. Especially in this paper, the design process of Stanz-Messer-Fabrikation of Fagus Shoe-Last Factory by Walter Gropius is analyzed from the standpoint of formation of volumetric formal system. As the research method, the design process is divided into three steps and variations, and then, three dimensional form is reconstructed from original sketches and drawings. As the result, it is found that unification and simplification characterized the volumetric formal system using the contrast between the glass curtain wall and brick walls.
The intension of this paper is to make thematic explication of both the internal systems of the form of houses and the connection between house and nature. The analysis of Aalto's houses will be in three chapters as follows: Chapter2 illustrates the fundamental meaning of the methodological concept in his thought. Chapters illustrates the theme in Aalto' Houses through describing 15 Houses by analysing three diagrams. Chapter4 illustrates the meaning of the plan in Villa Mairea by means of analysing the modifications of form over the three versions. The house is further investigated through three diagrams derived from Aalto' sketches.