“Urban Hanok” were mainly built between 1930's to 1960's in an urbanized area. It is consist of “Chae” and “Madang” which belong to the residential buildings. Combining of them makes up a living space. The Chae has two distinctive features. One is “Maru(a wooden floor)” and the other is “Ondol(underfloor heating system)”. The former is good for bearing the hot weather in summers and the latter is to survive in the cold winters. The unit of Chae and Madang functioned as a versatile living space or an environmental conditioning space. L-shaped urban Hanok building is consist of two parts. One zone is the main building and the other is wing building. Anbang is connected the main building and the wing building. Buok(a kitchen with a fuel hole) is located next to the Anbang toward the wing building, while Daechung(the main wooden floored room) is next to the Anbang toward the main building.
The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics in relationship between Chae and Madang corresponding to the extension and alteration of L-shaped urban Hanok, which is a standard urban Hanok shape in central Korea. Based on the actual condition of the extension and alteration, we examined the spatial modifications in Chae and Madang and evaluated the characteristics of life style corresponding to the connection between Chae and Madang. The results are follows: (1) About the changes in the usage of Chae and Madang due to extension and alteration: 1) The usage of Chae: The backside of a building was extended to increase a room space or acquire a storage space. In this process, the gate part, which connected rooms in a Chae and front garden, was altered. When a gate was removed and replaced with a wall, the backside of a building and exterior space is disconnected. When a gate was replaced with a window, the space only allowed minimum lighting and ventilation. The passage to Madang is maintained, keeping traditional path of circulation intact. 2) The usage of Madang: Life behavior at the Madang changed corresponding to the demands of residents. For example, retired residents enjoyed gardening. However, Madang was maintained as an empty space for a parking spot, which was a different usage compared to when they just moved in. Madang had been flexibly used as a space to support the daily life of residents. Reason of emptying the center of Madang had changed corresponding to the variations in life pattern. (2) About the changes in the connection between Chae and Madang: As characteristics of connection between Chae and Madang and space usages corresponding to the extension and alteration, it could be pointed out that rooms of Chae became more exclusive than when they moved in. For example, gates from rooms of Chae to Madang were removed and only the gate connecting Daechung and Madang was maintained. Toenmaru, which was a half inside and half outside space, used to connect Chae and Madang, but it turned into a pathway and storage space. Therefore, it changed the traditional lifestyle, which allowed residents to change the connection between interior and exterior by opening and closing windows and doors corresponding to seasons.
The nearest case registered in this direction is “Guanshanyanyue”, a housing development completed in 2014, in Changsha,
Hunan Province. This project offered user participation in all stages from design to construction, and as such, it became the
genesis of this research on the feasibility of cooperative housing construction in the Chinese housing market. The purposes of
this study are: (1) Clarify the planning and implementation strategies for the construction of Guanshanyanyue. (2) Clarify
differences in the scope of choices offered (specifically in the domain of common and exclusive areas) to the user in Japan, and
in the Guanshanyanyue project. The ultimate purpose of this research is to investigate opportunities for co-operative housing
developments in China, and the possibility of applying the Japanese practice as a model. This preliminary analysis has
revealed that: (1) The case of Guanshanyanyue offers a broad scope of user participation, reaching the skeleton level, similarly
to the Japanese “user-initiative” co-operative housing model, which offers a broader scope user decision than the
“specialist-initiative” co-operative housing model, which limits user decisions to the interior level. (2) Guanshanyanyue, will
always need development companies mediating the contracts, because they can hold a property deed. (3) Guanshanyanyue
project lacked professional guidance.
“The In-hospital midwifery care system” is a setup that utilize midwives in hospital, sharing the role with doctors. On this system, “the In-hospital midwifery care” is established in a ward, and midwives assist a pregnant woman on delivery, taking the initiative. The objective of this study is to show the way of optimizing the planning for the In-hospital midwifery care system. As a first step of the study, this paper aims to reveal typology of delivery space and actual conditions of environmental improvements in the In-hospital midwifery care. The survey was conducted in twenty hospitals. After considering based on field works, the conclusions are as follows. 1) Two conditions were founded; the delivery styles and the independence to spaces of the obstetrical department. Based on them, six basic planning forms were derived. 2) Four elemental rooms support each type; labor room and delivery room, LDR, chair seat rank-type obstetrical room, seat rank-type obstetrical room. 3) Among the four elemental rooms, LDR is the most considerable both for medical purpose and residential purpose. In fact LDR is adopted the most frequently. 4) The independence to spaces of the obstetrical department is performed in large-scaled hospitals, more than four hundred beds. It means that substantial medical facilities scale should be required for the space creation to raise the leadership of midwives. 5) The delivery space, which is used for the sickroom, is particular to the In-hospital midwifery care, and it does not exist in spaces of the obstetrical department. It provides the environment that is closer to domestic delivery, and here, pregnant women do not have to move all the time in hospital, and they can stay under same condition. 6) As requirements of environmental improvement by the recognition of midwives, four categories in the aspect of environment of providing equipment; elemental rooms, architectural equipment, delivery space equipment, and making homey environment, and three categories in the aspect of human environment; pregnant women's mental comfort, pregnant women's physical comfort, and easy attend of their family, are found. 7) For environmental improvement of the In-hospital midwifery care, midwives are most interested in the pregnant women's mental comfort. For tendency, categorizing by basic planning forms, making homey environment is highly concerned for the form rather similar to the obstetrical department, and the delivery space equipment is concerned for the form rather similar to the midwifery center. 8) As requirements for environmental improvement suitable for delivery in the In-hospital midwifery care, differently from one in the obstetrics medical care, pregnant women's mental comfort, brought by making homey environment, or delivery space equipment, drew so much attention. And pregnant women's physical comfort, brought by delivery space equipment like as tatami and delivery auxiliary implement, drew so much attention.
1. Introduction Harmonious care home, which is often called “Toyama-style day care service, ” is a developing welfare system started in Toyama Prefecture in 2003, which offers appropriate services for everyone in a home-like atmosphere, regardless of their age or disabilities. This study aims to compare the interannual changes of users' activities and postures in two Toyama-style day care service centers which had been researched 3 years ago in order to find out what kind of space is important and needed in harmonious care home to accommodate diverse and aging users.
2. Methods In our last research, 4 centers (NI, FU, SI and OR) were selected through questionnaires and interview and our survey found that elderly is the main user in SI and OR. In this research therefore, NI and FU were selected to be compared with the old data. We observed, using the same method to the old research, the activity place and posture of users during day- care time by plotting users' and staff's locations, postures and behaviors on floor plan.
3. Results and Discussions Because there are more chairs and sofas in common space than in room space, users stay longer in common space. Users have lunch and tea in common space. While they play music, use computer and take a nap in room space. As there were more activities needing to sit on chairs, tables and beds in room space, so that fewer users stay by sitting on the flooring/carpet. Since there were beds in room space in 2010, users stay longer than lying in the common space. But in 2013, users stay lying in the common space become longer. One supposed reason is a new user who couldn't keep her posture was playing with towel lying on the carpet all day. Many of elderly used to sit on the floor before, however in 2013 they sit on the chair/wheelchair or lie down on the bed/carpet more. Because of accommodating not only new elderly with less healthy condition, but also existing users getting weaker every year, sitting on the floor is getting harder to be observed. The combination of chair, sitting floor and lying floor is good for diverse users, however the main furniture for these combinations is tend to be sofas/chairs or carpets/rugs. This combination should be easily changed in accordance with users' conditions.
4. Conclusions Findings are as follows: 1) Not only new users like severely handicapped, babies or small kids, but also existing users getting weaker should be considered. 2) Common space is most important because furniture layout is easily customized for accepting each posture according to users' conditions. Room space layout belongs to the characteristics of rooms. 3) It is needed to layout furniture like bed, tatami mat or carpet for severely handicapped who would like to share the common space with other users. As Toyama-style is supposed to accept divers users while most of them are elderly now, this flexibility found in this study should be shared among all Toyama-style centers.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how distortions of cognition caused by expectancy effects as noted in the field of interpersonal cognition influence the conceptualization of urban space. To study the influence of expectancy effects, we conducted an exploratory wayfinding experiment in an existing urban area and extracted information on the environment from the subjects in the form of language data to find out how the subjects conceptualized urban space. Additionally, we also sought to clarify the causes for their conceptualizations by comparing conceptualization models based on the presence and absence of expectancy effects. A grid-shaped area of Tokyo bordered by four straight roads was selected for the walk-through experiment. To clarify the expectancy effects, cards were prepared with a list of keywords and distributed to half of the subjects, 10 people in Group S (S1—S10), while the other half, 10 people in Group M (M1—M10), were not given cards. The keywords listed on the cards were four words related to the conceptualization of urban space as reported in our previous paper (street network, physical elements, time, and atmosphere), and one additional word, history. The subjects were told to walk freely through the designated area and to raise their hand when they felt they had a sufficient grasp of the urban space. The subjects were interviewed after the walk-through and asked about their impressions of the urban space. The interviews were recorded using an IC recorder. The language data acquired in this way was later analyzed using a qualitative modified grounded theory approach. In the interviews conducted after the experiment, we got 157 words of linguistic data from Group S, and 193 words from Group M. After processing conceptualization for each group, we ended up with 18 concepts for each of the two groups, for a total of 36 concepts. These concepts were then sorted into conceptual models resulting in four core categories as explained below. (1) The conceptualization of urban space is achieved at the point in time when the four core categories (street network, physical elements, time, and atmosphere) are formed within the mind of the subject, regardless of whether there are or are not expectancy effects. (2) When only some aspects of urban space are emphasized, people are unable to capture the overall street network or atmosphere of the area. (3) When peoples' preconceptions do not match the atmosphere created by the unique physical elements of an area of urban space, expectancy effects take hold to emphasize the heterogeneous and unexpected aspects, leading to exaggerated perceptions even of the behavior and bustle of the people in the area. On the other hand, when preconceptions and atmosphere do match, people tend to perceive physical elements in terms of time, i.e., in terms of how old or unchanged those elements may be. This study clearly showed that in the conceptualization of urban space, expectancy effects can distort the perception of space, just as they do in the field of interpersonal cognition. In other words, expectancy effects can lead to incorrect interpretations of the intrinsic characteristics of urban space.
There are spaces of various spatial configurations, living room, workspace and classroom. Each of them is adapted to the intended use. This study is focused on psychological boundaries that affect the specific spatial configuration. The perception of spatial configuration limits the behavior and scope of activities in physically and psychologically. Intentionally arranging the elements that produce psychological boundaries in space divide a certain space into several small spaces, it is possible to use in various purposes. We propose the hanging wall as the element that produces psychological boundaries. We perform experiment in the method for immersion of subject into virtual reality space with wide view head mounted display (HMD). While the experiments, subjects walk to the subjective central position in virtual rectangular space. Four cameras are installed at each corners of real laboratory to track the movement of subjects and acquire the coordinate data. In addition, the angle sensor of three axis (InertiaCube 2+) is equipped in HMD, acquires the angle of rotation of subject's head. To tune subject's coordinate data and angle of rotation data to the image of virtual environment on HMD, subjects can walk and look around in virtual environment. This study verified how sizes and positions of hanging wall influence on perception of spatial center in virtual rectangular space, through experiments with technology of immersive virtual environment. The summary of the important experimental results of virtual rectangular space of width 5400mm × depth 7200mm × ceiling height 3000mm is as follows. 1.) Subjective central position in virtual rectangular space could move backward from hanging walls by presenting hanging walls of height of 500mm or more, in comparison with by the presenting no hanging wall. 2.) Subjective central position in virtual rectangular space would move back more from hanging walls as the increasing heights of the hanging walls. 3.) Subjective central position in virtual rectangular space wouldn't move backward any more from hanging walls by exceeding 2000mm high of the hanging walls in rectangular space of ceiling height 3000mm. 4.) Subjective central position in virtual rectangular space would move backward and right or left from hanging walls, when presented hanging walls that are narrower than width of rectangular space are put aside toward the right and left wall. The above experimental results revealed that subjective central position in virtual rectangular space qualitatively move by changing sizes and positions of hanging wall. Assuming that this movement of spatial central position caused by change in perception of spatial configuration, it suggests the possibility that perception of spatial configuration could be operated by presenting hanging walls. Also, this devised experimental method that evaluated spatial central position by subject own self with changing spatial elements using technology of immersive virtual environment, it has possibility that various fields of research dealing with spatial trait and region would reference. There are various spatial elements that change perception of spatial configuration in the real living space. These experimental results suggested that textures and colors of walls influenced on perception of spatial central position. Henceforth further development on this devised experimental method, is necessary to verify how various spatial elements including hanging wall influence on user's perception of space.
This paper studies the characteristics of indexes and criteria related to the daylighting evaluation which is applied to architectural design in Japan. The paper further on clarifies the current situation of daylighting evaluation and the prospects for the future. As for the index concerning daylight acquisition and discomfort glare, this paper illustrates their historical development from its very first introduction to the most recent. By tracing it's development in chronological order, the paper demonstrates the extension of the evaluation contents and enables to distinguish one index from another. Although none of the existing index is perfect, understanding its limitations and characteristics can influence the architectural design. Regarding daylight acquisition, several indexes such as DA and UDI, which are based on annual simulation, had been introduced. These indexes contribute towards designing efficient lighting system including automated blind control and artificial lighting in response to the fluctuation of natural daylight. As for the measurement of discomfort glare, indexes such as PGSV and DGP had been introduced to control the real-time automated blind control system in response to signals from sensors and the image analysis technology. By looking at the development process, the evaluation methods are generally upgraded over time as the indexes are modified in accordance with the introduction of new technology. However, the latest indexes lack numerical standards to evaluate the performances of buildings and thus it is crucial to set up the standard for these indexes. As for the criterion, this paper clarifies the current evaluation system for daylighting mainly focusing on Japanese laws, standards, and the green building certification programs. The current Japanese Building Code regulates the minimum daylight acquisition, but other standards used in Japan, such as the JIS and AIJES are not adequate enough for a comprehensive evaluation of daylighting and visual comfort. The green building certification program, CASBEE does not have the appropriate system to evaluate performance by the computational simulation compared to other foreign leading green building programs like LEED or BREEAM. The standards must change in the near future to represent clear criteria for a comprehensive evaluation of daylighting and visual comfort. The criteria and evaluation must also include the daylight acquisition and the discomfort glare, and must be able to present designers with an appropriate numerical goal. In regard of CASBEE, it is strongly desired to keep up the rapid development of analysis technology, sensing technology and the evaluation indexes, by revising constantly and consistently.
It's threatening as a flood damage tsuneshuu area formerly by this research, baku, flood control construction has been created in all part area as the plan which evades the damage, but it also has the area where he disappeared, and a flood person with experience is decreasing its form gradually from an area already, too, and a hearing of confirmation of flood control construction and the fact that its construction longitude and latitude is historical will be also the difficult situation, and accident culture is put in the situation that I become extinct. So such, I had for my object to catch its common characteristic (the similarity) and singularity (peculiar, ) about the regional characteristics the architectonic gensai measure for which the prototype which is to consider the current state which hangs and is seen in all part was left aimed at a residence and a house from a village area, and by which can be judged in those. (1) Each village After evading flooding by flood damage by forming a village into a natural levee or minute highlands as a gensai measure at the whole village by an area, such as more construction of ring levee itsutsumi is to circle the whole village by a possible place and make sure that it'll be crowded, and avoiding water disaster, I find out that a multiple measure was being done. On the other hand, the occasion of the alluvial fan was to reflect soil property (the gravel), and for almost all water poured to permeate in the ground, embankment was held and didn't take a measure for flood control by the embankment with which the whole village is surrounded only the direction where flood water by river burst flows. (2) Each village There was "equipment" as the regional characteristics by which a storehouse (Mizukura and cupboard for tea-things Mizuzuka and step warehouse), a residence grove and a trench have been damaged for a long time as a flood damage tsuneshuu area at 5 villages at a residence in an area, and moreover the directional common characteristic was seen in arrangement. It's regional in 1 area, peculiar, its arrangement form was judged as the bank I reflected. (3) While fill in a residence, fill in a main building and Mizuzuka's fill as a stylobate in a storehouse were accomplished at 4 villages, without being given to fill in a site in Aikawa area, only each building and an independent embankment raised the ground level. It was to secure the augmentation height grown from flood damage experience in the past since putting it in 4 villages with Mizuzuka, and was to show the difference in the height of two stages or three stages in a site and a main building storehouse, reflect flood experience respectively and be accomplished, and the absolute height which doesn't put on flooding had been secured. It's the architectonic gensai measure going off more than the above, but I think it's necessary to be considering the way to take gensai measures by the multiple stance until "equipment" by each "defense" empty dwelling unit of the whole local community to build society strong in flood damage from now on.
The purpose of this study is to verify utility of small/medium scale system of wood distribution and marketing on the value improvement of planted forests.
The research results are following: In the central part of Hyogo pref., there are 2 cases picked up.
In the case of “SHISONOMORINOKI” project, the system is collaboration among companies. The reason why this area is being largest concentrated place of wood buisinesses in Hyogo pref.. The information sharing between main constituents is managed at wood-processing plant of their associations, and the price of stumpage that had possibility to lead to sustainable forest resources management maintained. In the business scale, it was limited that influence to local forestry. In addition, it was substantially confirmed that substitution for advantage of the conventional wood distribution.
In the another case of “SOUND WOOD(s)” project, the system is that the wood coordinator and forest owners play key role. The reason why this area is having high forest resource availability and high management will of the forest owners. Flow of information is managed by wood coordinator and the price of stumpage is fixed at a high price than that of “SHISONOMORINOKI”. Although the business scale is very small. In addition, it was substantially confirmed that substitution for advantage of the conventional wood distribution.
As a result, problem solving and to substituting for advantage of conventional wood distribution were substantially confirmed with both examples, besides the business scale. And the utility as the wood distribution and marketing system which contribute to the value improvement of planted forest was confirmed.
In both examples, those business scale is small. But they raise value of the wood resources by corresponding to tenderhearted consumer needs. I think it is one route to the value improvement of the local planted forest to build complemental relations between small/medium scale systems which raise value of the wood and large-scale systems which solve quantitative problem of forest resource management. Also, I think it is important that people who link the distribution from the upper part to the lower part for possibility of the system development in other areas. They have rich information about each stage of wood distribution and have technique to draw value of the wood.
This study aims at clearing that the change of Seki's interpretation of Garden City Theory from his period of professor to the period of deputy mayor of Osaka city. Seki was interested in the Garden City movement in European countries from the aspect of labor issues when he was the professor of public policy at the higher commercial school. He interpreted that there were three types of Garden City Theories, which were “Garden City”, “Garden Suburb” and “Industrial Village”, from the period of the professor. However he didn't have clear images for each type of theories. Since he became the deputy mayor of Osaka city, his interpretation of Garden City Theory had been changed through his continuous study of Garden City Theory and through his position, which he had to practice his public policy at Osaka city. In 1919 and in 1921, He wrote some newspaper articles about Garden City. He mentioned “Garden City” and “Garden Suburb”, and he equated “Garden City” with “Garden Suburb” in his articles. However, in 1922, he published three articles and mentioned “Garden City” and “Garden Suburb”, he tried to differentiate “Garden City” and “Garden Suburb” in his articles. He explained the difference between “Garden City” and “Garden Suburb” as follows the points are the necessity of agricultural area and the necessity of self-sustainability. In fact, he insisted that “Garden City” meant self-sustained city, which held the agricultural area for serving the inhabitants living in the city. On the other hand, “Garden Suburb” meant dependent city on the big city, which did not hold the agricultural area. In addition, he insisted that “Garden City” theory was based on Ebenezer Howard's theory and “Garden Suburb” theory was based on Raymond Unwin's theory. From this study, it becomes clear that he suggested the importance of “Garden Suburb” theory and “Industrial Village” theory to Osaka city since 1922. The reason of this, his idea of urban extension plan for Osaka city aimed not at creating another city but at extending Osaka city for taking in the population that had been growing and for supplying especially working classes and lower classes with sanitary houses. His both ideas of “Garden Suburb” theory and “Industrial Village” theory were built up and were connected to the theory of “Satellite City”, which he meant the decentralization of industry, population and housing.
Since people’s needs for living environment are currently getting more diverse and qualitative, traditional model which links life-stages directly to housings like “jutaku-sugoroku (board game of housings)” in modern ages, will not enough effective to grasp the actual situation of people's housing preference action. Instead of evaluating grade of the living environment by a unitary index, the method to reevaluate the living environment by plural subjective values is needed.
Based on such idea, the author had found over 100 values of lifestyle, which were supplied to housing market, by analyzing the housing advertisements from 1980 to 2010. To compare with these results, this paper on the contrary aims to clarify the desires for living environment that people have when they choose their own housings. In this research questionnaires were distributed for 5,749 residents around Tokyo metropolitan area, to investigate how strongly they want each values when they were selecting their house, and were they satisfied enough or not.
In chapter 3, by analyzing the answers of questionnaires, desires for living environment were classified into 5 groups: 1) desires for urban images, 2) desires for luxury images, 3) desires for accessibilities, 4) desires for everyday life, and 5) desires for nature images. These desires have a qualitative variation from “basic desires” to “selective” ones. Based on these desires and social characters, the subjects that select living environment were also classified into 5 groups: 1) a group with low income and basic desires, 2) a group with middle ages from suburbs who concentrates on everyday life desires, 3) a group with middle ages from suburbs who had desires around everyday life, 4) a group with middle and old ages from cities who had balanced desires, 5) a group with old ages and pursues all types of desires.
In chapter 4, process of housing preference was analyzed by evaluating compromise and satisfaction of desires. As a result, 5) a group with old ages and pursues all types of desires tends to have a choice that satisfies their first desires, while 4) a group with middle and old ages from cities who had balanced desires tends to have a choice with total change of their first desires. The subject groups 1), 2), 3) tend to have a choice with partial change in desires. In short, a subject group that strongly intends desires tends to have lower satisfaction and compromise after deciding their house to buy. At the same time, it was grasped that, as a result, the choice with the change of first desires will lead to the choice of a variety of housing types. Thus, the housing preference with less change of the first desires will let them enjoy "values as they demanded". In contrast to these cases, the housing preference with more change of desires will be accommodated by diverse housing types, with a satisfaction of desires that they did not have at first, namely "values they found".
The purpose of this study is to reveal the regional disparity in the allocation of medical resources for each of the secondary medical care district (medical district) which is regional unit to develop medical care system. In this study, grasp the amount of access distance as excess or deficiency of medical service from the viewpoint of accessibility of residents. And analyzed the regional characteristics of the medical districts there is a disparity in the allocation of medical resources. In addition, we expect to be basic materials for deploying the policies of the medical system for the future. In this study, population and household composition, land-use, industrial structure and employment structure was defined as regional characteristics. First, it was classified by the regional characteristics in order to grasp the structure of medical districts. Secondary, it was compared the accessibility of each classification in order to clarify the regional disparities in the allocation of medical resources. The road distance from the residence to the nearest medical facilities were defined as accessibility. The medical facilities were analyzed by subject of medical treatment. Analysis targets were internal medicine, pediatrics, orthopedics and obstetrics and gynecology. By typifying the medical districts, there were many medical districts consist of the combination of municipalities with a variety of regional characteristics. In contrast, there are few medical district consist of similar municipalities of regional characteristics. In the analysis of the accessibility, it was revealed that there were disparities in the accessibility between the medical district with high proportion of the urban area (type A) and with relatively high proportion of depopulated area (type H). There were a disparity over 5 times in the average distance between these two types. In the analysis of each subject of medical treatment, there was a trend that the subject of medical treatment with much number of patients per capita is accessible. In addition, it was revealed when the similarity of the regional characteristics of municipalities that compose the medical districts is high, the disparity in the area is small. Even if there is a sufficient amount of medical resources for population, the medical service is insufficient when considering actual distribution of population and location of medical facilities. Therefore, to solve the regional disparities in the medical care systems, it is necessary to maintain the systems based on each regional characteristics, not to maintain by the uniform standard of the whole country.
This paper looks into an example of heritage conservation-based urban regeneration — the Tokyo Station Marunouchi Building in order to examine how authenticity in contemporary urban place-making is molded. As an integrated framework, it explores the 1994 Nara Document on Authenticity and adopts its authenticity conditions (form & design, materials & substance, use & function, tradition & techniques, location & setting, and spirit & feeling) to develop an analytical framework. It then identifies the force of socio-economic and political considerations that led to the place-shaping, and heritagization of Tokyo Station and determined its conservation rationale. Using the created analytical framework, the work then investigates how authenticity is molded out of heritage conservation-based urban regeneration.
Homeless is a common issue in city area. In the case of Taipei city, Taiwan, Wanhua district is known as the area where most homeless gather and live. In this study, we define those private housings that are provided for ex-homeless as a next stage of temporary residence like shelter as ‘Homeless supportive housing’ (called HSH below). We first review the homeless policy in Taipei city and mainly focus on the supply network of these supportive housing. We also clarify the role of each actors who involved in the network including ex-homeless, social worker and house owner. We use research methods including literature review, interview and site survey and life history survey to conduct the case study in Taipei. We first realize that the HSH system has already established in the East Asian cases like Tokyo, Osaka in Japan and Seoul, South Korea literature review. We then review and summarize the homeless support policy in Taipei city based on the interview with social workers of Taipei city government. In order to make clear the present condition of homeless supportive housing in Taipei, we interview the house social worker and house owner. On the other hand, we also conduct life history survey to realize the life experience and living condition of ex-homeless, those who are the habitant of HSH. We first summarize several pattern and route for homeless to get into HSH accepting the rent subsidy from Taipei city government based on the analysis of life history survey. We also evaluate the effect of HSH using the statistic data and the data collected from the interview with social workers. We consider that HSH actually helps homeless to get rid of homelessness, however, issues like housing supply, low housing condition and life quality exists. Finally, in order to clarify the network system of HSH, we analyze the relation between habitant with house owner, house owner with social worker, social worker with habitant. We discover that HSH provides co-caring mechanism for both habitant and house owner since in most cases both of them are elderly. Habitant has very strong fiduciary relation with the social worker since social worker provides them with case-by-case consulting and life support. House owner also strongly trusts the social worker since they will introduce those who are willing to live a normal life and behave will. The HSH in Taipei has a different characteristic with the case of Japan or Korea while HSH is provided mainly by public sector. However, Taipei strongly relies on the supply from private sector. Public sector provides subsidy and financial support for homeless to get into HSH, however the life quality and living condition in not secured. In our future research, the actual life quality in HSH and how it influence the future planning of habitant is considered important.
A condominium developer in Hawaii has to register the Association of Apartment Owners within 180 days and updates every two years. 476 out of 7,605 condominiums are owned by leasehold in 2014. 700 leasehold condominiums provided between the years 1961 and 1993. Land Reform Act 1967 granted the single family residence lessees the right to purchase the leased fee interests, if the lease term is 20 years or longer and 50% or more lessees apply to purchase. Honolulu Leasehold Condominium Conversion Law passed by the Honolulu City Council in 1991 to help leasehold owner-occupants gain the leased fee interests. The law allows condominium lessees to petition the city to use its condemnation powers to compel a landowner to sell the leased fee at the price determined by a third party. A landlord filed a suit and the US Supreme Court upheld lease-to-fee conversion in 1998. Even though the Hawaii Supreme Court had affirmed that the city lease-to-fee conversion program was valid and enforceable in 2002, the City Council repealed the 1991 law in 2005. Still after 2005, some lessors decided voluntarily to offer for sale the leased fee interests to apartment owners. 290 condominiums out of 700 have achieved the lease-to-fee conversion in 2015. 55 thousand leasehold condominium units existed in 1991 decreased to 18 thousand due to the 1991 law and the remaining number now is 13 thousand. Appraisers selected by the lessor and by the lessees valuate the lease-to-fee conversion price. Appraisers typically use the income approach to value the leased fee interest. The typical length of apartment ground lease is at least 50 years, and usually is within a range of between 55 and 75 years. Most leases have a fixed rent period of between 25 and 30 years. During this period the rent is fixed or predetermined. Lease rent renegotiations are usually scheduled in 10 or 15 year intervals after the initial fixed rent period. Most leases contain a formula for determining the new lease rent. Hawaii law provides that all ground leases for condominium must contain a provision for mandatory arbitration of any renegotiated rent. Three real estate appraisers involved in the impartial party appraise the rent. At the end of the lease term the lessee must surrender to the lessor possession of the land. What happens at the end of the lease term depends on the language of the surrender clause. Most general surrender clause gives the apartment units and common elements to the lessor. If the lessor desires to remove the apartment unit, the lessor is responsible for any costs involved in demolition. The lessee could attempt to negotiate a new lease or extend the ground lease even though the lessor has no obligation. In 1988, the Hawaii State Legislature enacted a law to give condominium owners associations a right of first refusal to buy the leased fee interest if the lessor decides to sell to anyone other than the existing individual apartment owners. Addition to the first refusal, the condominium owners association in Hawaii has the right to purchase the leased fee interest as the same price as the lessor is selling. It also has the power to negotiate as an attorney when the condominium owners purchase the leased fee and review the rent. Hawaii law requires that the seller or the seller's agent provide the documents to a prospective buyer, who then has a specific period of time to review the lease documents, especially key elements pertaining to rent, rent renegotiation, lease term, surrender of the premises, termination, and expiration.
1. Introduction Aging of public facilities has become an urgent issue. On the other hand, Local government finance is increasing the severity by population decline and aging. For this reason, it has become a difficult situation to maintain all public facilities. From such a situation In April 2014, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications requested municipalities to formulate a“Comprehensive Management Plan of Public Facilities and Infrastructures.”In this request, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the plan, it is seeking to set numerical targets. However, setting numerical targets of reduction of the amount of public facilities, is the consensus is difficult theme. Many local governments in Nationwide are worried about how to set the numerical targets. 2. Purpose of This Study The purpose of this study is visualization of setting of numerical targets for Comprehensive Management Plan of Public Facilities and Infrastructures. This makes it possible to provide information that will contribute to setting of numerical targets to municipalities to formulate a plan in future. Thereby to contribute to the improvement of the effectiveness of comprehensive management plan. 3. Research Method The method of investigation was conducted a questionnaire survey targeting municipalities that have already formulated a plan in April 2015. We were analyzed the characteristics of the municipalities setting numerical targets for total floor area reduction. We discussed how to set numerical targets. 4. Research Result Studies have revealed the following. ·That about half of the municipality has set numerical targets of the total floor area reduction. ·Municipalities holding total floor area per residents more than three square meters, is a strong tendency to set numerical targets of the total floor area reduction. ·Municipalities holding larger total floor area per residents, there is a tendency that the numerical targets is large. This trend is particularly strong in the municipality which merged. ·How to set numerical targets are possible divided into three categories. "Comparison between the updated cost and the financial resource" is a method that has been most utilized.
Azuchi castle was constructed by Oda Nobunaga in 1579. There were many buildings in the castle, such as Tenshu (castle main tower), towers, gates and palaces. However, the plans of these buildings are not known. This paper examines the Honmaru palace in Azuchi castle. This castle became the standard form of the early modern castles. Therefore it is important to study the Honmaru palace in order to elucidate some unclear points on the residences in those days. As a result of excavation in the Honmaru area, a lot of foundation stones were detected. Izumi Fujimura as an archaeologist studied on these stones and made a diagram of the restored buildings of the Honmaru palace which is very similar to Seiryo-den (one of the buildings of the Japanese emperor's palace). In contrast, I review these stones and traces withdrawn the stones and point out that the Fujimura's proposal is quite different from the correct arrangement of these stones and traces. In his proposal, a lot of posts stand on the spot without stones and a lot of large stones which should have been used for the foundation are disregarded. For this reason, his proposal may not be correct at all. In the original Honmaru palace, there were two large buildings which formed a line to the east and west across the inner court and a corridor which connected the two buildings. In the south side of the west building there were three rooms: one was a 2 spans east-west by 3 spans north-south room of the size, the other were 2 spans east-west by 2 spans north-south rooms. Besides, a veranda (4 spans east-west by 1 span north-south) was placed in front of the two rooms, and these rooms and the veranda were enclosed by another 1 span wide veranda. The plan of the Honmaru palace was similar to tsune-no-gosho of Higashiyama-dono (Shogun Yoshimasa Ashikaga's palace). According to “Shincho-ko-ki” (the biography of Nobunaga Oda written by Gyuichi Ota) we can know several names of palaces and buildings such as Zashiki and Miyukino-mima (emperor's guest room), Nan-den (south palace) and Kounji-goten (Kounji temple palace). Masafumi Kato examined “Shincho-ko-ki” and pointed out that Miyukino-mima was in Ninomaru, Nan-den was in Honmaru and Kounji-goten was in Sannomaru. If these palaces and buildings may be defined those of in Shogun's palace, Zashiki and Miyukino-mima were taimensho (a building for meeting of official ceremony), Nanden was tsune-no-gosho (a building for living) and Kounji-goten was kaisho (a building for private meeting and entertainment).
This article examines the series of documents about the waterworks facilities in Nagaoka city, which the author obtained, and following points are clarified. The document introducing this time is the waterworks plan of Nagaoka city 1920 which had produced from August 1917 to March 1919, and the detail of the plan has never been introduced. The plan of 1920 was produced by Mr. Jiro Inoue who had worked for Fuji-Seisi. Comparing between the plan of 1920 and the plan of 1922, there are two remarkable differences. They are to have assumed the water intake point at Myouken of the Shinano River and to have arranged the clear water reservoir at the foot of the mountain Yukyusan in the plan of 1920. Since the plan of 1920 had difficulties in terms of the technique and the budget, in order to improve them, the plan of 1922 was drawn up.It is considered that Mr. Inoue was requested to produce the waterworks plan of Nagaoka city 1920 because he was an expert of the waterworks facilities in cold regions and he was freelance in those days.
This thesis argues that the representations of ancient architecture in Chinese period movies, instead of only being criticized for its authenticity, could be considered as research materials in architectural history field, in the meaning of reflecting multiple factors and the relationship between them during the process of creating the images of “Chinese architecture”. Confucius (1940) , which is the first period movie in China that a professional architect, FEI Kang, was in charge of the research and design of the set, is selected to be the subject, and the relationship between the set design, the Chinese architectural history studies at that time, and the modern buildings, is being investigated. This thesis makes it clear that, facing a serious lack of reference materials for the Spring and Autumn Period (B.C. 770-B.C. 403), FEI Kang turned to materials from later times and adjusted them in a way following theories promoted by Chinese architectural historians in 1930s. The using of dougong of the simplest shape from later times in Confucius's residence set owes to the focus on dougong from architectural historians, and the simplification of existing buildings of Confucian temple to make the set of Apricot Pavilion reflects the rejection to ornaments also from architectural historians. At the same time, in the interior set for Confucius's residence, FEI Kang designed rectangle windows, which indicates an influence from the horizontal window of Modernism, to deal with the blank of research on interior in Chinese architectural history studies. At the end, this thesis concludes that the representation of ancient architecture in the period movie Confucius is thus a creative concretization of the ideal image of "Chinese architecture" implied in Chinese architectural history studies.
This study examines the introduction of round-pier structures (composed of round piers with vault shafts standing on
the capitals and hitherto employed only in ambulatories) into naves of Early Gothic churches. The findings revealed
that the introduction assumed either one of the following two ways: churches without transepts introduced round-pier
structures alternately with compound-pier ones, whereas churches with transepts introduced round-pier structures
continuously only in the choirs. For the purpose of this study, all churches with ambulatories were selected among the
12th-century Île-de-France churches that were accompanied with round-pier structures. Further, the construction dates
of the churches were compared.
While the masterplan for the enlargement of Florence in the mid-19th century drawn by the architect Giuseppe Poggi was being executed, a new residential area appeared along the Viale dei Colli on the left bank of the Arno river. This paper seeks to clarify Poggi's intentions for the design of this residence area and the method of architectural regulation by analyzing the prescription for the land-owners. The following four points highlight Poggi's intentions:
1. The design of the residence area along the Viale dei Colli was directed by Poggi, absorbing the ideas of a politician and a construction company. The prescription for the land-owners was done in order to make it easy to observe the area after the construction of the buildings. 2. For the construction of each residence, the architectural regulations were indicated in the contract made between the Comune and the construction company. Those regulations state that the construction company was obliged to build “a villa with garden” in each lot and to plant trees in a way that would not obstruct the view from the street and that the Comune had the authority to enforce the whole plan. 3. The position of each villa in each site was indicated in a plan designed by Poggi. 4. The height of the buildings and the distance of the setback from the streets were indicated numerically for each individual villa.
In this way we can see Poggi's intentions for the design of this residential area. He thought that it was important to secure the views from the Viale dei Colli, which would provide clean air apart from the urban area. The fact that it was possible to control the residential area along the Viale dei Colli based on regulations that used such ambiguous expressions as “not to obstruct the view from the street” or “build in a good architectural order” proves that a strong consensus regarding the residential architecture style existed in mid-19th century Florence. It can be said that the views Poggi imagined for this area consisted of these villas and the green-scape.
Taiwanese architect Wang Da-Hong designed and promoted the Selene Monument project during the 1960s and 1970s. The monument was to commemorate the first lunar landing achieved by the US Apollo 11 mission in 1969. Wang wanted the monument not only to celebrate the achievements of American science and technology, but also to pay tribute to the spirit of Chinese culture. The project can also be perceived as a way Wang found to search for the essential idea, the Chineseness. This paper will analyze the contents of the Selene project, including its promotion and design, by examining documents and drawings from the Wang Da-Hong collection of the National Taiwan Museum. After an overview of the entire project, it can be said that the Selene project was a highly political and ideological project, but Wang kept a certain distance from any political and ideological discussions during the Cold War era and he stressed the autonomy of architecture by advocating its spiritual values. Also, the Selene project represents the mutual existence of relative matters and reveals the sense of mystique as an essential idea behind Wang's conception of Chineseness.
In recent years, there have been a number of social initiatives related to improving the environment in city landscapes. Green space is becoming a tool to enhance the comfort of city space. "The Basic Plan for Green of Kyoto City" is one such example, where the ratio of visible green space is being used as a tool to improve the city environment. Many studies are being carried out to support this initiative and this study is one of them. The purpose of this study was to: 1) present a method to measure the location/angle specific ratio of green spaces in the omnidirectional visibility rate using a three-dimensional model of the target location, 2) create a perception deduction model based on Self-organizing Maps and 72 variables of visible green space in omnidirectional visibility rate, and 3) statistical verification of the accuracy of the perception deduction model. There are 72 categories of green space in the omnidirectional visibility rate. These categories are based on the location- and angle specific ratio of these spaces. Six of these categories were used for the location specific measurement, namely, "tall trees", "medium trees", "shrubs", " implantable ", "ground cover", and "others". Twelve angle specific measurements for every fifteen degrees were used and eight perception estimation parameters were selected. The perception estimation parameters included: “many or less", "satisfied or not satisfied", "pleasant", "serene", "covered (wrapped)", "close by or far", " surrounded by", "refreshing” and “widely spread". In this paper, we present results from the "ratio of visible green space in the omnidirectional visibility rate map”, the “self-organizing map" and the "perception estimation value map”. During the verification of the perception estimation model (the primary objective of this study), we compared the estimated perception values with the survey based observed values associated with a location of green space that was not included in the model creation. When we compared them statistically, we confirmed a significant correlation (n=32, p<0.05) between the estimated values and observed values (Pearson's correlation). We noted that the strength of the correlation was moderate but significant (correlation coefficient values around 0.6), with when we used the lower significance level (p<0.001). Taking into account effect size from psychological statistics, the average difference between the estimated and observed values of perception can be considered small for the parameters "many or less" "satisfied or not satisfied", "pleasant", "serene", "covered (wrapped)", "close by or far" and" surrounded by". However, the average difference was moderate for “Refreshing” and “Widely spread” and a significant difference between observed and estimated perception values was noted for these parameters in a paired t-test. Consequently, this perception deduction model is able to predict low and high values of “Refreshing” and “Widely spread", however, we need to be aware of the one degree difference, which happens to be the width of the confidence interval and may affect the estimated values.