This research aims to clarify the definition of the open space, such as Madang and Garden within a South Korean residence. A survey consisting of 1195 South Korean subjects was conducted to analyze the physical, functional, emotional aspects of an open space. The survey suggested the definition of Madang and Garden slightly differed depending on the age group and the housing type of the subjects. 1) The older age groups, over 50 years old, had a tendency to acknowledged Madangas an essential feature of a South Korean residence, while perceiving the presence of a garden as unnecessary. 2) The definitions given by the subjects of a Madang illustrate strong traditional implications as well as their familiarity to the idea. The definition of a Garden insinuated an imagery of being green, beautiful, and classy. 3) A Madang was defined as a space for activities of a daily life, whereas Garden was defined as a space for rest and other activities involving greenery. The broad definitions of open space given by the different age groups in this survey proposed the possibility of changing roles and/or configurations of an open space at a South Korean residence in future residential projects.
The purpose of this paper is to find emotional stability of communal relation that exists in out door space in densely built-up area. In this study, we define "Trust to neighbors" as the representative symptom of the emotional stability, and attempt to clarify the relation between the trust and daily information that the resident holds about his neighbors. The results of questionnaire survey revealed that the more the resident gets the daily information of neighbors, the higher his trust to neighbors is. And the analysis through hearing and field survey proved that the daily information are based on not a condition (ex. opened windows) of houses, but a typical condition (ex. passing through around buildings) of out door space.
Many people trying to reform public school are interested in "Charter School system" in USA. In its system, people can establish a new public school which has freedom in its educational contents, school management and selection of school. So Public school is in open competition system in USA now. However, such a new public education style has a big difference from traditional it in making school-environment. This thesis focuses on the point of analyzing making school-environment system in Charter School system in USA. The analysis is based on case studies of two successful schools and questionnaire of about one hundred schools. In the analysis, below three view points are key.・View point of Management ・View point of Education ・View point of Relation to Outside Organization
Interviews were given to the visitors and the managing staffs of Machikado-hiroba which utilize a vacant shop in the neighborhood center. The findings are as follows. 1) More than half of the visitors are over 65 years old. The majority of visitors live within 400m from Machikado-hiroba and they come mainly on foot. 2) Machikado-hiroba plays an important role as a new communication place for the visitors, especially for the aged. 3) They use the neighborhood center more frequently than before the opening of Machikado-hiroba. 4) It is necessary to accept the need of visitors and to increase the number of younger visitors.
By introduction of concept-Autopoiesis, I am trying to make better relationships between Architectural Design and planning theory. According to N. Ruhmann, human and human-society are classified 3 autopoietic systems,namely Body-system,Mind-system and Society-system. This 3 systems corresponds to Architecture consisting of 5 parts,(1) Architecture as efficiency,(2) Architecture as functional-space,(3) Architecture as feeling-space (4) Architecture as information,(5) Architecture as system's structure. These 5 parts have the effectiveness for Architectural valuation.
The experiment of the transfer action in the home toilet was done. This experiment is composed by three experiments. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the method which the space in the transfer action is used for. It is to examine it about the character of the transfer action again. An assistance person was using the space in front of the toilet stool in the case as the large space where there was no limitation in the movement. And, the difference wasn't seen in the method which the space by the method of transfer action was used for. It was found out that an influence in the direction of the wheelchair was rather good. An assistance person was moving well in the case as the small space where there was a limitation in the movement inside the limited space. The dimension of the entrance and the sleeves wall of the entrance influenced the transfer action again.
In order to improve visual recognition of stairs in upward and downward motion, sensory test was carried out by 10 vision-impaired persons. The result shows that the appearance of finishing materials (for example, combinations, sizes, colors) have influence on visual recognition of stairs. The most influential element was the ratio of the brightness between border and tread. The second most influential element was the width of border at tread (in case of going down), and the width of border at tread and rise (in case of going up). We proposed a standard plan of stair elements for good visual recognition.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the spatial composition of open spaces of Nepal. In Nepal, there still exist open spaces since the medieval period in as it is form. 16 squares are taken into consideration and investigated by indication method. Indicated elements are classified into 5 categories. A cluster analysis, considering a number of indicated elements, noting indication rate and depreciation tendency, is carried out and characterized by matrix analysis. In conclusion, the composition and features of 5 generic types of squares,"Buddhist","Hindu","Commercial","Old Royal Palace" and "Life-Relaxation" are clarified quantitatively.
A step-by-step ramp is newly developed which will enable many wheelchair users to evacuate with a small number of assistants, and its safety and travelability are comparatively examined. The results are as follows. 1) The more the number of evacuees are and the higher the evacuation start floor level is, the shorter evacuation time and final evacuation start time will be. 2) The travelability of ramp unit whose grade is 1:12 is good enough for wheelchair users.
Recently in Japan, there are many man-made public spaces planned and designed, especially in the center of cities. Sometimes, we can see "Iikanji (impressive)" scene with persons in urban public space ("Iikanji (Impressive)" means good, nice, happy, fine, comfortable, cool, excellent, pleasant, attractive, beautiful...) However, there are few vocabularies to express for the way of being impressive and lively in place and the relationship with the person. The aim of this study is to catch the structure of people's thoughts, "Iikanji (Impressive)" scene with persons in city, and consider their person-environment relationship. The places for "Iikanji (Impressive)" scene with persons in city are: (1) riverside, (2) seaside, (3) park, (4) street, (5) man-made public space (e.g. plaza, square), etc. Generally, nature and water's edge are more than man-made public spaces. This seems to be a problem relating public space design. The reasons are: (1) imagine the person's personality, (2) place's attraction, (3) person-place relationship, (4) person-others relationship, (5) observer-person relationship, etc. One of environmental qualities is just being in place influences each people.
It can be called subject important for the planning and designing of architecture to get to know how the space of architecture are recognized and grasped. For landscape-architecture, this research develops the new experiment technique and shows clearly how the cognition of the distance, ceiling height etc. in cross-sectional composition have recognized and grasped by people. As a result; As compared with the result of the cross-sectional recollecting method and the actual section, the tendency of the space cognition of cross-sectional composition of 11 areas and 30 viewpoint places such as cognition of distance, ceiling height was clarified.
In a street space, a pedestrian feels anticipation, which is a kind of dynamic attractiveness of the space ahead, that keeps changing moment by moment as the view sequence changes with his/her motion. This study aims to elucidate the relationship between the physical quantities of the space and the position and intensity of the peak anticipation in the space of curved streets. By model experiments using a model perception simulator, the relationship between the position and intensity of the peak anticipation and the physical quantities were investigated, while attempting to estimate the peak position and peak value. As a result, two consultation factors for the peak anticipation position were clarified, i.e., the consciousness of the invisible zone and glimpses of space ahead the curved streets, and the position was found estimable by these factors. For the intensity of anticipation, an estimation equation with a high accuracy was obtained by multiple linear regression analysis. The independent variables included the angle, width, and height/(width)^2 of the space, as well as the ratio of invisible zone and length of the visible wall ahead.
An orchard system, in the lower basin of Chaophraya Delta, could be regarded the sustainable land reclamation process that contributed its indispensable role in providing space compatibly suitable for settlement, for few hundred years ago. This study led to an apparent result of, the land formation process through the orchard system in Amphwa neighborhood, by clarifying of the correlation between the waterways and the orchard unit. From an apparent hierarchy of waterway, and for the reason of the geographical advantage, which had much influences on the ability of irrigation and accessible to water, the first settlement would be set along the main waterways. And according to the development pattern of the unit of land-parcel and block of land-parcels; there was the systematic land formation process performed to accomplish the linkage and membrane of an orchard neighborhood.
In Hakata District of Fukuoka City which is known as one of the most traditional merchant district, the sub-division system called "Taikou Machiwari" which was implemented in late 16th Century has been still the basis of urban infrastructure affecting the urban development and building forms on it. Following the recent trend of increasing of both apartment construction and population, this study aims to review the transformation of both block form types and lot form types, and to analyze the past 30 year trend of lot integration and apartment building layout form. As the results, this study constructs the typology of the lot integration and the apartment building form, and clarifes the relationship between them.
In this paper, allocation and location model for evacuation facilities are concerned. In order to make a regional planning of evacuation facilities, estimated number of refuge to the facilities should be under the accommodation capacity and the accessibility of the refuge must be considered, however the method for planning of such facilities allocation and location of refuge is not established yet. Then, firstly capacitated allocation model is investigated, and a new allocation model to minimize sum of squared distances is proposed. Secondly, two objectives location model which minimizes both sum of squared distances and number of facilities are proposed. Optimal locations and allocations are shown and the usefulness of proposed models is confirmed.
This study aims to develop an evacuation simulation system which uses mesh model and handles individual evacuation behavior and inundation process into architectural underground space. In order to evaluate the modeling of evacuation behavior, the result of this simulation is compared with "Verification Method for Egress Safety from a Fire Floor" which is set in The Ministry of Construction's Notification. Moreover, this simulation is applied to the case of the inundation disaster in the architectural underground space.
This paper aims to clarify an intention of the civic center plan in Yamagata city by Michitsune Mishima in early Meiji. As a result, followings became clear. M. Mishima was particular about a location of new prefectural office in Yamagata. When it was constructed, he planned the civic center in front of it already. Form, height and wall surface line of buildings in the civic center had no planning standard. It was a significance that to concentrate Western-style buildings for him.
The first Zoning Ordinance in Chicago was enacted in 1923. This paper is to review the formation of the ordinance and its height and bulk regulations in light of the relationship to the building height limitations, which had been in force for thirty years. Specifically, this paper is to focus on: 1) how the city of Chicago drafted the zoning ordinance in creating the relation to stakeholders such as citizens, communities, real estate interests, land owners, and business groups; 2) on what basis the city decided the height and bulk regulations on tall buildings and how the height limitations, enacted for thirty years, influenced the decision; 3) how the enacted height and bulk regulations reflected the change in the city.
A design competition should be accessible to the community throughout its process. A study by the Project Formulation Management Group in Gunma-prefecture showed that all stages of the competition including committees, entries, and the first and final stages of judging, could be open to the community. Residents could have the opportunity to participate in each stage of the competition. The study also included children's participation in design competitions with programs such as, 'The Study of How to Read Entries' and 'The Children's Jury Process'. The conclusion revealed that community involvement is an effective component in general design competitions.
The purpose of this research is to analyze the configuration of open space in Japanese urban area by applying the space syntax theory, and to investigate the relationship between the structure of urban form and social conditions. 1) Configurations of open space can be quantitatively characterized by the space syntax theory. 2) Integration value correlates closely with pedestrians distribution. 3) Distribution of the building-use does not correlate to the integration value but it is a correlate of the pedestrian distribution. 4) The space syntax theory can estimate pedestrian flows and the building-use of future plans. It is concluded that analysis based on the space syntax theory is useful to support urban planning, because the theory can be applied to recognize the present situation and to evaluate the alternatives comparatively.
There have been strong demands to reduce construction waste that amounts to approximately 20% of the sum of the waste of all industries in Japan. Additionally, in this decade, a considerable increase of construction waste is expected due to renewals of office buildings and houses that were constructed during the rapid growth periods in the 1960's. In order to solve the problem regarding the anticipated waste, there need to be appropriate plans in place to reduce waste at construction sites, to promote recycling, and to take hold of sufficient intermediary disposal facilities for recycling and disposal of waste. In this study we locate these intermediate disposal facilities in the Tokyo coastal areas, and examine the relationship between the amount of construction byproducts that are discharged from construction sites in Tokyo Metropolitan area and the capacities of disposal in these intermediary disposal facilities. Additionally, we have the relationship between the current situation of the intermediate disposal facilities, which is analyzed by the aquatic system in the Tokyo Metropolitan area, under investigation..
Construction is complicated artificial action. The paper proposes the methodology to describe elements of construction. "Architecture" is one of the ways to analyze artificial actions, and the general concept of "Architecture" is the composition of system that is based on the pattern of relationship between elements. Primary meaning of "Architecture" was building and construction, because they are composed of many complicated elements. Then, this logic has been advanced in many fields such as computer industry, automobile industry and so on. It has great possibility to find brand new order of construction to study with advanced logic of "Architecture." The paper categorized the ways of description of system with "Architecture" concept, and demonstrated of description of construction aspects, then analyzed the possibility of description of construction as an artificial system.
At the last stage of this research, the energy consumption items in detached house production processes are being categorized into 3 groups: the energy for material flow, for construction and for components processing. And the methods of quantity analysis and assessment are proposed according to the categorized groups. The practicability of the methods is proved by the computing of 3 residence cases, which are with similar layouts but different producing systems. Although we've brought out the methods at the former stage of our study, the computing part is limited to the 3 residence cases. As a result, if we want to compare the differences among various approaches in the energy consumption of detached house production, there must be more actual data and cases for reference. The aims of this essay are as followed: 1. To provide a model plan and choose 7 production systems as assumption samples, then get the data from firms through interviews or questionnaire surveys. 2. To divide the data into 3 categories: the energy for component flow, for construction and for components processing, sum total of energy consumption in each category, and then compare the differences in consumption quantity of the 7 production systems and the percentages of energy consumption in each system. 3. After considering the practicability of the construction technologies and methods, we will provide various countermeasures, which are focused on improving conservation in resource consumption in view of the result of computing mentioned above. Afterward we will conclusively propose the best approach after the whole computing and demonstrating process.
The existing oldest Tale of Genji pictures were created in the first half of 12^<th> century. More pictures were created by Tosa School, Sumiyoshi School and Kano School in the 16^<th> and 17^<th> century and many of them are in existence. In this research, we aim to clarify the comprehension and yearning of upper class on Shindenzukuri through the images of Tale of Genji picture series in the 16^<th> and 17^<th> century. The architectural images of Tale of Genji pictures should have Shindenzukuri style of Heian-era, however, they had been transformed as responding to the residential style of the time that the image was created. The noble quality of Tale of Genji pictures was represented in the transformation of the style; Syoinzukuri that has blue-gold Fusuma-Shoji partitions to Sukiya-Syoinzukuri that has pale and delicate Fusuma-Shoji partitions. In the latter 17^<th> century, Shindenzukuri revival style was introduced to the images.
This study is written with the aim of clarifying the characteristics of the "Theory of Architectural Evolution" which was proposed in the early 20th century by Chuta Ito who is known as the first Japanese architectural historian, a theorist and an architect. This paper is about the analysis of the presented theories directly related to the "Theory of Architectural Evolution." As a result, the following points are made clear. 1) The main objective of the "Theory of Architectural Evolution" is to emphasize the "subjectivity" of modern Japanese architecture and architects. 2) The planning method that this theory emphasizes is to select the elements of pre-modern Japanese architecture, European architecture, along with the Asian architecture and to blend these all into one. 3) There is a strong relationship between Ito's design practices and the idea of the "Theory of Architectural Evolution." 4) "Diagram of The World Architecture" plans express his conception of the world visually. 5) The "Theory of Architectural Evolution" was provided to society through various editorials of the Meiji Era.
Kingo Tatsuno, who designed Tokyo Station in the beginning of the 20^<th> century, had finished a number of works so called "Tatsuno-style." The style, however, is not so clear in its origin and development. This paper is to clarify the position of the Tokyo Station in the series of works categorized "Tatsuno-style," and the design source of the style, by focusing on the "string-courses," which is one of the most distinctive features in the style.
William M. Vories, born in the USA, 1880, came to Japan for the evangelization, 1905. Through a lot of his architectural works, he became representative as a missionary architect in Japan. Also while being active, he was interested in missionary planning in East Asia, such as China and Korea. This research is focused on the interchange between Japan and Korea according to studying the activities of him. Vories had visited Korea in 17 times, and involved in 146 architectural works; moreover he opened the branch office at Seoul and took Korean draftsmen and educated them to be architects. Vories could be called the first real architect introduced to Korea, and the activities of him made a big influence to modernization of missionary architecture.
This study deals with an analogy between architecture and music by taking the unit of measurement in the Italian Renaissance method. The aim of this study is to consider how the unit of measurement correlates with various parts that compose architectural and musical works. Concerning the unit of measurement, 'modulus' in architecture is analogous to 'tactus' in music. Vignola and Diruta measure all parts of architectural and musical works with these units of measurement. Therefore, all measurements are indicated by numbers.
The term "composition" is used in fields of arts and crafts. In the field of design, this term means the organization of the whole one adjusting the form of each part of an object with color, volume and so on. The purpose of this study is to verify "composition" as beautiful forms in Chashitsu design and to propose a characteristics analysis method of overall situation regarding screen separation using the law of root N.