The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between familyrooms and parent-child communication. We researched 205 parents-school children and 207 parents-high school students. We evaluated them qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) Parent-child communication decreases and changes it's quality as a child grows in Japan. 2) Both of doing acts with parents for school children and persuasive conversations for high school students are effective in having good communication each other. 3) As parent-child communication increases, school children tend to use the familyroom frequently, but about high school students, we can't find the effect. 4) We analyzed familyroom functions. As a result the familyroom has the very important roles to play and relax especially for school children.
The obstacles, especially level differences and ramps at housing and building make the manual wheelchair users' access to them difficult. The difficulty of negotiating them by a wheelchair depends on their figures, diameter of caster, and a wheelchair user's ability to push the hand-rims. So, we evaluated the difficulties of negotiating various types of level differences and ramps quantitatively, using the specially designed wheelchair equipped with torque meters and rotary encoders. With all data we obtained, we attempted to constitute quantitative scales indicate the reasonable height, shape, and gradient of level differences or ramps for wheelchair users of various physical abilities.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characters of the hydrotherapy room in medical facilities. We sent the questionnaire about the use condition, room area, establishment of machines and so on. The numbers of questionnaires we got were 261. The results of this study are summarized as follows. 1. 70 percent of the hydrotherapy rooms have an area less than 60 m^2. The number of area more than 100 m^2 is a few and they were built mostly before 1963. 2. The number of physical therapists and maintenance costs influence the selection of hydrotherapy machines. 3. By classifying type of establishment machines, we classified hydrotherapy room into seven categories. The Overall type and the partial body bath type are major type out of seven categories.
The purpose of this study is to make clear what kind of effect the introduction of downsizing care with private room give the aged behavior with long-term treatment in long-term care ward. The results of analysis are as follows. 1) The aged stay place and posture differed by care-needing level. The aged posture of same care-needing level were similar through those three surveys. Before the introduction of downsizing care with private room, the aged and staffs used the bed room without bedside and corridor like the living room. This meant that private space was not separated from shared space. 2) Just after the intoduction of downsizig care with private room, conversation and recreation in the aged behavior increased. After the aged care-needing level were worse, those relation among other aged and staffs extremely decreased because the aged usual life depended on staffs' behavior.
Observations of children playing in the neighborhoods of six towns in Japan present alternative views to the transaction of children's activities and their neighborhood environment. They indicate that children's activities are of such a complicated nature that each has in it a countable number of sub-activities called individual actions. Activity is a composite of these small actions and can successfully be defined by a structure of the interrelationships among these actions. This activity structure was analyzed and defined in terms of three dimensions-sequential relationship, dependence interaction, and dominance configuration. Data also indicates that children's activity is dependent on environment because its individual actions interact with environmental resources. This view demands an analysis that takes the interaction of individual action and environmental resource as a unit of analysis and as a way to operationalize human activity.
This paper investigates the characteristics of children's selecting of staying places at a nursery home. The aims of this paper are 1) by comparing nursery children's staying places on different survey days and in different survey years according to their age stages, to analyze the repetitiveness of their selection of staying places, 2) thus, to consider the process of forming their preferences for places that is one of the factors of selecting staying places. The examination was conducted by the recording of the staying places of all the children of a class every 10 minutes class by class, and by the whole day tracking surveys of a few children of each class. This paper gained the following knowledge: 1) The places that are often selected by children are deferent for each class, and a certain measure of affinities of selection in each class are observed through the survey regardless of survey day or year. 2) The 3-year-olders' selection of the same staying places in different years and on different days is less repetitive than that of 0 and 5-year-olders'. Hence, it can be said that 3-year-olders are in the process of forming their preferences for places. 3) In both of different years and days, the repetitiveness of children's selection of the same staying places indoors is stronger than outdoors. Therefore, it can be said that the repetitiveness of children's selection of the same staying places is relatively strong at a restrictive area at every age stage.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the connectivity between the municipalities based on the facility and service sphere (FSS), This is evaluated as the first step to inquire into the method of setting planning sphere for reorganizing of community facilities. The connectivity is found through calculating the notion of the number or indexes when one city and another share FSS together. In the result of calculating to all municipalities, those are able to transcribe the connectivity between the municipalities. And, the connectivity conditions of municipalities can be evaluated from three wide-levels of view based on City-County Area (CCA), every CCA, inside CCA, and between CCA.
The purpose of this study is to predict the sensuous volume of the space between two buildings. In case of changing the capacity of the space between two buildings, we made an experiment using a space simulator which enables us to observe scale models from ground level. Analyzing the data, adding the old data which were used in former study to those new data, we obtained the estimation equations of sensuous volumes from inner space and outer space. As a result, we extracted the three physical factors which are very effective to calculate the sensuous volumes from both inner and outer space respectively. Finally we produced the Diagrams which made it easy to get the rate of sensuous volumes.
The purpose of this research clarifies the meaning and factor of the axis of construction which were seen from the viewpoint of a landscape. The area for investigation was selected and indication method experiment was conducted. The direction and strength of the axis were clarified from the experiment result. Moreover, the element which constitutes the axis is mentioned. And, the factor to compose the axis was analyzed by using single correlation analysis. As a result, the factor to give the axis and the strength were able to be clarified.
The findings of this study are summarized as follow: The results of multi-answers to questionnaires indicate that causes of the defunct villages resulted from their internal factors are classified into eight types. Main types are [B: employment problems], [A: natural disasters], [D: natural disasters+employment problems], and [C: inconvenience of life]. Figure-2 shows the distribution of types of causes. Types which have the factor of [natural disasters] principally range on the snowy areas along the west side of main island of Japan. On the other hand, types like [B], [C], and [F] range mainly on the southwestern Japan. This study shows that type [B] has a more severe condition than type [C] in terms of the altitude gap and the distance from their own town hall. A cluster analysis of the percentages of causes indicates that the areas are classified into three groups, Northern Japan group, Western Coast Japan group, and Southwestern Japan group. The ratio of villages engaged in forestry correlates distinctly with the factor of employment problems, while the ratio of those engaged in rice farming correlates with the factor of natural disasters. And the ratio of those engaged in charcoal burning is higher in Western Coast Japan group.
There have been two kinds of studies of interest in the modernization process of housing in farm villages, one is about transformations of spatial compositions and the other is shifts of spatial functions. This study aims to clarify the process through the relationship between housing renovations including rehabilitations and the diffusion of living equipments such as electric home appliances, cars and farm machines. From the questionnaires and the supplemental interview surveys, the modernization process of housing in farm villages can be described with not only the modernization of the way of living and the democratization of domesticity but also the diffusion of living equipments in daily life, the change of livelihood and financial resources of housing improvement, the modification of community structure, the standard of life and the living conditions, the status symbol and the kinds of ostentation like sense of identifying with others.
The purpose of this study is to aim at the network system in the aged facilities in the wide administrative area. Analysing welfare facilities for the aged in relation to local properties, this paper clarifies the facilities management characteristic in comparison with urban and rural environment. A coordinated system in urban, rural or the wide administrative area is examined according to the facilities characteristic of each environment. Results are as follows: 1)Nursing service is supplemented with utilizing local properties of each environment; 2)Network system with social properties is important for systematization of health care activities; 3)Enhancing facilities management characteristic in each environment is necessary for the development of something supportable to live for activities of the aged.
The main aims of our research are to restructure region planning on agricultural community as sustainable society. On this paper, we aim to figure out variable factors of agricultural community in recent decades, and correlate those factors with geographical conditions. Using the census data in rural area, we got results as follows. 1. Variable factors of agricultural community: Changes of agricultural community and regional economy are presented as "a degree of dependence on agricultural industry", "a cultivated acreage", "a size of population in rural area", "a number of farm houses in rural area", and "age composition in rural area". 3. The difference from district: From correlating variable factors with geographical condition, distribution of agricultural community are varied according to district of eastern Japan, western Japan, three major metropolitan areas, and its sea level.
This study shows the life style and the spatial usage in the rural villages at the Angkor area from a field survey. It aims to present the vision for the village's future, by considering the influence that occurs to the villagers from tourism and the labors such as the conservation projects at the Angkor monumental area as a basis. Angkor Krau village, which is nearby the Angkor monuments has been chosen as a case study district. As a result, the following matters were clarified. Firstly, the actual life style and the economic condition. Secondly, the housing styles and its characteristics. Thirdly, the actual usage of the space in and around the housings. From this study, it can be said that, it is important to maintain the traditional usage method of the housings by creating an annex as an example, and the community development should be considered by viewing on the relationship among the Angkor monuments.
This paper aims to clarify 3D spatial composition of Civic Center in the early Showa era with bird's-eye view pictures by YOSHIDA Hatsusaburo in cases of 18 prefectual capital cities based on Japanese Castle-Towns. First, I indicate necessity of complementing by topographical map, photographs and pictures in case of using bird's-eye view pictures by YOSHIDA Hatsusaburo as research material, because characteristic of them is deformation, and examine their possibility of research material. Findings are as follows: 1) We can grasp arrangement conditions and facades of each government and municipal offices, whole construction of Civic Center and physical state of surrounding Civic Center with bird's-eye view pictures, 2) As a result of analysis 3D spatial composition of Civic Center with bird's-eye view pictures in cases of 18 cities, there was principle of 3D Urban Design answer to spatial composition of Castle Districts such as main road, moat and skirt of mountain.
The aim of this study is to clarify the equality and the locality of commercial districts from the aspect of sectional building uses. Initially the 38 usage sections in 13 districts of Tokyo are made on the basis of field research. The features of usage sections are analyzed in view points of the uses and its ratio and all sections are categorized according to its result. The two types of mixture degrees are calculated to also describe their features. Secondly some typical sections to show the equality or the locality are extracted based on its usage features and its mixture degrees. Finally the equality and the locality of commercial districts are examined according to the way how the typical sections locates in the areas.
This study is aimed to make clear the structural characteristics of residences and needs for residential environment of a provincial city, Mito of Ibaraki Pref.. The residences are classified into 5 types, and their distribution is described almost a concentric circle, but some knots by the recent developments are found in rural districts and around the down town. 5 typical districts' communities are characterized by population movements and housing composition. Needs for residential environment are different each other type, that is daily life efficiency in down town and the suburbs, and community facilities in planned estate and village.
There are some urban commercial areas where each shop spontaneously and gradually forms attractive streetscapes. These commercial areas utilize setback spaces made for the basement of streetscape by such as urban planning system as individual shop creates and display public spaces. This research the Minamisemba. The konishi and the Okamoto, where you can find these activities. The purpose of this research is to analyze the actual conditions of setback space utilization and to elucidate how these attractive streetscapes formed. The findings suggest new commercial environment arrangement methods by the social utilization of private properties.
This study is the analysis for the actual condition of the regionally linked activities in the San-En-Nanshin region that is around the prefecture border of Aichi, Shizuoka and Nagano prefectures. This study is done based on the existing regional linking plans and the questionnaires for the residents and the regionally linked organizations. The followings are the findings of the study. 1) The regionally linked activities around the prefecture border in the San-En-Nanshin region is consist of multi-divided regional linkages around the prefecture borders. 2) The linking activities tend to be active in the educational and cultural fields. And, activities of the citizens' groups become active, especially targeted for the entire San-En-Nanshin region. 3) There are three ways observed for the regionally linked activities, a. The linking activities by establishing an organization targeted for the region around the prefecture borders, b. The linking activities by connecting the individual prefectural organizations beyond the prefecture borders, c. The linking activities beyond the prefecture borders by an organization whose sphere of activities is concentrated in one prefecture.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the tendency of individualization of house making, which was characterized in the years of 1980s of Hiroshima. At first the structure of supply of houses in 1980s in Japan, Hiroshima prefecture and Hiroshima city is studied, which shows the increase of the mount of rented and owned houses especially in the latter half of 1980s. Then the tendency of individualization is investigated through the circumstances of "IEDUKURI (House Making) College" movement and the analysis of the participants of the Schooling of Interior Coordinator in Hiroshima. Thus an aspect of the concrete condition of the movement of individualization of housing is made clear and it could be resulted that 1980s is characterized by the individualization tendency in the local city.
In a super-highrise residence project, a project manager needs to form the long-term risk management plan which covers the problems from the beginning to the time of demolition. Development of the system which supports a risk strategy effectively is needed as a project becomes complex. In this paper, through the life cycle of a specific super-highrise residence project, risk events are specified from a viewpoint of each participant. Next, the database is developed which has various kinds of information about the risks, and the mathematical model is formulated which choose the combination of the optimal strategy against a risk quantitatively within a fixed risk strategy budget. Finally, the project life cycle risk management system is developed which consists of them.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the residents' characteristics and their evaluation of the joint housing project after Hansin-Awaji earthquake. We researched 7 condominiums. They were the joint housing projects provided by Urban Development Corporation-. We analyzed 102 documents of residents and questioned to 123 households of their evaluation for the joint housing project by questionnaires. The results of this paper are as follows. 1) Many residents were aged small family and they couldn't afford to get their houses. They couldn't build their new houses by themselves because their land didn't accommodate to the law. 2) Participating in the joint housing project, 70% of residents could keep the community which they had before the earthquake. 72% of residents are satisfied with the joint housing project, but they aren't satisfied enough with their houses. 3) We found that residents who got enough floor space by exchanging their land were satisfied with the joint housing project.
This study aims to clarify the architectural regulations for buildings of temple and shrine at the Higo Clan in the late Edo period. This paper clarified following facts. 1. The purpose of Bunsei examination was not only to control the building area but also to record the details of building. 2. On this purpose, the record was based on plan. 3. It can be considered that, alternation of building came to be restricted by thus regulation.
This study aims to analyze the standardization of the member size in Joudo-do, Joudo-ji as an inevitable preparation for the formation of the Daibutsu style, the new construction method invented by Chogen. 1) Through the calculation of the percentage ratio of timber volume and structural timber volume, 9 kinds of parts which are more than 3% of the percentage ratio of timber volume are found in Joudo-do, Joudo-ji. 2) The percentage ratio of timber volume of 9 kinds of parts in Joudo-do corresponds to 64.68% of total timber volume, while the percentage ratio of structural timber volume corresponds to 60.63% of total structural timber volume. These volumes are approximately 20-30% lower than those of Nandai-mon, Kaisan-do and Shore, Todai-ji. 3) Therefore in Joudo-ji, Joudo-do there was not executed the standardization of the member size seen in Todai-ji.
By this study, We paid our attention to a building and an intention of the public presentation in The University of Tokyo department of science museum based on a drawing discovered in The University of Tokyo institution part and so on. The museum was a shaped plane of コ. Each room became an exhibition room (South ridge: 90tubo, north ridge: 90tubo, center ridge: 40tubo). A design, it is guessed that Morse of a professor at The University of Tokyo department of science went for reference at Harvard University comparative zoology museum. It is thought that The University of Tokyo building section was in charge of the enforcement design. The main user of a museum was the people who aimed at natural science. The University of Tokyo supported them. The staff of a museum is filled up, and it may be said that this thing supported an exhibition.
Sosen KIZU is a designer of modern tea rooms, and the one he designed for the Imperial family in 1930 is one of his most famous work. But, up to know, there has been no study about the whole life work of Sosen Kizu. The purpose of this paper is to settle the fundamental basements for the futures studies about him. In this study, by first piecing out the plans and texts, that is all the historical documents about KIZU and his contemporaries, we want to make a synthesis of his skill as a Tea-Master. By listing up his architecture, we understood where it spread in the different regions, and the approximate proportion of the tea rooms in his all work.
This paper reexamines the classification of the wooden bracket system, a technique that classifies Korean wooden architecture. Chusinhou, Tahou, and Yokkou are the three major styles of Korean wooden architecture, and it has been regarded that each of them forms different categories. However, the point that Yokkou is classified into the separate category of the wooden bracket system is somewhat problematic, and it is almost possible to classify it into the category of Chusinhou. So the examining focuses especially on the concept of Chusinhou and its interpretation, and the results are as follows. 1. Korean wooden brackets can be classified into two; one that has its supporting wood sticking out, which is called Housaku style, and the other which is not. Housaku style can be grouped into Chusinhou and Tahou again, and Chutumoku-Yokkou which tends to be classified into different category from Chusinhou is taken into the same one. 2. Chusinhou style can be classified into type A, B, C, and type A and B have changed into type B, and then into type C as the times pass.
This paper aims to consider a metrological planning method for the portico enlarged to the eastern part of the Khaemwaset's stone structure on the hilltop at Abusir-south, Egypt. The portico was surrounded with north-, south-, and west-walls, and its interior was furnished with two rows of eight lotus columns. As a result of analysis, it followed that the simple division of a cubit into halves or thirds was applied for the dimensions shorter than cubit. It is plausible that the metrological planning possessed flexibility guided by a simple method and that their details were finally determined within the site with reflections on the basic scheme.
Sambor Prei Kuk monument is identified as ISANAPURA where was a capital city of Chanla dynasty in the 7^<th> century. A lot of the remains such as brick shrine, moat, rampart, embanked causeway and so on were newly documented by the exploratory investigation in this ancient city. This paper discussed on the distribution of these remains and some features; the causeway extended from the temple complex to the Sen river, and moated site where conjectured as a core area of this ancient city.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the character of the remains of the meditation hall of Whoe-amsa temple in Korea, through a comparative research between Japan, China and Korea. This study also aims at defining its relationship to China and Japan of the 13^<th> -14^<th> centuries. Whoe-amsa temple was an extremely large Zen Buddhism temple, known for having been rebuilt by the Zen priest Na-ong in the 14^<th> century, the last years of the Koryo Dynasty. In that time, Zen Buddhism prospered throughout East Asia, not only in Korea but also in Japan and China. Na-ong had gone to China to study Zen Buddhism during 10 years. This research brought out three important results: the first is that the remains of the meditation hall of Whoe-amsa temple was a typical meditation hall of a Zen Buddhism temple of that time. The second is that the meditation hall of Whoe-amsa temple followed the system of Zen Buddhism temples of China, especially in its location within the temple and its spatial composition. The third result is that the hall also presents characteristics of Korean architecture, that are different from those of Chinese architecture. A representative such characteristic is the under-floor heating system. Some differences with Chinese architecture could be found not only in the meditation halls of Korea, but also in those of Japan. This study proves to be essential for the understanding of Zen Buddhism temples of the period, not only in the Korean context, but for the whole area of East Asia where Zen Buddhism flourished.
In this paper we examine the formation processes of the spa town in modern ages, by doing the case study of the Atami spa, Shizuoka. This spa town had prospered since Edo period. In this paper, we study about the modernization of this town, by consideration the various aspects of hot spring inns (Ryokan). Especially, we focus in the locations and the types of architecture of these hot spring inns.