This study aims to examine the factors that influence the formation of a good social environment by ascertaining the realities of human relationships formed in shared housing.
Today, with the increasing number of single households, we are in a situation where there are changes in and influences on the way of living and the functions that a traditional family has been responsible for. It is considered that human connections and mutual support obtained in shared housing further enriches the life of residents.
The research method included examining the shared house where about 40 people were living in Osaka Prefecture. This included conducting a survey over a period of three years and a case study of participant observation conducted by the author who stayed in the targeted house for a period of eight months. Also, from an interview survey of 17 residents, examined it from the point of view of the formation of a social environment.
Most of the residents in the targeted shared house desired contact and conversations with the people in the house and were satisfied that it was a shared dwelling where these expectations were realized. The spiritual enrichment in life that arose from the casually exchanged greetings and conversations was an aspect that could not be obtained by staying alone and can be considered to be realized through living in shared housing where one can mutually connect with other people. The richness of life that can be obtained from communication with the people residing here is not something that is obtained from strong human relationships of trust such as in the case of family, but from variable human relationships assuming relocation as the shared house is a temporary residence.
(1) In the targeted shared house, it was confirmed that human relationships were formed mainly for residents with a residence history of more than six months and less than two years. Relationships and exchanges were found to be influenced by the living history and lifestyle types of the main places of stay. Among human relationships in changeable shared housing where replacement of residents is frequent, it can be considered that the degree of intimacy of the human relationships and the extent of interaction changes depending on the residence history.
(2) It is considered that the room position and the common space to be used affect the degree of exchange. It was found that in shared housing with a population size of about 30 inhabitants, it is important to have spatial planning which enables one to connect without the relationships getting too close and where it was possible to maintain a sense of distance. In the case study considered in this paper, it was confirmed that residents were living by freely choosing the distance with, and how to connect with, other residents.
(3) It was confirmed that residents who built close relationships and a high level of interaction had a tendency of sharing food and items with others on a daily basis in the kitchen on the second floor. It is possible that sharing food and items interact with human relationship formation.
By clarifying the factors that influence the formation of a social environment in shared house, it is thought that this paper demonstrates knowledge beneficial in the formation of a social environment in the life of single households.
In recent years, the number of the elderly with dementia has increased as society ages with a low birthrate in Japan. The current therapy method for dementia is a combination of pharmacological therapy and non-pharmacological therapy. One of form of non-pharmacological therapy is to support independent living by displaying signs identifying residents’ rooms (residents’ room signs) for the elderly who have orientation disorder, which is a symptom of dementia. Although this method is widely used in the care of the elderly with dementia, the conditions for residents’ room signs that provide the effect of support for independent living of people with dementia have not been systematically organized. The objective of this study to build an environment with non-pharmacological therapeutic effects by organizing the needs of personnel in group homes for the elderly with dementia concerning residents’ room signs, and the elements of the residents’ room signs displayed by personnel.
Initially, we conducted a “Survey for Understanding the Condition and Needs of Display” covering 540 group homes for the elderly with dementia in Tokyo. As a result, it was found that the purpose of staff displaying residents’ room signs is to support residents with dementia to enable them to read signs and return to their own rooms by themselves. Therefore, it is vital that the residents’ room signs displayed can be understood by residents.
Next, we conducted a “Fact-finding Survey for Understanding the Elements” covering 8 group homes for the elderly with dementia in Tokyo. As a result, we found the following as elements for planning residents’ room signs for the elderly with dementia.
1. The content that is most widely used to guide people with dementia is the resident’s name. Conversely, it is highly probably that room numbers, decorations and residents’ personal items are not used for guiding residents.
2. The appropriate text size for displaying residents’ names is a height of around 30 to 50 millimeters.
3. The appropriate position of display of residents’ room signs is “on the wall near the door handle” that is easy to identify when a resident acts to open the door, or “on the door” to make it easy to identify which door the sign refers to.
4. Although the appropriate display height is 1,200 to 1,400 millimeters from the floor, it is better to display the sign near the lower end of the appropriate range.
5. The trend in selection of background color and text color in additional signs is for “black text on a white background” to be chosen most frequently, and combinations of other colors are only used in a small number of cases. It is generally thought that a higher contrast between colors is easier to read, and similar results were found in this research.
6. 38% of addition signs were written by hand and 62% were printed. Upon investigation of the fonts used in printed signs, no significant difference was found in the usage of fonts. It is possible that staff choose fonts based on the atmosphere rather than readability. There was a significant trend in the text size used in additional signs. For this reason, it is thought to be possible that sufficient readability for finding residents’ room is ensured regardless of differences in the font used.
A previous report aimed to verify the establishment effect of day care facilities for the elderly by social welfare corporation “Syakaifukushi Jigyoudan” in old city of Hagi area, where one old city merged with six old towns and villages during the mass mergers of the Heisei period. And, it is considered that “Syakaifukushi Jigyoudan” is one of the organization which can integrate the facility establishment in the municipality merged in a wide area. However, there are some municipalities that has only the regional nucleus facility in rural districts of Hagi area. And it is predicted that there are uneven distribution of the facilities and disparity of the fulfilment rate.
So, this paper aims to verify the relationship between the characteristics of location of the regional nucleus and small-scale facilities and use characteristics by based on the establishment process and use characteristics of day care facilities for the elderly in rural districts of Hagi area, where is a typical mountainous area. The relationships between facility location classification and use characteristics are as follows.
1) In the case of the municipalities where there is only one facility like Mutsumi and Fukue village, the difference of the demand of the facility is caused by wide of area, distribution of settlements and population, location of the facility and so on. So, it is important to consider the facility location and the method of transportation.
2) In the case of the municipalities whose population is about 3,000 people like Susa town, balance between the demand and the supply of the facilities is an issue when two regional nucleus facilities were established. So, it is important to consider the facility location of the regional nucleus facilities in addition to small-scale facilities.
3) In Tamagawa town where there are some facilities, the regional nucleus facility was established in dispersed settlements district firstly, and the facility establishment in the densely-inhabited district was delayed. There is also a way to establish the regional nucleus facility in the central area of the municipalities and some satellite-type facilities in dispersed settlements district, because the registration magnification and occupancy rate are low and there many users from the central area of the municipality in the regional nucleus facility.
4) In the case of the municipalities where the regional nucleus facility was established in the central area of the municipalities firstly and some small-scale facilities established in dispersed settlements district, occupancy rate in all facilities is high, the use spheres of the small-scale facilities are small and transportation time is also short. The facilities share the facility function in addition to the use sphere, so it is effective method of facility establishment in mountainous area.
In spite of the need for precious public spaces and views, the value of public observatories and panoramic views have not been discussed deeply. It’s conceivable that public observatories and panoramic views have a value. The purpose of this study is to clarify the process regarding the establishment of public observatories in high-rise buildings. Public observatories in high-rise building in the Tokyo Area were mostly established in the 1990s for the first time in history. There are currently 9 such observatories, and they are the subjects of this paper. Basic view point of the study is that the process of establishment reflects the public characteristic in space and view. This study was conducted from the following five perspectives: 1. Provision of clear timely information about public observatories in each project, 2.Person who played important role and person concerned aimed at the realization of each project, 3. Detailed dispositions regarding approvals and disapprovals of each project, 4. Details regarding the steps toward realization of each public observatory, and 5. Evaluations of the value of each public observatory and panoramic view.
1. Timely information regarding the public observatory in each project was almost always delayed by various difficult conditions.
2. Person who played important role and person concerned supporting the realization of public observatories was quite varied: administrations, committees, designers, assemblies, non-governmental groups, and citizen groups. The power of ordinary citizens played an especially important part.
3. Approvals and disapprovals regarding public observatories affected the process involved with each one. It was clear that listening to the will of the citizenry is the most difficult problem. A smooth process need to take into consideration the approval of the citizenry and the disapproval of various movements against public observatories.
4. The steps taken towards the realization of public observatories were not easy or uniform. Each public observatory project had a fully worked-out plan for realization, and the efforts of administration played an important role among the many site owners.
5. The perception of the value of public observatories and panoramic views was not deeply discussed, and often, the will of the citizenry was not reflected enough in the process of each project.
From these perspectives gained in the study of the process, it is possible to point out that the concept of public observatories was not positive in 90s. The very existence of public observatories was hidden behind high-rise buildings, and was not a priority in construction. It’s hoped that there will be a growth of consciousness concerning planning processes for future observatories, with deeper discussions and a reflection of the will of the general citizenry, combined with necessary thoughtful leadership by administrative entities. And basic thought with guideline for application after completed as precious value is need.
For 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics and the continuous super-aging society after that, improving a barrier-free infrastructure is an urgent issue. Since the enforcement of the Barrier-Free Act in 2006, equipment for ostomates, mainly multifunctional toilets, has been improved.
An ostomate is a person who has undergone a surgical procedure to create a stoma in the abdomen to discharge wastes because of damage to the digestive tract or ureter caused by an illness or accident. The basic problems about the use of facilities and equipment have not been clarified for the future improvement of the types of toilet that ostomates use, activities they do in the toilet, equipment that bothers them, and places where toilets for ostomates are needed.
Regarding the use of toilets by ostomates, we studied their needs according to facilities, attitude towards using toilets, actual activities in the toilet, and problems about the use of equipment and examined the direction of development and improvement in the future.
We conducted a survey through the Japan Ostomy Association by sending questionnaires to 2000 members of 47 prefectural branches of the association and conducted a hearing with some respondents to the questionnaire.
4. Results and discussion
We examined the results of the questionnaire (number of collection: 1015) and the hearing that was conducted to complement the questionnaire (number of interviewees: 23) from four perspectives: ostomates’ needs according to facilities, attitude towards using toilets, actual activities in the toilet, and problems about using the equipment. As a result, we found that the following perspectives were important as the direction for solving problems to improve the toilet environment for ostomates.
a) There are various generations of ostomates, and among them are many people in the working generation. So, toilet facilities need to be developed and improved not only in the daily life environment but also in their schools or working environments. The survey results particularly indicated that places often used by people in their 30s to 50s, such as convenience stores or offices, should implement some measures.
b) According to the survey, something should be done to encourage ordinary users to understand the fact that it takes time for ostomates to use the toilet. We found that ostomates felt anxious and concerned about ordinary users. To solve this problem, it is necessary to examine the placement of toilets equipped with ostomate facilities in addition to understanding ordinary users.
c) The survey revealed ostomates’ actual situation of using toilets equipped with ostomate facilities and that of using ordinary toilets. Although what they need is similar to toilets equipped with ostomate facilities, the potential for improvement is limited because of the small space. However, a shelf for equipment and a hook for clothing are thought to be convenient for ordinary users.
d) Problems associated with the functions of existing ostomate facilities have not been solved for improvement, such as preventing splashes from the ostomate sink, giving the function of handling a shower or toilet tissue holder with a single hand. There are various generations of users, and the position of the stoma differs depending on the illness. Thus, we found that it was essential to study the standard performance of equipment for ostomates, including the development of equipment, such as a shelf, hook for clothing, and handwashing basin that could be appropriately installed on the toilet.
The Manchurians living in northeast China, as one of the 55 ethnic minorities in China, have been protected their rights to use the minority language and maintain unique culture and customs. However, their lifestyle and housing environment have undergone rapid change under the great influence of Han race occupying a great majority of China over a long period of history.
At present, traditional residences and original culture of Manchu have been studied by many authors at home and abroad. On the other hand, there are only a few records of Manchu village in historical texts of ancient China. Additionally, very little research has been done on the spatial composition of Manchu villages.
Therefore, the aim of this study is to make clear the spatial composition and premises arrangement of traditional Manchu village by a case study on Shengli village which still has traditional Manchu residences in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County of Liaoning Province. In Shengli village, settled areas had been collected by the government in the 60’s. Therefore, we attempted to analyze by a statistical analytic method to the road contact condition, shape of house lot, homestead area and premises arrangement before and after of the compactification of residential area.
This study consists of three contents.
1. Grasp of the spatial composition of Shengli village before and after of the compactification of residential area by the hearing survey.
2. Statistical analysis of data about road contact condition, shape of house lot, homestead area and premises arrangement.
3. Individual case analysis on housing lots.
In Shengli village, there are five different street types. StreetIis the traditional street going east and west, StreetIIgoing north and south have existed before the compactification, StreetIII are new road to be connected with existing roads, StreetIV are the narrow paths leading to homesteads and StreetV is an arterial paved road. StreetI is the main road since the formation of Shengli village, StreetIII is the minor streets that be constructed under the influence of the expansion of residential area, StreetIV is the path that be constructed to lead to the individual residence and StreetV is the main road out of the village which be constructed by government policy to connect many major cities and villages.
In Shengli village, each homestead has been influenced by facing street type and period of the building land development. Manchu residence is basically similar to Han residence that the main house faces south. However, each homestead in Shengli village has different shape of house lot, homestead area and premises arrangement by facing street type and period of the building land development. For example, the average area of homesteads facing StreetIin old residential area is the smallest, the yard ship is rectangular, and the depth is almost two times the width, the layout of the courtyard is relatively compact. But the average area of homesteads that facing StreetII, StreetIII and Street IV in new residential area are larger, the depth are only slightly larger than the width, and the layout of the courtyard are relatively large.
The Manchurians originated in Hunting and nomadic people. But, in the process of domiciliation life, they have been influenced by the Han and other ethnic culture and technology. Meanwhile, they have also been formed their unique characteristics.
The objective of this research is to demonstrate the function of the city space based on how it has affected the transformation of social structure in Bangkok, Thailand, by examining modernisation projects conducted during the reign of Rama VI (1910–1925) from the viewpoint of nationalism and by spotlighting domestic and international affairs.
Offering a definition of the spaces that were used for experimenting with the introduction of modernisation as ‘experimental spaces for modernisation’, two such projects are highlighted in the research. One is a modern miniature city ‘Dusit Thani’, hereinafter referred to as ‘DT’, where experimentation was conducted to introduce modern systems. Another is ‘The Plan for the Siamese Kingdom Exhibition’, hereinafter referred to as ‘SKE’, which planned on presenting the space from the perspective of the Siam Kingdom.
By analysing these projects, the following three points were clarified.
First, it was revealed that DT worked as a bridge that helped people to connect the current state of the Siam Kingdom with the ideal picture of modernised politics and society, while SKE worked to make people believe that the current state of the Kingdom represented the ideal picture of a modernised country.
These real-world projects made it possible to provide affinity and homogeneity in Thai society and contributed to creating fictitious concepts as reality. These spaces came about because the Siam Kingdom at the time was a non-colonized modernising country. As a result, these experimental spaces for modernisation demonstrated the modern national statue, which was the ideal of the Siam kingdom.
Second, one of the intentions of DT and SKE was to prevent a coup d’état internally, and one of the intentions of SKE was to externally prevent colonisation by presenting a picture of a modernised country. These experimental spaces for modernisation attempted to show that the Siam Kingdom was modernised nationwide as it was an absolute monarchy and a non-colony. In other words, the experimental spaces for modernisation were expected to prevent movement against the ideal modern state image.
Lastly, DT and SKE indicated that the experimental space for modernisation and the adaptation of the concept of ‘population survey · map · museum’ related to the ideal modern national statue emerged. In other words, Rama VI, the ruler of DT, SKE and the existing society, attempted to make it clear to domestic and foreign parties that he could govern the ideal modern state. Therefore, in the process of forming nationalism, the experimental spaces for modernisation were attempting to demonstrate the legitimacy of the political situation, and the rulers of the existing society of an unmodernised country were appropriate for governing even after modernisation was achieved.
Northern Taito Ward is an area where the leather industry has located from early modern times. To incorporate the perspective of industrial structure with the discussion on the mixed-use spaces, this study disclosed the spatial characteristics of leather industry buildings (owned by individual owners) and analyzed their relationship with regional-industrial structure.
Through field survey of 155 buildings, it found that there are 4 main types of modern urban residential-industrial mixed-use buildings in the area. From the view of area analysis, the special characteristics of the urban residential-industrial mixed-use buildings are different according to the regional-industrial structure and transition of leather industry.
Due to urban expansion of Hanoi, Vietnam, peripheral hamlets (urban villages) have been integrated into the city area, changing the lifestyle and built environment there. In urban villages, people used to take water from wells for drinking/eating purpose and from ponds for other purposes in their daily lives. Recently, such traditional water use have been disappeared, while public water supply have been installed in some urban villages, which is said to have some troubles in terms of service. To solve this problem with public water supply in urban villages, where urban and rural characteristics are mingled, it seems important to have local residents involved in watering planning. This study aims to reveal how local people have been associated with wells and ponds, called 'common watering sites'. In this study, it is assumed that each common watering site has three perspectives; 'water surface', 'space' and 'place'.
Based on interview surveys with community leaders and residents of selected urban villages, it is found that management activities of some common watering sites have resumed, or is going to be resumed, after suspension. Originally, water from common watering sites was used for daily lives and fish-raising. It is revealed that, while such usage has been declined, residents have come to attribute the value of common watering sites to their public, spiritual, Fengshui and historic functions, and that they have been involved in renovation projects of common watering sites, using a fund from national New Rural Program. This also means that the point which local residents put value on has been shifted from 'water surface' to 'space' and 'place'. As the recognized functions of common watering sites change, the management system has also shifted from voluntary one to the way in which the responsibility for management is clearly assigned.
In conclusion, three elements to revive management activities of common watering sites are demonstrated as below:
1. Recognized multifunctionality of common watering sites;
2. Improvement of common watering sites by the will of local people, with a governmental help in terms of finance; and
3. Introduction of a new, more sustainable way to manage common watering sites.
When people walk the living road as Necessary activities or as Optional activities, how much does people look around the surrounding environment? If the person's eyes are turned into the town and there are many opportunities to see the surroundings, it means that there will be more opportunities to perceive the existence of others and the situation around them.
In this study, we recorded the head rotation of dog walkers and single pedestrians on the living road, and compared the situation where the head rotation was observed. This survey was analyzed with the aim of characterizing the behavior of dog walkers looking around.
We used a wearable camera for the purpose of recording from the viewpoint of the first person of the subject himself / herself about the measurement of the direction of the face of the dog walker and the single pedestrian in the living road, that was, the measurement of the turning direction and its surroundings.
The wearable camera recorded the turning direction by fixing the direction of the front of the face and the direction of the optical axis of the camera to the left side head of the eyes of the subject wearing the hat. An image every 0.2 seconds was extracted from the video recorded for 30 frames per second, and a diagrammatic method which can easily judge the reading in the turning direction was adopted.
Walking behavior of dog walkers and single pedestrians were seen to increase the turning behavior in the section where the space composition changes. Dog walkers walked slowly around the regional space, depending on the behavior of the dog rather than single pedestrians, and there were situations where the face was turned in many directions. In particular, when a dog sniffed the roadside or excreted, it was relatively long downward of the side where the dog was located, but when there was a person or a vehicle passing behind the dog, it looked back to the back and looked back safely. There was a action to confirm.
For walkers with dogs, turning behaviors were seen in many directions in places with long residence times, and on the other hand, few turning behaviors were observed on roads that were difficult to stay. Lead length and dog's unexpected behavior also influenced turning direction.
Thus, the head rotation behaviors were often influenced by the dog's behavior and overlooked many directions during retention. They were turning behaviors not seen by single pedestrians.
This study focuses on the SUITO-OSAKA/Water Corridors area where an attractive river space has been developed over a period of 17 years by utilizing the waterfront environment. This was initiated with the development of “promenades” and three “piers,” followed by the conscious expansion of buildings open to the waterfront, riverside terraces, events on the promenades, and cruising tours. The objective of this study was to elucidate the locational relation between the “piers,” “riverside promenades,” and “Waterfront considered buildings” as well as to assess the role and effectiveness of the phased strategic processes of the river-administrator.
We observed that the formation process of the “SUITO-OSAKA Project” in Osaka City comprised the following three steps: (1) the municipality (city of Osaka) took a leading role during the early stages of the project, which included the development of the piers and riverside promenades as well as local promotional events that used the river space and open café; (2) the waterfront usage strategy was transitioned early to private businesses, which enabled the continuous expansion of promotional activities without excessive influence from the municipality policies; (3) as users gathered to visit the existing “Waterfront considered buildings,” “riverside promenades” (where events were conducted by private businesses), and “piers” (which functioned as bases for cruising tours), new “Waterfront considered buildings” that intended to attract these customers developed. Furthermore, the following two locational characteristics were elucidated: (1) the spatial influence of the “Waterfront considered buildings” was more effective in areas that already contained buildings as compared with the areas where new “piers,” “riverside promenades,” and “Waterfront considered buildings” were simultaneously developed; (2) the “Waterfront considered buildings” and the “land use of the areas beyond the waterfront” (which determines the purpose of these buildings) are important factors. Subsequently, for the SUITO-OSAKA/Water Corridors area, this study indicated the importance of an integrated and continuous development of “piers” (which create human flow and activity), “riverside promenades” (the spaces that distribute this activity), and “Waterfront considered buildings” (land use of the areas beyond the waterfront that amplitudes human activity by making them stay in the river space) as opposed to their separate development.
According to the technical advice from the government of Japan, continuous walking distance tends to range from 500 m to 700 m and the distance tends to be shortened as people get older. In the literature, it was found that (1) 65% of elderly persons are satisfied if the interval between resting places is shorter than 100 m; and (2) 70% of elderly persons are satisfied if its interval is shorter than 50 m. In particular, when walking around Tokyo central station and Otemachi station, continuous walking distance is more than 100 m. Although continuous walking distance tends to be longer than 100 m, a sufficient number of resting places is not provided. To make urban space more walkable for elderly persons, continuous walking distance needs to be decreased by increasing the number of resting places. However, the relationship between the continuous walking distance distribution and the density of resting places has not been sufficiently theoretically investigated.
In this article, in order to evaluate not only the nearest neighbour resting place but also the nearness of all neighbour resting places, maximum continuous walking distance distribution and density of resting places (e.g., benches) was investigated by applying the 6th and 8th nearest neighbour Manhattan distance distributions as the substitute of the furthest neighbour distance distribution. The surroundings of Tokyo central station and Otemachi station were selected as the empirical study area. It was found that (1) the probability that the 6th nearest neighbour distance between resting places (including flower beds used as resting places) is longer than 100 m is 0.98; and (2) if its probability is less than 0.2, the number of resting places is increased to 436 which is approximately 4.5 times greater than the present number, 97.
Based on these theoretical investigations, we proposed the following practical ways rather than increasing the number of benches per se. First, flower beds are improved such that their edges have the appropriate width to provide resting places. Second, stairs are improved to provide resting places. In particular, on the eastern side of Tokyo station at Yaesu gate, the number of resting places needs to be drastically increased. Improvement of stairs is a practical way because stairs are already used as resting places. Third, a practical way would be to provide resting places that are not for sitting.
The factor predisposing to the Itai-Itai disease is Cadmium, which had been discarded by the metalliferous mine factory located at about thirty kilo-meter above along the Zinzu River. Poisoning can cause softening of the bones and kidney failure. Because the patients feel so severe pains, the name of the disease was called “it hurts-it hurts”.
The case area of the recovery from the Itai-Itai disease is exceptional because the injured party won the lawsuit. New knowledge of epidemiology was adopted to support the winning lawsuit.
Subsequently, the plaintiff, namely the damaged people and the accused party, the aggriever company set a promise to compensate the pollution. The contents of promise consist of three topics; 1) health damage, 2) environmental rehabilitation and development as an agricultural living town, and 3) restraining of recurrence of pollution. It means that they should cover not only the current damage but also the future things. They made it clear what should be done after the artificial environmental pollution.
To realize the contents, those two parties had made efforts involving other agents. After forty years, the damaged local party accepted the apology from the aggriever company at the first time. Because they could establish a vigilant relationship of trust.
This paper has illustrated how this area could recovery from such a severe situation by the process of nine phases.
1) Outset of contamination source and untreated
2) Various damages by environmental contamination
3) Collective agency of victims
4) Findings of public disruption through winning lawsuit
5) Concretization of the assailant
6) Clarification of compensation coverage and practice
7) Restoration and promotion of damage area
8) Social networking based on the damage area
9) Beginning of new phase after the conciliation
The conciliation means that they are entering the new phase how to pass down their experiences to the next generations.
The enabling factors of this process in terms of the locality and the social situations should be next research issues.
The author clarifies the following three points by analyzing the design process for the Sogetsu Kaikan:
1. Tange did not participate in the Asian Solidarity Cultural Facility Team in 1956. He visited the architectural works of Le Corbusier in India in 1957, and discuss with B. Doshi about them.
2. Tange and Tsuboi aimed to realize a large-span structure that would fit the earthquake resistance standards in Japan.
3. Tange's historical point of view (about Jomon-like arts) seen in the details of the exterior walls of the Sogetsu Kaikan, his collaboration with artists, and the chair design.
The sketchbook donated by J. Condor's daughter Helen from around 1966 has been kept in the University of Tokyo, in these albums, thick memoranda stamping the sketches and letters that Condor himself arranged and pasted were attached. Because some of the sketches include signatures, memos, and age, Hiroyuki Suzuki had already sorted out the sketch based on these. Suzuki, for this album, had required strict revision in the future, but this work had not progressed yet.
Meanwhile, the author summarized two pieces of the Nobi Earthquake that occurred in 1891 and the sketches drawn by Condor in 1888-89, together with the results of Suzuki, considering the content of 33 sheets. As a result, it was revealed that the sketches of 1888-89 were drawn by Condors as they went to the Diet building stone survey.
By the way, in album Vol. 2, 5 pieces of sketches depicting the castle of Japan had been left, and one of them can be confirmed as "Ozaka Castle". Therefore, this paper aims to clarify when and when Condor has drawn these buildings, such as five pieces of sketches of a castle with a note of "Ozaka Castle", and to clarify the background on which the description was made. The following points were revealed.
First of all, "Ozaka" can be thought of as Osaka from the original data in those days. Based on this, from the descriptions of castle sketch, three were Osaka Castle and two were Edo Castle. It can be judged that the Tamon-yagura of the Ote-mon, the Tamon-yagura and the Senkan-yagura, and the Minami-sikiri-mon-ato were drawn in Osaka Castle from the descriptive contents of sketches. Edo Caste can be judged as depicting the Ote-mon and the Kikyo-mon. It seems that Condor was staying in Osaka for a long period of time from the end of December 1887 to the beginning of January the next year and left the sketch of Osaka Castle for collecting information in advance in the stone survey on the Inland sea area immediately after.
In sketchbook Vol. 4, two sketches depicting the scenes of “Inujima” and “Inuzima no Tsuzushima” were left. It is thought that these were also produced at the time of investigation of the stone in the Diet building by Condor and it can be judged that it was submitted after the survey.
This article greatly has two purposes. The first purpose is understanding of the influence that the inferno that occurred on October 1, 1955 gave for the update of the city. The second purpose is to clarify a career of the Shinsaku Igarashi which acted as the deputy mayor of Niigata city and the role in the urban renewal. The authors think that the rehabilitation plan of the great fire has a big influence on urban renewal. Particularly, the development of the fireproof building belt helped not only the fireproofing of the city but also the maintenance of the cityscape and carried one end of the urban renewal.
In Niigata city, most of the city areas suffered from it by the great fire of 1955. Therefore Niigata prefecture and Niigata city asked the cooperation of the Ministry of Construction and pushed forward the rehabilitation plan. But the plan of the prefecture and the city fixed their gazes on the future development called a population of 500,000 people as well as the rehabilitation of the great fire. The prefecture and the city referred to rehabilitation plan of war damage and the great fire in other cities. The land readjustment project with the street widening was decided quickly, and the prefecture accomplished it. As a result, as for the rehabilitation, the fireproofing of the city advanced with the notable speed. Because the reason does not greatly change the position of the public building and reserve of the street widening, and a scale of the civil engineering project was small, it could start building project immediately. As the background, Housing Loan Corporation and the local administration gave financial support for the rehabilitation plan of the great fire. In addition, the Japan Housing Corporation which did not have the start room did an experimental action by this rehabilitation plan. The other reasons were good economic conditions, it is that there were there having been the company which they can rebuild by themselves and the fireproof building which were started construction of before the great fire.
The urban renewal advanced any place other than the stricken area.It had the review of the plan before the great fire and urbanization around Niigata Station. Particularly, urbanization of around Niigata Station became the base of new urban area, east part of Niigata city and was linked to the old urban area, west part of the city, in fireproof building belt.
However, there was project called off without enough subsidies because the government decided the rehabilitation plan without confirming the intention of local people. In addition, as for the rehabilitation plan, there was a difference in the degree of progress by areas and a historic scene was lost. Thus, it is necessary the result of the rehabilitation plan of the great fire limits a district, and to evaluate it.
Shinsaku Igarashi was the technocrat who was born in Niigata prefecture in 1902, and graduated from department of agriculture, the Imperial University of Tokyo in 1928, and worked in Ministry of Home Affairs, in 1939, he moved to Manchukuo and engaged in important city planning project “Daitoko”. After WWII, he worked in Public Works department, Niigata prefecture government as engineer and department chief. Meanwhile, he was concerned with war damage rehabilitation planning of Nagaoka city and new Niigata Station construction project.
Such a career was evaluated, and he inaugurated to second deputy mayor as part of pipe with national government and Niigata prefecture and the person in charge to promote construction project of Niigata city on July, 1955. His deputy mayor assumption of office had much dissenting opinion, too. However, after the great fire, he made an effort for rehabilitation project and conventional project promotions as the person in charge of the technical aspects. In addition, his role was recognized by peoples.
This paper is continued from ‘The establishment of ‘Ujiko-iki’ in the early Meiji period-A study for restoration of Ujiko-iki area of Tokyo in the Meiji period (Part 1)’ and ‘Revising small-scale ‘Ujiko-iki’ after the abolition of Ujiko shirabe- A study for restoration of Ujiko-iki area of Tokyo in the Meiji period (Part 2)’. A term ‘Ujiko-iki’ means a territory where Ujiko, which means a worshiper to a specific Shinto shrine, live around the Shinto shrine. Ujiko-iki area is very important for research of urban history in comprising the most basically part of the city. The purpose of this paper is classifying Ujiko-iki in Tokyo in patterns especially from the side of spatial characteristics and discussing about peculiarity of the metropolitan Tokyo in the modern transition period.
Firstly, specific characteristics of ‘Ujigami’ shrines in Tokyo is described by analyzing an investigation ‘Ujiko chomei do jinnin shirabecho’ which was made to determine Ujiko-iki and shrine ranking in 1872. In chapter 2, ‘Ujiko chomei do jinnin shirabecho’ is analyzed to comprehend a situation of Ujiko-iki before the abolishment of Ujiko shirabe. As a result, it is defined that there have been four phases until Ujiko-iki were formed and only shrine which was over certain criteria established by Shajigakari of Tokyo Prefecture was authorized to possess Ujiko as a ‘Ujigami’ shrine.
In chapter 3, the reality of ‘Ujigami’ shrines and rekkaku, which means gaining any of shrine rankings to a shrine, in the city area of Tokyo is described by comparing ‘Ujigami’ shrines with the shrines which possessed some Ujiko in the Edo period. First point is that there were many shrines which possessed a small number of Ujiko towns as an ‘Ujigami’ shrine. Especially it is noteworthy fact that Shajigakari suspended the determination of Ujiko of shrines which have not been gained any ranking with an exceptional flame ‘Sonsha-gai’ against the principle of Gosha precepts. Second point is that large-scale shrines that possessed adequate Ujiko, which was basically over 10 hundred houses, to be ranked as Gosha equally existed around the city area of Tokyo.
Then, in chapter 4, spatial characteristics of Ujiko-iki in Tokyo are described by analyzing how to divide previous samurai residential area into each Ujiko-iki in the point of view of the scale of Ujiko-iki while comparing to the distribution of Ujiko towns in the Edo period. Ujiko-iki in the city area of Tokyo in Meiji period generally divided to success the territory of Ujiko towns in the Edo period. From the viewpoint of specific character of territory gained to each shrine, Ujiko-iki in the city area of Tokyo, which were established in the early Meiji period, are classified into three types. Type A is Ujiko-iki which corresponded a traditional widely region. Type B is Ujiko-iki which corresponded a small-scale region from the old time and an area of only a town. Type C is Ujiko-iki which owns bigness and political symbolism only for Hie-Jinja Shrine and Kanda-Jinja Shrine. Shrines with Ujiko-iki of Type A have been called ‘Sochinju’ traditionally, which has been worshiped as a shrine to guard a territory larger than a village or a town and are generally most old in that region with some legends concerned about the creation of the region. In Tokyo, Kanda-Jinja Shrine and Hie-Jinja Shrine (Type C) are in the center of the city and Type A are scattered equally around two cores and Type C lie beside and in Type A.
The following is a summary of the above. Shajigakari formed Ujiko-iki and organized a modern administrative system of shrine by reevaluating the traditional spatial characteristic.
The old Jewish Quarter of Budapest is a significant historical part of the Hungarian capital city, containing characteristic multi-story apartment houses with courtyard. Today, the unique values of the area are endangered. Demolitions destroy the buildings which are already in a run-down state.
Current paper is a first step of a complex research on the required rehabilitation. The Authors are analysing the architectural properties to find the historical characteristics.
As a result, clarification in the terminology of the architectural styles around the 19th-20th century was created, the typology of layout, the building materials, as well as their connection is analysed.
The International House of Japan(I-House) was designed by three architects of Junzo Sakakura, Kunio Mayekawa, Junzo Yoshimura in 1955. The I-House was planned on the premises of Old Iwasaki Koyata House. At the Iwasaki Koyata House, the upper part was burned down due to air raids.
It is said that the proposal of three architects was a competition in December 1952, but it is thought that it was a proposal to decide a draft of collaborative design. A cooperation design began in early 1953, and the detailed design of I-House was completed in December. It is guessed that the staff members of three architects drew the part which the architect is good at each. The staff members of Kunio Mayekawa drew a frame of the building, the staff members of Junzo Sakakura described internal common space, and the staff members of Junzo Yoshimura drew guest rooms.
The I-House won the Japan Architectural Institute Award in 1956. The following values are confirmed from the evaluation of the Architectural Institute of Japan Award and architectural magazines of the time.
1. Work of high completeness by collaborative design.
2. Using the new construction method at the time。
Precast concrete and the like are utilized. Kunio Mayekawa and Junzo Sakakura who were already designing large scale projects are thought to be a new construction method.
3. A unique and harmonious Japanese-style beautiful expression
Using precast concrete and trees, it became a Japanese beautiful expression. Junzo Yoshimura used wood for the parts touched by hand, Kunio Mayekawa designed a wooden sash. It is mainly thought that these two architects intended.
4. The I-House block plan succeeded the garden of Iwasaki residence
Three architects respected the gardens of the Iwasaki residence from the original proposa.
5. Functional, sequenced space
It is thought that the functional and sequenced space was intended by Junzo Sakakura who was in charge of designing common space.
6. Pillar position and auditorium shell structure
The first plan of Sakakura Junzo had pillars inside the outer wall. Fugaku Yokoyama who cooperated with Mayekawa Kunio designed the structure of the roof of the shell structure of the auditorium.
7. The roof garden of the lawn which is continuous in the garden of Iwasaki residence.
Mayekawa Kunio already had a record in the roof garden.
The following conclusions are considered from the history of collaborative design and from many publication magazines at completion. Among the values of the above seven international cultural halls, 1) 3) 4) was intended by all three architects. 2) and 6) were intended by Kunio Mayekawa and Junzo Sakakura. 3) Tree use was intended by Kunio Mayekawa and Junzo Yoshimura. 5) was mainly intended by Junzo Sakakura. 7) was intended by Kunio Mayekawa.
There is a growing demand for data that allow a highly accurate understanding of the spatiotemporal distributions of both moving and static people in urban areas. Currently, a variety of population data are available, but none of such data provide an accurate understanding of numbers and directions of moving people based on detailed units of space and time. In this paper, by integrating multiple sets of data, including Mobile Spatial Statistics (MSS), Congestion Statistics (CS), and Person Trip survey data (PT data), we constructed a method of estimating the number of people who flow in and flow out separately in detailed units of space and time, by considering the advantages and disadvantages of each type of population statistics. Furthermore, we demonstrated the characteristics of the spatiotemporal distribution of moving people vary according to regional characteristics of areas, day of week, and time.
The number of people in each grid-cell at a unit time, which is obtained every 60 minutes from MSS, does not distinguish between moving (inflow or outflow) and static occupants. Therefore, the ratio of static people to total people (static people ratio) in each grid-cell, at each time, was estimated using the number of static people and the total number of people obtained from PT data at 60-minute intervals, by assuming the number of static people is proportional to the total floor area of each building by building use. Next, using the estimated static-people ratio, the number of moving people and static people were estimated by a maximum likelihood method with constrains, in which the total estimated number of people (inflows, outflows, and static occupants) always maintain consistency with the number people obtained from MSS.
In the CS, the number of people moving between grid-cells in a 5-minute period is obtained as an aggregated value every 60 minutes. Based on this dataset, the movement probability between grid-cells in a 5-minute period was estimated and the movement probability matrix was constructed. The number of people moving between grid-cells was estimated by a maximum likelihood method using the movement probability. In this process, the number of inflows and outflows people estimated above were used as constrains.
Using the estimated database on inflow/outflow/static people, we discussed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the number, direction, and distribution of moving people, which varies according to areas, day of week, and time. More specifically, we demonstrated that (a) in central business districts, there are more inflows than outflows in the morning, that both flows are about the same during the daytime, and that the outflow increases in the evening; and (b) in high-density residential districts and areas including large universities, we found that there are more outflows than inflows in the morning, and that both flows are almost the same in the daytime and evening.
Finally, we estimated the spatiotemporal distribution of inflows/outflows of people on bank holidays. Within the 23 wards of Tokyo, we found that more people move during the day time on bank holidays than on weekdays and differences in movement direction in central business districts were demonstrated.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the proposed method of analyzing the characteristics of moving people on a micro-spatiotemporal scale has significant potential for use in a variety of fields that include transportation planning, environmental planning, and disaster mitigation planning, as well as geo-marketing.
This study has two main purposes. First, analyze factors of decision-making for self-recovery residents about reconstruction places on the recovery projects. Second, based on the factors, discover characteristics of self-recovery residents in the recovery projects area and discover what kind of people will join the recovery project by public sector. Liner discriminant analysis was applied to the questionnaire survey data by Natori city on disaster survivors. The results were the followings: 1) made 10 scales as factors and verified 6 of them had significant influence on decision-making about reconstruction places. 2) there were many differences from the perspective of life recovery. 3) estimated the number of respondents joining recovery projects was 945 through the analysis model in this paper.