The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the attributes of male and female subjects (evacuation supporters), transportation preparation time according to the size of transportation preparation space, and vertical transportation efficiency of stair ascent. For this, this study reenacted transportation situations of vulnerable people using stretchers and measured the transportation preparation time, the transportation speed and vertical transport efficiency of stair ascent transportation. As a result, in case of minimum operating space for transportation preparation, it was found that there was more than one minute of waiting time to start evacuation support actions. In addition, the transportation amount was around 0.02 ~ 0.25 persons/sec, and the transportation amount of the condition 2(condition of starting in a queue) that started transportation in a straight line was higher than the condition 1(condition of starting from scattered points). And the transportation amount of the female transportation team was relatively lower than the male transportation groups.
After Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami 2011, with the view to compensate for the production capacity of prefabricated major manufacturers and contribute to economic rehabilitation, several builders located in affected prefectures undertook contracts to construct temporary houses. Based on detailed interviews with the 12 builders in Iwate Prefecture which supplied temporary houses, this article examines how regional builders produced temporary houses in terms of challenges and measures to deal with them. The findings offer basic knowledge concerning how regional builders could function in production activities in emergency situations.
This study examines the progress achieved by projects aimed at promoting collective relocation for disaster prevention since the Great East Japan Earthquake and their current state of affairs. This investigation seeks to clarify the spatial characteristics of the residential land currently under construction on hilly terrain as part of these collective relocation projects. Spatial planning for the collective relocation project in Kesennuma city, which deals with a relatively small area, has focused on relocation that respects existing community units, i.e., the identical and unified types. In addition, most of the housing development plans focus on construction that will connect and run linearly along the National Highway 45, which is the main arterial road of Kesennuma.
We have conducted an action research on improvement of residential environment in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 through the case of Motoyoshi, Kesennuma-city. This paper tried to clarify the factors why we could realize the support for residents of temporary housing although we had only limited resource and weak relationship with local actors or other supporters before the disaster. We analyzed realization process of our support from the view of “indirect support” (support for supporters) and the results are shown as follows. 1. “Indirect support” which doesn't fix the relationship between supplier and recipient of support is efficient. The support is realized by the relationships which are created among supporters or between supporters and residents after the disasters. 2. Improvement planning of residential environment based on appropriate technology (preparation for hot and cold climate) is important. The planning should be acceptable for not only individual residents but for residents' community and other supporters.
Distance measures, such as Euclidean distance, network distance, and time distance, have been used for various urban models. In this paper, we propose a novel distance measure based on the spatiotemporal distribution of residents, which is called "Distance Measure based on Spatiotemporal Coexistence of Residents (DM_SCORE)". It is defined as a square root of Jensen-Shannon Divergence, and can be calculated using person trip survey data. We discuss the difference between DM_SCORE and ordinary distance measures, and apply it to some urban models. The results of some numerical analyses using actual data demonstrate that DM_SCORE can be of great value in being incorporated in urban models.
We often encounter, not only straight walls, but also convex walls in various buildings in daily life. It is difficult for visually impaired people to walk alone safely and they often lose their way in such buildings. In this study, in order to clarify the spatial cognition in spaces composed of the convex walls, experiments were carried out in 5 kinds of model spaces in a laboratory. Subjects were visually impaired people and blind-folded people with ordinary vision. The spatial cognition was analyzed through interviews, observation and sketch map, and the wayfinding behavior was analyzed by walking locus and observation.
Wood has been widely used for a variety of applications such as construction, ship, furniture and paper. In recent years, the importance of use of wood in building is actively discussed in terms of the potential environmental benefits and the effective use of the resource. In this point, Finland can be considered as one of the good examples which has been steadily utilizing domestic wood in architecture. In this research, therefore, the latent selective factors when Finnish design professionals and laymen choosing wood for living space were revealed through the analysis on the cognitive structure of wood for interior use.
This paper is a sequel to our study of residential support systems set up in order to sustain the existence of communities threatened by the depopulation of rural Japan. We have studied three cases where residents' groups take residential support approaches developed specifically to enable the continued existence of their local school. In the first report we focused on the approaches of the residents' groups to attract and welcome people to the area and identified certain characteristics of the newcomers. In this paper we shift focus to the period when newcomers have settled down. We analyse their living conditions and support from the local schools and communities for them. We found that newcomers who moved into depopulated rural settlements, attracted by various local authority programmes involving placing their children in local schools generally enjoy their new lifestyles. Our conclusion is that the catchment area of an elementary school is important structure in new residents' support networks and new residents make the bond between the local school and community stronger.
This study examines how did “the Relocation of dangerous buildings in the near-cliff area project” function as housing rebuilding assistance, and how it was utilized after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Based on the questionnaire and interview survey for local governments and homeowners, it is clarified that this project functions as housing rebuilding assistance for individual who wanted to self-determine the timing, place and land area of the housing rebuilding for resettlement. It is also found that local governments intended to utilize this project as helping survivors who drop out from prolonged group relocation project in which local governments generally have decision-making authority. The author pointed out the operational issues that need to improve such as speeding up the process by increasing efficiency and accepting the application for retrospective approval.
The purpose of this study is to clarify some problems about the previous survey and the subsidy system during formulating and operating for the building restoration program in historic district, and to consider the framework of the subsidy system. In this research, it is investigated and analyzed to landscape administrative organization in Tokai area. As a result, it is extracted as follows. About the problem of the previous survey, it is cannot be grasped accurately the style of architecture and landscape characteristics, if that survey is not carried out. About the problem of the subsidy system during formulating, it is difficult to operate the subsidy system, because that landscape characteristics are not reflected in Standard of support building design restoration and that it is not subsidized by classified modern buildings and historic buildings. About the problem of the subsidy system operating, it is difficult to examine the appropriate subsidy system, because that it is a possibility that the conformity judgment with the standard is different by administrative personnel that there are not only no rules, but also no guidelines. And it is based on these results; it is considered the framework of the subsidy system for the building restoration program towards problem solving.
Street spaces are open to everyone, and they are important factors for indicating the city's vitality to visitors. In 2011, the regulation of public space utilization was relaxed, and it became possible to implement commercial activities, and put shop facilities and equipment on streets. Since then, expectations for revitalization of downtowns have increased, but an occupation fee is required to use a hindrance for private sectors to enter the project. Therefore, this paper analyzed the valuation for the bustle creating projects using street spaces. Through this analysis, the economic value of the bustle created by on-street businesses was calculated, and the result indicated that the value of bustle can be considered as one of the valid indicators to support the reduction of occupation fee.
15 years have passed since COCO Shonandai, Elderly Group Living (EGL) was established. The residents became older and changed. We analyzed the correspondence of the management organization to these changes and made the problems clear. 1) 3 people who have lived since the start point passed away in 2009 and the new residents joined as new members. Although ageing and the increase of the care-needed members were eased temporarily, the situation will proceed to the similar one of 2009 again. 2) The residents of COCO Shonandai have changed frequently since 2010. This situation might continue and the diversity of residents will extend. It is necessary to improve the decision-making system to correspond to the new situation. The management body should have responsibility to cooperate with the service suppliers, to make consensus among the residents.
The progress of construction process could be obtained through the records by construction managers and subcontractors' daily records. However, as those records are based on human observation, there is no objective data to support their credibility, and human errors might exist on them. Currently, it has become relatively easy to grasp the situation at a construction site as the point clouds obtained by 3D laser scanners as well as by the photogrammetry method. The authors have developed methods for identifying components placed at the site by comparing point clouds with 3D CAD model. This paper presents the methods, and verifies these validity through the experiments to identify precast concrete components automatically based on point clouds.
This study was undertaken in order to reveal the historical process and technical characters of the joint technology in timber frame structures in Japanese traditional house. These joint technologies called shikuchi in Japanese, and these joining techniques remain unsolved. This study puts in focus on horizontal member used in Japanese traditional house, called sashimono, and analyzes these shikuchi joint to pillars of framework in Early Modern houses, it reveals these historical changes. In this study, defined the six joint element, we analyzed the sashimono joint that has been described in the restoration report on early modern house in Nara.
‘Nihon-shumi’ architecture is recognized as a figurative architectural style of Japanese modern architecture representing Japanese identity through historicizing elements of Japanese temples, shrines or castles. This paper analyzes a transition of ‘Nihon-shumi’ design in the 1930s dealing with the 1937 Kenkoku Kinen Kaikan Competition for a main venue of 1940 World Exposition. In the competition, there were 2 major types of Nihon-shumi designs; one had narrow eaves on flat walls, which was a typicalexpression of Nihon shumi, and another had exaggerated Japanese traditional motifsout of wooden buildings like deep eaves, pillars of a cloister or Azekura wall.
This paper examines the design activity of the regionalism in postwar Okinawa. Okinawa where has characteristic tropical traditional culture and advanced reinforced concrete construction technology and industry, has been reversed from U.S.A. to Japan in 1972. Around the time, it has been one of main interests among local architects to aim for the design based on regionalism that expresses their cultural identity with modern methods. The paper has a focus on the design activity of the regionalism in postwar Okinawa, especially on the concepts and design methods of "the Naha civic hall" that has revealed a characteristic approach for the local architecture.
This paper aims to elucidate the transformation of the spatial composition of the civic plaza in Imabari city by Kenzo Tange through the analysis of the extension design process of the Imabari city complex. After the completion of the municipal buildings in Imabari city in 1958, the citizen hall (1965) , the first annex (1972) and the second annex (1994) were also built by Kenzo Tange in the civic plaza as the extension projects. Through the analysis of the construction process of each project, we can find that Kenzo Tange has changed his idea about the civic plaza as the center of the city.
We tried to doing full-scale lateral loading test and micro tremor measurements before and after the restoration of Long Duc Dien in Hue Royal Palace, Vietnam. The conclusion of this paper is as follows: 1. Long Duc Dien was able to recover an original rigidity by the repairer thing. 2. It was clarified that the rigidity of the south-north. direction in Long Duc Dien is 1.5 times as high compared with the east-west direction. 3. The difference of the rigidity in the direction of east-west (ridge direction) for the south-north (beam direction) is thought to be caused by the structural characteristics of Long Duc Dien.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of birds-eye view drawing “Untitled [The Elementary School at the Foot of Mt. Asama]” which is drawn by Michizo Tachihara. This paper analyzes the location and the subject of his work, and investigates the similarities with Paul Cézanne's “Montagne Sainte-Victoire”. The conclusions are as follows. 1. We clearify Elementary School is located in Karuizawa-Seibu elementary school. 2. Tachihara studied deeply Cézanne's paintings through the “Shirakaba” and Rilke. 3. The drawing of Elementary School and “Montagne Sainte-Victoire” have many similarities such as the shape of the mountain ranges and the overlap of the foregrounds and background.
Auszeichnung guter Bauten in Kanton Basel-Stadt, Kanton Basel-Landschaft is an architectural prize established by the Basel municipal authority in 1980. The intent of this paper is to clarify the features of philosophy, policy, publicity, jury organization and award-winning works of the prize in the German-speaking part of Switzerland comparing the case of the Basel with the City of Zurich. For the features of philosophy and policy, the Basel prize is influenced by the City of Zurich. On the other hand, features of jury organization are different from the City of Zurich. In Basel the jury's profession is various such as art historian, engineer, critic and building user. This difference causes the building types of the award-winning works, including the technical buildings, infrastructural works and so on.
The three mill towns in the Northeastern U.S. emerged during the early stage of the industrial revolution are analyzed in terms of development of power canals and spatial structures in this series of papers. Among those, Lowell, MA. made the most efficient use of 30 feet drop of the Merrimack River and its riverside appropriate for the cotton industry, although urban infrastructures for civil services were poorly organized. In conclusion, Lowell is quite an original city which was planned to organize cotton industry in terms of business structure and land use.
In 1920, many hisotrical bridges faced a threat of demolition and some conservationists and organisations acted to conserve them. This paper aimed to describe a discussion devfelopment of a historical bridge conservation, the Old Waterloo Bridge in the United Kingdom, between 1924 and 1937 in detail and to realise features of discussion of the day in the United Kingdom. The findings of this study can be London County Council, which was owner or the bridge, changed from their demolition policy of the bridge to conservation three times by conservationists protest.