The authors previously reported results of a survey aimed at learning the background and causes of accidents or near accidents experienced by pregnant women. They found that accidents or near accidents among pregnant women were likely to occur from the 20th through 32th weeks of pregnancy or when there was substantial weight gain. This study investigated further details about environments at time of accidents or near accidents occurred based on the findings reported in the previous paper. We conducted a survey about pregnant women’s change in the body and their awareness of physiological changes due to pregnancy to determine reasons for accidents or near accidents. And the purpose was to explore cause of accidents or near accidents.
First, Body Mass Index (BMI) was analyzed to assess the pregnant women’s pre-pregnant habitus. The results (N = 116) found that 72.4% of the women had normal body weights (BMI between 18.5 and 25.0) and 22.8% of the women had low body weights (lean type) (BMI less than 18.5).
Then, the relationships between pre-pregnant habitus and post-pregnant body weight and abdominal circumference (AC) were investigated by pregnant period. We found that no significant relationship was found between weight gain, weight loss, or AC with the habitus. It was found that pregnant women tended to become aware of physiological changes as their pregnancies progressed, particularly in the lower part of the abdomen, and the extent of that awareness increased as the pregnancy progressed.
Next, we learned the specific locations of accidents or near accidents in the house. We found that the extent of awareness of physiological changes was related as the cause of the events. The pregnant women who experienced accidents or near accidents tended to believe that these events had occurred because they lacked awareness of their physiological changes.
The most frequent type of accident or near accident in the pregnant women’s houses was a fall down, which comprised 55.9% (N = 127) of all the accidents or near accidents. Falls most frequently occurred while descending stairs (26.0%, N = 127). In addition, the physical damage caused by falls was greater than the extent of damage caused by other types of accidents. The living room was the second most common place that accidents occurred (17.3%, N = 127). We assumed the living room was a frequent place where accidents or near accidents occurred because it often is used for multiple purposes, such as a child's playroom, the family’s common leisure place, and an indoor laundry area.
In sum, pregnant women's accidents or near accidents were related to their physiological changes, particularly their habitus change and the rate of change. Regarding this finding, the period from the 6th to the 7th month of pregnancy was previously found to be the period when the habitus most significantly changed compared to pre-pregnancy (data from a retrospective study). When we examined the relationship between that finding and the numbers of accidents or near accidents in our study, a similar tendency was observed. In other words, the pregnant women were likely to experience accidents or near accidents between the 6th and 7th month when they were not fully aware of habitus changes. After the 7th month, the numbers of accidents or near accidents decreased as the women gradually became aware of their physiological changes.
In Japan, condominiums for individuals were born after World War II, and the number of them increased rapidly after the act on building unit ownership, etc. established in 1962. Although there is accurate knowledge about early public housings, little is known about the early condominium projects planned by private companies. Among them, there is no specific research about "Co-operative House Series," condominium projects sold by Nippon Shinyo Hanbai Co. since 1956.
We previously reported that Yotsuya Co-operative House, which is said the first private condominium project for individuals in Japan, was designed by Keiichi Kimura who was an architect of Sato Kogyo Co., Ltd. This study focuses on the architectural planning features and backgrounds of "Co-operative House Series" designed by him.
First, this study analyzed the connection between Keiichi Kimura and "Co-operative House Series" using the pamphlet of "
" made by Nippon Shinyo Hanbai Co., design drawings of "Yotsuya Co-operative House," "Daikanyama Co-operative House" and "Akasaka Co-operative House" drawn by Sato Kogyo Co., Ltd. and some documentations. As the architectural planning features of the "Co-operative House Series," they have the following common features: 1) sectional composition consists of L-shaped maisonette-type dwelling units, 2) field-shaped rooms layout, 3) flooring room as living room and kitchen.
Second, this study analyzed housing construction projects Keiichi Kimura experienced in Ministry of Construction using documentations about Government Building Department, registered contents of Japan Federation of Architects & Building Engineers Associations and web search systems of the three large newspapers in Japan. We found that Keiichi Kimura experienced construction of the apartments for national government officials around 1949. As the architectural planning features of the apartments, we pointed out that they also have the field-shaped room layout and flooring room as living room and kitchen.
Through the above analyses, we concluded that it is reasonable to support that the dwelling unit plans of the "Co-operative House Series" were influenced by the apartments for national government officials.
Public residential complexes are changing their social role over time according to social change and obsolescence. Such complexes were built throughout Japan to supply houses during the high economic growth period after WWII, and most were built in suburban areas. Although the surrounding areas urbanized later, those complexes still have the characteristics of vast sites with a rich nature. Thus, these complexes have the potential to be an urban hub with a renewed role in the future. However, it can hinder the utilization of these complexes if there is a psychological barrier between complexes and the surrounding areas due to the difference in the urban modality. Therefore, this study aimed to identify current uses and purposes of daily facilities and paths within public residential complexes by their residents and neighbors, and to confirm the important factors for the future utilization of those complexes.
The authors chose target complexes from Urban Renaissance Agency Complexes in Joto and Johoku Districts in Tokyo, which has many complexes that were integrally planned with urban functions. Then, the authors selected Ojima 6-chome Complex and Hanahata Complex from some preliminary investigations about possible complexes. These complexes were selected based on their distinctive paths and layouts from the preliminary survey. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey of the residents and neighbors of two selected complexes. The questionnaire content included frequency of using paths within complex, using facilities and communicating with other residents, means of communication, the psychological barrier to others, and attributes. The total number of distributed sheets is 8920, of which 489 sheets were obtained (5.5%). The results include partly unanswered surveys.
Firstly, the authors summarized the differences of attributes and uses of daily facilities and paths within those complexes according to residents and neighbors of those complexes. After that, the authors focus on the psychological barrier between residents and neighbors of each complex. The authors analyzed the relationship between the psychological barrier and other items, and reasons of the psychological barrier. Then, the authors examined the relationship between main items using Speaman’s rank correlation coefficient.
The result showed that the psychological barrier between the residents and neighbors of the complexes is relatively small though there are differences in the attributes between the residents and neighbors of those complexes. Moreover, it revealed that residents and neighbors use pedestrian paths more frequently than vehicle paths and residents tend to choose parks for places to communicate with others within those complexes. In addition, the frequency of the use of parks within the complexes is affected by the characteristics of the paths, scale of site, and layout of daily facilities. There were differences of the frequency of facilities use within complexes and psychological barrier to others between Ojima Complex and Hanahata Complex. There was a tendency that residents and neighbors of Hanahata complex are more conscious of the boundary between the complex and surrounding area than those of Ojima Complex. The difference of characteristic of circulation is considered a main factor. The findings of this study suggest that public residential complexes can act as urban hubs with psychological harmony with the surrounding areas through the integrated planning of residential buildings, parks, circulation, and daily facilities.
Japan is presently in the era of super-aging and population decline. A reformed medical and long-term care insurance provision system will be introduced in 2025, which necessitated a closed cooperation in patients' early hospital discharge in medical and nursing care facilities, especially in the advanced acute-phase-wards. However, these wards have several problems like the increase in patients due to the increasing elderly population, lowered degree of job-satisfaction, quitting due to job-burnout, and harsh working conditions.
This paper clarifies the relationship between the nurses' burden feeling and the advanced acute-phase-wards plan. The questionnaire was sent to the acute-phase-wards of 496 hospitals in Kanto and Tohoku regions in consideration that the sense of burden in nurses differed by region, and 674 people from 70 wards gave an effective response. The ward plan was classiﬁed into ﬁve types based on three conditions: the direction from the staff station (SS) to the bedside, bed arrangement type, and the position of the SS relative to the entire bed arrangement.
According to a tabulation of the standard degree of fatigue during normal working days based on the plan type and the number of beds category, nearly 90% of the respondents experienced nursing burden. Consequently, it was established that the basic burden feeling due to daily work was quite high regardless of plan type and number of beds category.
Next, the correlation between the nursing burden feeling and architectural elements of the ward were analyzed. The correlation ratio indicated no relationship between the facility characteristics, nurse characteristics, and nursing burden feeling as each characteristic offset the other, thereby cancelling the nursing burden feeling.
Analysis of the quantiﬁcation type I indicated that the ward plan clearly inﬂuenced the nursing burden feeling. Additionally, the relationship between the patientʼs severity and burden feeling from the combination of plan type categories was analyzed. The plan types with low sense of nursing burden differed for each analysis and items of nursing burden feeling (work, movement ﬂow line, and observation). Additionally, the tendency of the sense of burden in the result of quantiﬁcation I and the seriousness category condition also differed.
This paper clariﬁed the following：
1. Number of directions to look from the SS affects the degree of fatigue during normal working days, watch over, and observation
2. The bed arrangement and concentration of nursing and equipment moving lines in the moving line space affected the feeling of burden in the work environment.
3. The feeling of burden between the plan types and items of nursing burden depending on the severity differed.
In the advanced acute-phase-ward, the possibility of the plan contributing to the reduction of the nursing burden that differed by seriousness was indicated, because the content and quantity of nursing differed by consciousness level and patientʼs early rehabilitation.
From these results and considerations, the following problems remained: Grasp of nursing service content in the seriousness category and examination of the relation of the sense of burden by other factors such as the counter of the staff-station and face-to-face ratio of the sickbeds.
The examination of the architectural element affecting the nursing burden feeling at advanced acute-phase-wards in future was considered necessary.
In this study, the objects are two nursery schools in Tokyo. The aim of the study is to clarify the characteristics of the communication and spatial distribution of the two-year-old’s classes in the space of the nursery room, and find new policies for space design of nursery schools.
The facilities for investigation are two nursery schools in Tokyo, namely H nursery school and N nursery school. The number of two-year old’s children in class is 20 persons and 19 persons respectively. The method of investigation was to record the behavior and location of children every 15 minutes on a plan. The survey time started from normal childcare (8:45) until end of normal childcare (18:30), excluding naptime (12 to 15 o'clock). The period of investigation was a total of five weekdays in 2018 for each nursery school.
Analysis contained the communication and trigger, and space distribution, of communication based on the observation survey.
As a result, common points of communication of children in the two nursery schools during free play were clarified as follows.
(1) Children's behavior can be classified into eight types, which are playing with toys, talking, reading, frolicking, handmaking, being desultory and wandering. Among them, communication was observed from playing with toys, talking, reading, frolicking, and handmaking; while communication was not observed from being desultory and wandering.
(2) The ration of communication during playing with toys was observed to be highest near the toy shelf. The trigger of communication was to show toys made, or working together to make one toy.
(3) The communication of frolicking was observed near the changing shelf, the toy shelf and free space. The trigger of communication is high spirits from playing with toys and talking, or imitating children frolicking.
(4) The communication of handmaking and reading in the case of sitting was observed as a low rate. This, was observed when gathering around a desk with a picture book reading after group reading, or when showing what was produced.
(5) The trigger of communication is from the topic of wearing clothes near the changing shelf or free space, and the topic of view by the window. The different points of communication of children in two nursery schools during free play were clarified as follows.
(6) In N nursery school, in a large free space, compliant communication was observed from collaborative work of playing with toys, gathering together after reading to children, and collaborative production of paper and puzzles. On the other hand, in H nursery school, in the narrow space near the desk, approval communication was observed from showing production.
From the above, as planning policy for a childcare room for a two-year-old’s class at children’s class which stimulates communication with other children in parallel with the individual ego. As a personal ego emerges, it is thought that communication between children will be encouraged further by providing a craft corner next to the toy shelf, free space for unstructured play, space for changing clothes, space with floor seats for reading books, display space for handmaking things, and a space for conversation with views of the outside scenery.
After World War II, new junior high schools were established in many municipalities by the reform of the school education system. Later, at the time of implementing the municipal merger of Showa, many of these new junior high schools were consolidated.
This paper addresses the reorganization process of public junior high schools in the Okayama Prefecture. This paper considers the effects of municipal merger on the integration and abolition of Junior high schools up to 2010. This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the policy municipal merger and the consolidation of Junior high schools in Showa and Heisei.
1) After World War II, there were small municipalities that less than the national average population in the Okayama Prefecture. Therefore, it was difficult to establish the new junior high school by each municipality based on the policy of the government. So, the Okayama Prefecture encouraged school unions with a couple of municipalities in order to maintain ideal school size. As a result, the number of junior high schools operated by the school union accounts for approximately 30% of the total number of junior high schools in 1950. In addition, the number of municipalities belonging to the school union accounts for as much as 60% of the total number of municipalities.
2) The Okayama Prefecture stipulated the merger plan to reduce the number of small municipalities. Thereby, the mergers exceeding the number of prefectural merge plan were implemented until 1961. But, the number of municipalities decreased by municipal mergers had been still short of the prefectural reducing goal. However, in the majority of merged municipalities, merged districts included the municipalities as affiliated school unions.
3) The transition of the number of students was classified by its features into 5 periods: before 1962 when the increase and decrease had been remarkable based on the war-damage recovery process and baby boom, from 1963 to 1980 during which time the number of students had rapidly decreased by the population movement in high economic growth period and fertility decline, from 1981 to 1986 during which time the number of students had increased by the second baby boom, from 1987 to 2002 during which time the number of students declined continuously during a period and after 2002, the number of small scale junior high schools has been increasing in the most of municipalities . The features of the school consolidations differed depending upon the time period.
In Okayama Prefecture, the administrative reactions of every local government to the new school educational system after World War IIand municipal merger in the Showa and Heisei periods has greatly influenced on the junior high school management up to the present time.
This research examines the possibility of securing the base of social support activities of community residents by utilizing vacant houses. Social support for community residents relies on volunteer participation. Although it is different from the support provided by specialized organizations, etc. and has more flexibility, the financial base is often weak. To secure the base for social support activities, free or low-priced rent is indispensable. Public facilities, welfare facilities, schools, vacant houses in the area, etc. are among possible local resources, but there are many restrictions on public facilities. Using vacant houses is considered a highly realistic method that can be widely adopted.
The increase of vacant houses in the community has become a problem, and there is a growing interest in using them. These are often inherited properties, which remain neither rented nor occupied by owners. One says that these properties are left untouched because of the attachment to the family home, or the burden of dismantling costs. Therefore, rather than expecting rent income, many owners prefer leaving their property unused. It would be easier for financially weak community social support activities to secure a base if some of these vacant houses are available free of charge or at a low price.
However, the conditions are not yet ready for obtaining information on rentable vacant houses. Until now, real estate agencies and activists' networks provided information, but these sources are not enough. Therefore, to find new locations of vacant houses with clearly identified owners, we conducted a survey on adult guardians in Kanagawa prefecture to examine the potential of adult guardians as "a field for inflow of vacant house information".
As a result, adult guardians are indeed "a field for inflow of information" and many owners are interested in community activities. The possibility of securing free or low-priced rent is high. With guardians' understanding, owners can be aware of the needs for vacant houses utilization. Also, in order to gain the understanding of the owners on a free or a low-priced rent, there are at least three conditions. (1) Clearing up of the leftover baggage, basic repair, maintenance of the building by weeding and ventilation, etc., shall not burden the ward with out-of-pocket expenses. (2) For cases when there is a need to vacate the property, the contract must make provision for immediate handover to avoid concerns about trouble over withdrawal.(3) In order to deal with concerns over the tenant's identity, the contractor should be the Municipal Social Welfare Council, etc. The owner’s reassurance is a necessary collateral. Of these, one can say that (2) and (3) are common in that general lenders tend to feel anxious about rental, but (1) is not put on the market base. In the case of lending free of charge or at a low price, the intention to avoid the owner's burden is quite natural. We can say that these are the conditions required to community welfare activists, in order for guardians and family courts to be able to tell if "it is in the benefit of the ward".
This study is positioned a part of the study that reveal the cultural heritage value of hill station by the comparison of the urban formation of Dalat built by France and Shimla built by the Britain.
The Western European powers' entry into Asia, which began the Age of Discovery, was aimed at entering the Southeast Asian trading network, and was strengthening colonialism by expanding the port city. On the other hand, Western powers after the establishment of the capitalist society aimed at the construction of various cities in order to carry out their colonial management purposely, as colonial policies diversified in each countries. However, in large cities where many European people live, the city was expanded by isolating the people from the local people. The form of this city has been regarded as the premise of colonial city formation, since it was created to avoid common problems in colonial cities such as clashes with local people and hygiene issues. However, considering the life of the people in the colonies, the construction of the colonial cities cannot be established without reliance on the district for local people where the life is based, and there was not reflection of the colonial policies of each countries for it. On the other hand, Western European powers have introduced railways in their colonies and they could get to construct cities in inland and mountainous areas. Because of it, the construction of new city, which Western Europe has the initiative for the construction and which don't depend on the living base of local people's communities was gotten possible. Under such circumstances, Britain started to build Hill Station in a mountainous area. hill station was started to be formed from the construction of villas and sanatoriums for European people. In other words, unlike the formation of past colonial city that relies on the district for local people. In addition, many hill stations in other European countries were to be constructed following Britain. Therefore, in this study, hill station is regarded as modern colonial city model in which the influence of the colonial policies of each country on the city can be verified while having a common construction background.
This study revealed how the racial segregation as one of the colonial policies was developed and changed in the urban formation of Shimla, a hill station built by the Britain in India. And, revealed the specific form of racial segregation in Shimla by looking the development of racial segregation from the three points of view, urban planning, urban formation grasped from maps, transition of house owners. At the beginning, Britain planned the strict segregation in Shimla same as other cities in India, the topography was used to carry out the racial segregation by the elevation difference. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, the racial segregation became vague one and the cases that Indian persons started to live in the settlement for British people were gotten to see. From this study, the specific racial segregation and urban formation at hill station built by Britain was revealed.
This study deduced the actual state of change in plot size, street width, and number of sides facing streets in the agricultural lands to determine how streets act as buffer space. The effectiveness of these indicators as evaluation indexes to describe characteristics of agricultural lands that remain in use was examined. Concretely, the following categories of items were reviewed by comparing agricultural lands in 1983 and 2016.
I. Characteristics of plot size, street width, and number of sides facing were reviewed.
II. A typology of plot transformations and characteristics of changes in plot size, street width, and number of sides facing streets were reviewed relative to patterns of plot transformations.
In general, the 194 agricultural plots that were 1000–5000 m2 in 1983 fell to 95 plots in 2016, but their proportion of absolute number increased from 57.0% to 70.9%. Agricultural lands connected to district streets increased from 69 to 84 plots, with an increase in ratio from 20.3% to 62.7%. Agricultural lands that do not touch streets decreased from 36 to 4 plots between the two time points, and the ratio decreased from 10.6% to 3.0%. That is, the ratio of the agricultural lands connecting to larger streets and the ratio of agricultural lands with more sides facing streets increases, and the buffer space between agricultural lands and urban area was greater in 2016 than in 1983. Moreover, in 2016, the ratio of agricultural lands smaller than 1000 m2 that connected to district streets was higher than the ratio of agricultural lands smaller than 1000 m2 connected to fine streets, and the plot size of agricultural lands tended not to relate to the width of connecting streets relative to agricultural lands in 1983.
Eight plot transformation types were found. The number of agricultural lands connecting to a larger street and the number of sides facing streets grew. Moreover, the area of many agricultural lands among the surviving land was 1000–3000 m2 in 1983, and those that faced more than three streets were easy to continue. However, being disconnected was not a direct factor for the dissipation or continuation of agricultural lands. Moreover, 77.6% of agricultural lands continuing in 2016 faced streets larger than district streets, but it was found that many of them were connected to fine streets in 1983.
Thus, many agricultural lands in use in 2016 connected to larger streets than district streets without connection to the width of connecting streets in 1983. This leads to the conclusion that the plot size, street width, and number of sides facing streets are valid as evaluation indexes for characteristics of agricultural lands that have continued to be in use.
Back Drainage Space (BDS) is a 15-foot wide alleyway with surface drainage and underground sewage facilities built behind the building blocks in the Central Business District (CBD) of Yangon City, implemented by the British during the colonial period in the late 19th century. There are 188 BDSs in the CBD however the spaces above ground have been underutilized for decades. In 2017, a social enterprise called Doh Eain has attempted to revitalize BDS as a community space and transformed six BDSs from trash alley to garden alley via Alley Garden Project (AGP). Revitalizing BDS as a public space will benefit the citizens by improving the living environment and urban amenity and AGP demonstrated its potential. The authors investigated about historical background, residents’ preference, project process and outcome to understand how the use and perception of the space were changed by the project and what issues remain. This paper is based on a literature review and field surveys including semi-structured interviews, ocular survey, Focus Group Discussion and household surveys conducted from July 2017 to October 2018.
The survey findings are summarized in the following six themes. 1) History: residents used to use BDS as a social space in the past but they were closed around the 1988 uprising. 2) Usage: Some informal usage in and around the entrance of BDS have been observed. Such activities are not officially allowed but some of them are accepted by the community because it provides not only place for socializing but also pays for the alley maintenance and serves as a security post. The city government today allows their use for a public good like AGP. 3) Existing self-governing organization: the active participants of the AGP turned out to be the members of existing self-governing, volunteer community group which manages infrastructure-related issues within the ward. 4) Existing issues and needs: issues related to safety, security and sanitation were recognized before the AGP. In regards to accessibility, most residents do not have direct access to BDS from their unit. 5) Impact and changes brought by the project: the AGP increased the use of the BDS and improved people’s perception of it, while promoting communication among the stakeholders such as between residents and authority. 6) Future issues and residents’ preference: most residents think BDS can be open to the public but not for business like teashop.
In conclusion, AGP was a long-awaited intervention realized by strong initiative and executing ability by Doh Eain but the active local community also played a significant part. Remaining issues are 1) Safety due to a lack of accessibility; 2) Sanitation; 3) Amenity for creating more open space; 4) Security; 5) Sustainable maintenance system; and 6) Community participation. This study demonstrated the potential of the remaining 182 BDSs. The city and the community could take on the work of solving the related issues in the future, focusing on 1) disaster prevention countermeasures by improving the accessibility to BDS; 2) designating a community organization to carry out a sustainable management scheme; 3) utilizing both local power and external support; and 4) scaling up from the project to a program, with a possible transfer of authority from the government to the community group.
In April 2014, Japanese government requested municipalities to formulate “Public Facilities Comprehensive Management Plan (PFCMP)”, which is the plan for comprehensive management of public facilities. In response to this request, many municipalities are considering ways to manage public facilities. Public facilities with multiple functions are important assets for citizens, and citizens should use them actively. Active use of public facilities, which are public spaces, is an important point of view. On the other hand, rate of utilization public facilities that are inconvenient for citizens is low. In the future, the importance of facility management will increase, and municipalities should consider about public facilities to increase the number of users. This study focused on public facilities which aren’t used actively, and unused space were opened for public to exam whether users would increase.
Carillon House in Miyoshi City, Aichi Prefecture is an object of this study. Carillon House opened as the commercial facility in 1988 and reopened as the public facility in 2013. Carillon House has Event Square and Common Room which are rental rooms, child care support space, and library space. About 30% of citizens live in Miyoshigaoka district where Carillon House is located.
Between April 2017 and March 2018, there were many times the rental rooms in Carillon House had not been lent out. In other words, there were many unused rooms. Especially, rate of utilization of Event Square was less than 10% in one year.
In this study the rental rooms opened for free as public space to solve such problems. In addition, the number of users was counted. As the result, the large number of users were under the age of 19, and many users wanted to improve the facilities owned by Carillon House, such as the installation of wireless LAN and vending machine. This study clarified that users of Carillon House would like to use freely for learning, eating and drinking. Furthermore, the demand for using Carillon House during the daytime on weekday is small, this issue should be solved.
The incidents on which this research was conducted featured the simultaneous dispatch of a doctor car (ambulance with doctor, departing from a doctor car station) and an emergency team (fire department, departing from a base hospital), who reported to the same emergency site in Funabashi City, Chiba Prefecture. We analyzed the operation data of the emergency medical network system featuring the pair dispatch. Furthermore, we established a visualization method for the planning area that will enable early treatment by proper arrangement of the complex, in cooperation with the hospital and the ambulance team, and verify its effectiveness.
This study data group analyzed 27,087 dispatch cases from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009. The data were provided by the Funabashi firefighting station. Among the data, 428 pair dispatch cases were extracted for analysis.
①Time before leading to the arrival to the hospital from the diagnosis with the independent fire department (in other words the time until therapy started) was an average of 38.32 minutes. When a pair dispatch method was used, the time from arrival at the site to the start of therapy was an average of 7.04 minutes.
②In comparison with the sphere where doctor car was dispatched alone, it was based in the doctor car station and built the existence setting technique that could visualize the expanse of the sphere by the cooperation with each fire department.
③Exhibited and evaluated the expanse of the sphere when the numbers of the doctor car stations increased to assume each emergency services would have a candidate point, and to inspect whether it was effective to place a doctor car station at several locations.
④When there is a pair dispatch network with multiple ambulance teams (fire departments) in the vicinity of a doctor car base hospital, when compared with the case of five doctor car base hospitals without a pair dispatch network, the analysis result of the spread of the effective medical area in five minutes is, it was verified in this paper that using the pair dispatch network has an effective area spread of about 2.7 times or more than when the pair dispatch method is not used.
By using the method of appropriate placement shown by the main subject, an earlier start to therapy was enabled by arranging for a doctor car in the pair dispatch system (in cooperation with emergency services). In addition, it reduced the distance between a hospital and the effective facilities by use of the visualization technique of the actual emergency site; this situation sphere was verified when I examined its position and inspected the effectiveness of the method.
In 1968, Akira Tamura, who subsequently became a renowned Japanese town planner, was assigned by Yokohama’s socialist mayor Asukata the difficult task of resolving a tangled argument over the route selection and structure of the new urban motorway. Tamura had joined the city administration in the same year on Asukata’s request. He earlier ran a private practice as a town-planning consultant and had proposed the “Six Spine Projects” to remodel Yokohama in 1964. The motorway solution became the first achievement by the new administrative section named the "Planning and Coordination Section, ” which undergrounded a part of the new elevated motorway project in the city center and rerouted its connecting roadway to the suburban motorways. The solution required prolonged re-negotiation among the concerned parties, including the national ministries. The critical stage of negotiations started once the central government had made its formal and legal decision on this project.
Tamura advocated the new administrative function in the local government that could plan comprehensively with a wider and longer vision, and could coordinate various single-purpose projects as an integrated and multiplied entity. At the time, the Metropolitan Motorway Authority (MMA) was involved in planning and implementing the construction of motorway networks under the auspices of the Ministry of Construction (MoC). In the early 1960s, the MoC ordered the MMA to extend its metropolitan network to the harbor city of Yokohama, though research on constructing a motorway network within the city center was still under way. Even in the early period of the motorway construction in Yokohama, there had been concerns over the preservation of important townscapes among the road experts of both institutions.
In his “Six Spine Projects” proposal, Tamura argued for building a motorway network by constructing elevated structures over existing rivers or canals in the middle of the city. The city’s motorway department’s idea was to utilize unused canals as motorway routes, but the underground route would have encountered severe difficulty in passing under the fragile piers of the national railway in the canal. Because of this technical difficulty, Asukata had to initially abandon the idea of undergrounding. Since the huge interchange would appear in the middle of the city, he recognized that it would devastate the townscape of the city center. However, using the dried canal for the interchange was also fundamentally against Tamura’s vision of building a linear park there—as an area redevelopment hub. Besides, along the same route in the canal, the new subway project planned by the city transport authority in coordination with the Ministry of Transport was already in progress. Eventually, the interchange location was moved to another river at the periphery of the city center. Reaching an agreement while accommodating all the requirements of the concerned parties, took time, though each party made concessions.
It took Tamura almost a year to accomplish the negotiation. The motorway finally opened in 1978. After this successful coordination that made his colleagues recognize the necessity of a planning and coordination section, he consolidated his position as the chief planner. Today, Yokohama’s government officials work confidently and independently as equal partners with the national ministries. Though Tamura has written about the motorway solution in his books, this empirical research on the background of its planning and coordination will throw a new light on his achievement.
1. Background and Purpose
Some of historic buildings don't comply with current standards of buildings. There is a risk that it could lose historic design because of renovating complied with the current standards. One of solutions is using exclusion from application of the current standards by the ordinance based on Building Standards Act 3.1.3. This study is aimed to clarify the enactment process and public awareness activities of the ordinance in Kyoto because the ordinance has not been used enough yet nationwide.
2. Outline about the ordinance
If City administrations enact the ordinance, historic buildings that are not designated Important Cultural Properties, also can be excluded from regulations of the Act. The ordinances are roughly divided into two types; existing ordinance type and original ordinance type. The former is the ordinances by revising the ordinance to control townscape and the ordinance to protect cultural properties and so on. The latter is new enactment of the ordinance.
3. Enactment process of the ordinance in Kyoto
In the stage of building a base of enacting the ordinance (1992-2003), some intermediary organizations were established, and they extended activities of kyo-machiya conservation. Kyoto City administration researched about kyo-machiya by public-private collaboration. The result of this research, they sorted out some tasks of kyo-machiya conservation and worked out the conservation plan. In the stage of conceiving the ordinance (2003-2008), the administration proposed original building standards of kyo-machiya as Structural Reform Special Zone to national government. The result of the proposal, the administration conceived to enact the ordinance. In the stage of considering the ordinance (2008-2012), the administration reviewed current condition of legal systems for kyo-machiya conservation, and considered to enact the ordinance. In the stage of establishing the ordinance (2012-2017), the administration enacted the ordinance in 2012 and revised it in 2013. In the stage of deploying various efforts to spread (2017- ), the administration enacted comprehensive agree criteria for kyo-machiya and worked out public awareness activities of the ordinance.
4. Public awareness activities of the ordinance in Kyoto
When the administration enacted the ordinance, they worked to public relations activities like holding explanatory meetings and making leaflets. In addition, they evolved public awareness activities into active learning session for experts of historic conservation and inspection trip of renovation cases with the ordinance.
(1) Tasks and measures to conserve kyo-machiya were sorted out through some researches and working out the conservation plan by public-private collaboration. One of these results is the ordinance. (2) Kyoto City administration held explanatory meetings and active learning sessions for experts of historic conservation. These prompted the ordinance to operate, smoothly. (3) In unused municipalities of the ordinance, it’s effective, especially, to raise awareness of the ordinance for the experts. On the other hands, in non-enacted municipalities of the ordinance, it’s effective to understand the current status of historic buildings of citywide and standards about conservation through research in public-private cooperation.
Automobiles and bicycles simultaneously traversing through a roundabout present a unique traffic problem. In such situations, it is imperative that the automobile drivers and bicycle riders recognize and anticipate one another throughout the intersection (inflow, outflow, and circular section). However, an appropriate method to ride a bicycle in a roundabout has not yet been established in Japan. Besides, there are no operating guidelines for driving automobiles in a roundabout despite the increasing number of roundabouts.
In this study, experiments for extracting evaluations from the viewpoints of an automobile and a bicycle were conducted using virtual reality (VR). The influence of the automobile and bicycle users on each other was examined quantitatively at the inflow, outflow, and circular sections of the roundabout. The following findings were obtained from the experiments:
1. When a bicycle is ridden in the leading area of the inflow section, the automobile driver behind the bicycle has a high sense of danger and discomfort.
2. When the automobile driver is in the inflowing area of the bicycle rider at the inflow section, the automobile driver has a high sense of danger and discomfort.
3. Automobile drivers and bicycle riders who enter the road at the inflow section have a low sense of danger and discomfort when they enter the roundabout alone.
4. Automobile drivers and bicycle riders have a high sense of danger and discomfort when they are immediately beside each other in the roadside section.
5. When driving/riding behind one another in the roadside section, automobile drivers/bicycle riders have a low sense of danger and discomfort.
6. When driving in the leading and trailing positions, the drivers and riders have a low sense of danger and discomfort.
7. When leaving at the outflow section, the first person to exit (either driver/rider) has a low sense of danger and discomfort.
From these findings, we draw the following conclusions:
1. When operating an automobile in a roundabout, the driver should not drive in the trailing region of a bicycle at the inflow section.
2. Automobile drivers should not drive immediately beside bicycles in the roadside section.
3. As the bicycle rider has a sense of danger or discomfort regarding the automobile at the outflow section, the automobile driver is required to consider the traffic-weaker. On the other hand, when riding a bicycle in the roundabout, the rider should not be in the leading area of an automobile at the inflow section.
4. Bicycle riders should not ride immediately beside automobiles in the roadside section. Bicycle riders are required to have a sufficient understanding of and anticipate the difference between the driver's awareness and the risk of traffic conditions at the outflow section.
Public service facilities play a vital role in meeting people’s growing material and cultural needs and improving the quality of life allround. The rational allocation of public service facilities is an important planning and layout goal. However, the contradiction between the growing demand for public services and the short supply of public services in urban areas is becoming more prominent. The intensification of metropolitan problems, such as urban hollowing, the adequacy of public service facilities, and the population balance, are getting more attention. Medical facilities are important for ensuring normal and orderly urban functioning. However, there is a shortage of medical facilities, and the irrational distribution of medical resources caused by the irrationality of the layout of medical institutions is affecting the quality of healthcare provision. Furthermore, in recent years, due to problems with facilities and management, medical services provision has become more restricted, and greater attention is being paid to the appropriate placement of hospitals and clinics. The conclusions of this study can be summarized in two points:
1) In previous studies using the 2SFCA estimation model, only the distribution of population and distance were used as explanatory variables, resulting in a large difference between the estimated value and the actual value. Therefore, this study conducted a statistical analysis of the hospital attributes according to their number of beds and the number of medical treatment specialties, which are with their most significant attributes. Furthermore, by comparing the estimated value with the actual value, the accuracy of the estimated result was improved over the conventional model, and the features and the influence of medical treatment specialties were clarified by introducing the explanatory variable of hospital attributes. As a limitation of this research, it does not directly take into account the operational elements such as letters of introduction.
2) In this study, we developed a model that estimates the number of patients for each diagnostic group by considering the locations and attributes of hospitals. We then conducted a case study of 52 general hospitals located in Fukuoka City. We were able to grasp the supply and demand balance for each region. In other words, in the future relocation of medical facilities, the arrangement of general hospitals and specialized hospitals should be considered, not only in terms of hospital location and the distances between hospitals but also the supply and demand balance for each diagnostic group. Moreover, the 2SFCA model developed in this study will be a useful tool for developing hospital facilities in the future, in accordance with the reorganization of city planning, changes in population distribution, and traffic planning.
This research investigated the actual situation and problems of condominiums in Bangkok. Condominiums have been increasing recently, according to the increase of the population or the development among the new transportation system. Thai people have not paid attention to condominium management, including generally lack the knowledge, because condominiums are relatively new housing style for them. The authors interviewed with 76 persons in 36 middle-class condominiums in Bangkok, including residents or persons belonging to Condominium Juridical Person, such as Juridical Person Manager (JPM), Committee Board (CMB), Private Management Companies (PMC) among others.
In Chapter 2, from the literature review, compared with previous researches, this research focuses on the actual situation of condominiums by interviews with related persons, particularly focuses on the system of the condominium juridical person. From statistics, the numbers of condominiums recently compared with the other housing types, because of the investments, development of transportation or flood. From the historical view, after the Condominium Act established in 1979, there have been several booms of condominiums construction.
Chapter 3 made clear the outline of the management system of condominiums, which consists of JPM, CMB, PMC among others. A PMC operates Management Team (MT), which engages in daily management tasks. Their management fees consist of common expenses collected monthly and sinking fund collected at the time when extra money is necessary. There are mainly 3 types of management 1) JPM is from PMC, 2) JPM is from CMB, 3) JPM is from an outside person. Each type has advantages and disadvantages, however, type 1) is mainly used in recent Bangkok, because of the lack of knowledge or experience. Only one condominium try to use type 3), however, the CMB cannot find an appropriate person.
Chapter 4 made clear the problems in the management of condominiums. First, there are problems of deterioration such as water leaking, cracks. Some of them are happened because of the improper use of residents. Second, residents do not cooperate in management nor do not understand duties or rules of condominiums. One of the reasons for the problem is that many residents bought condominiums for investment and they do not live in. Third, PMC or MT do not have enough knowledge or experience for condominium management. In addition, the works or responsibility of PMC or MT are not clear. Last, there are shortages of management budget, particularly in older condominiums.
In chapter 5, this paper discussed the possible solutions for the problems in chapter 4. First, the real estate companies or authorities should encourage more durable materials used in condominiums and the juridical person should provide more information to residents for proper use. Second, the juridical person should add additional channels to inform residents to realize the importance of condominium management. Third, the government or organizations should set a standard for condominium management, particularly on PMC and MT. Last, the real estate companies or the condominium juridical persons should set up the long-term maintenance plan to make clear the budget required for the appropriate management.
This study aims to estimate the man-hour rate of construction management that can be performed in off-site.
In Japan, shortages labor due to a decrease in the working-age population is becoming obvious, so improvement of productivity is pointed out as an issue in the construction industry. Construction management activities are becoming more efficient, but it has remained in the incremental improvement in many cases and not yet to achieve a radical review, called BPR (Business Process Re-engineering).
There is the idea called shared services that is one idea of the BPR. Shared services are the internal service provider that to perform the specific operational tasks such as an accounting operations and human resource management.
By applying shared services, it is possible to perform activities intensively and efficiently in specific department that is being performed in separate departments.
Most of the construction management activities are characterized that being performed by each site. For this reason, drastic improvement of activities can be achieved by introducing shared services concept.
Thus, this study estimated the man-hour rate that can be performed in off-site. In this study, we utilize the activity data that is revealed by the process chart method, which is one of the methods of Industrial Engineering. The data includes the name of 436 activities and the man-hour rate. Though it is not in a statistically significant because of the data from a single site, the data is valuable that records the activities that is performed from before construction to after completion.
There are various factors of constrains in off-site management. In this study, it was classified into physical constraints and operational characteristics of activities.
Classification of physical constraints were determined by whether the activity contains a task that must be performed in the field or not. And classification of constraints by possibility of standardization were classified activities into highly specialized, specialized, and non-specialized. The activities except for the “highly specialized”, can be standardized.
The result of the classification based on the two constraints, it was found that 216 activities (man-hour rate:28.4%) can be performed in off-site. Because of the man-hour rate accounts for a large proportion, it has been suggested that introducing shared services can contribute to improve the productivity in the construction management activities.
Hotel projects have a complex project structure and there often occur additional requests and changes from clients and hotel operators. Hotel development process is frequently stagnant, reworked and delayed, which has a great impact on building construction process.
One of the factors causing these process problems is the failure to resolve conflicts caused by differences in purposes among project members. This paper aims to clarify the mechanism of process problems using dual process composed of hotel development process and building construction process. This paper also aims to analyze conflicts among project members and the role of coordinator in hotel projects.
The paper shows conclusions as follows;
1. Hotel development process was identified in 21 working items (Table 3), and building construction process was identified in 8 working items (Table 4) from literature survey. These two processes composed of dual process of hotel projects (Fig. 1).
2. Dual process of hotel projects survey revealed the process problems (stagnant, reworking, and delaying) in 8 projects (Fig. 2-7).
3. Five project members (client, hotel operator, concept designer, architect, and general contractor) played an importance role in hotel projects (Fig. 8). The 21 cases of conflicts among these project members from hearing survey (Table 5) confirmed the purposes of each member in decision-making (Table 6).
4. The positions and the roles of decision-making coordinators in hotel projects were classified to three types (Fig. 9). “Client-coordination type” was used in a business hotel, and the purpose of client was prioritized. “Project Manager-coordination type” was used in a city or leisure hotel, and project manager solved conflicts among project member as a third party. In “ad-hoc-coordination type” conflicts were not resolved in design phase, and ad-hoc coordinator resolved them in order to advance the process.
5. The results of these surveys revealed the consequence of process problems from conflicts (Fig. 10) and how to avoid or reduce the impact from process problems.
In this study, we analyzed the transition of building stock in the Tokyo wards and visualized the results. The data we used are the GIS databases created by Tokyo Metropolis, which correspond to six time points every five years from 1991 to 2016, and the analysis proceeded as follows.
1) Data screening: In order to analyze the GIS data across the years, data screening is needed. We unified the definitions of attribute data and excluded data with missing values and outliers. In addition, since it was confirmed that some divided polygons were contained in the data, then we combined them into the ordinary forms.
2) Basic statistics: During the 25 years, the gross floor area has increased by 60% against the 8% increase in the number of buildings, and the average size of the buildings has increased by 48%. However, as for the median, the increase is only 14%. The other quantiles did not change significantly compared to the average value. This may be resulted from the hugeness of some new buildings and indicates that the unevenness of building scale distribution in urban has increased year by year. Also, looking at this from the view of use, the commercial buildings have a strong trend to be large scale, as well as the offices and the apartment houses, while the average gross floor area of detached houses is almost constant. Also, the distribution of gross floor area of detached houses is found out to be converging on around 138 square meters (that is calculated from polygon data and is different from the exact floor area). The changing trends of building size were different depending on the building use.
3) Comprehension of building state changes: In order to comprehend the change of the state of a building, the GIS data of 2010 and 2016 were spatially overlapped and the identification of buildings were implemented, then we extracted the buildings seemed to be not same as before. As the result of overlapping, the change patterns of building state were classified into six types, as “Rebuilding”, “New Construction”, “Demolition”, “Integration”, “Division”, and “Other”. Comparing the change of building size by patterns, there was a remarkable trend of enlargement in “Integration” and miniaturization in “Division”. “Integration” shows higher proportion than other patterns in the commercial buildings, the offices and the apartment houses. On the other hand, most of the “Division” was occurred in the detached houses. It is considered that these results are related to the transition of the total floor area of each building use.
Looking at the geographical distribution density of building change patterns using kernel density estimation, the “Demolition” and the “Integration” had high density mainly in the downtown area, and the “Division” was distributed mainly in the residential area. In addition, the “New Construction” occurred at the outer edge. The huge buildings are thought to appear caused by the “Demolition” and the “Integration” around the center area of the city. In addition, it is also suggested that the living environments are changing as “Divisions” are actively carried out in old residence towns.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meanings behind the words “Shira-kezuri”, “Uwa-kezuri”, and “Shirake” recorded in Edo period documents that are related to repair works. Because of this, we have checked four documents recorded from the middle of the Edo period through the Meiji era that had used the four aforementioned words.
We have seen the words “Uwa-Sare kezuritori” and “Uwa-kezuri” used in the repair record “Hason-syufuku-issiki-ukekiri-siyou-nyusathu-necho (Construction Specifications for Damage Restoration Tender Contract)” regarding Horyu-ji Temple, created at the end of the 17th century. “Sare” means deformation and discoloration due to wind erosion. Because of this, “ Uwa-Sare kezuritori” has the meaning of scraping wooden surfaces that became uneven or discolored due to wind erosion. Moreover, it was also written similarly for “Uwa-kezuri” in the record to do “Uwa-kezuri (scrape the surface) ” on the “Sare” part, so, we know it was used for the meaning of scraping wooden surfaces.
The word “Shirage” was used for the construction permit request “Zosaku-no-koto-negai-tatemathuru (Solicitation of the Construction)” regarding Guzei-ji Temple, created in the middle of the 18th century. It is conceivable that the meaning of “Shirage” is “Shirage (smoothing)”, the applying of polish for the final finishing and tempering of the wood, or even improving and refining it. During the Edo period, there was a smoothing plane called “Shirage-kanna (smoothing plane)” used for the final finishing. Because of this, the word “Shirage” was used in the sentence “Mend the damaged parts and reuse wooden material that had its wooden surface refinished.” Moreover, in this document, the word “Shirake” was also used. "Shirake" is assumed to mean "Shirake (whiten)", and "Shirake" and "Shirage" were used in the same way in the document. For this reason, "shirake" can be also considered to mean that the surface of the wood is scraped in the same way as "shirage".
Similarly, the words “Uwa-kezuri” and “Shirake” could be seen in Ise-jingu Shrine’s official records “Jingu Hennen-ki”, created from the early through the middle of the 18th century. Summing up all the reconstruction and repairment of bridges, “Uwa-kezuri” was carried out on the torii gate at the pre-existing Uji-bashi Bridge in 1715, “Shirake” was carried out on the torii gate at the Kazano-miya Bridge in 1723, and “Uwa-kezuri” was carried out again on the torii gate at the Uji-bashi Bridge in 1746. Furthermore, all three of the aforementioned construction work on torii gates were expressed as “Shira-kezuri” in the published chronological table “Dai-jingu Koji-ruisan” compiled in Meiji 33 (1900) at Ise-jingu Shrine.
From the above, it is conceivable that all three words “Uwa-kezuri”, “Shirake”, and “Shira-kezuri” mean scraping of deteriorated wooden construction and the surface of old wooden material using cutting tools such as smoothing plane, etc.
Yagasaki Zentaro has already conducted a series of research on Izyuin Kanetune. In these researches, it became clear about the late life when Izyuin was active as the Suki-mono, but the footsteps of the first half of "modern engineers" are not yet clear. In addition, Yagasaki used "Koikokaishin-roku" of Kuroda Tengai and "Meiji-kako-tyo" when showing Izyuin, but there are also multiple other records and articles of interviews with him. Therefore, this paper presented the report on Izyuin by Yagasaki, and examined the matters in the first half when Izyuin was active in the government and business circles, in particular, the purpose is to clarify the relationship between the Doboku-kentiku-gumi, the Nihon-doboku-kaisya and Izyuin. The Doboku-kentiku-gumi was also known as the construction of the Rokumeikan designed by Condor. The following points were clarified, focusing on the first half when Izyuin was active in government and business circles.
Izyuin built the Zisin-no-ma in a residence in Kagoshima as a teenager. He also constructed a steam bath for six days and was dispatched to Edo as the reward. In 1868 at Bosin-no-eki, he served as the military detective in Edo, and he was dispatched to Oshu, then he sent the injured to Yokohama and bought the weapon. Izyuin worked as the Goyo-kakari of Kanagawa Prefectural from May to November 1868, and once returned to Kagosima, he moved to Tokyo again and opened a kimono store. His work at the Miyauchi Office was from 1871 to 1872 and his service to the Navy was from around 1872 to 1887, and work at the Ministry of Industry until around the end of 1878. After he retired from the government, he belonged to the Doboku-youtasi-gumi and built the Rokumeikan. Izyuin who was closely related to Ookura Kihachi through the Doboku-youtasi-gumi, took office as Tokyo resident accountant when the Nihon-doboku-kaisya was established in 1887. And Izyuin was also related to the Sangu-tetudou-kaisya, Iris Co., Dai-Nihon-seihun, Tokyo-gekizo-kaisya and so on. As the diplomat, he sold arms to the Army at Okuragumi in 1889-94. As his houses, Nakahashi-Suzuki-cho, Shibata-cho 8-chome, Shiba-Isarako-tei, Sakyragawa-tei, Kamakura's villa in later years, and the residence of Shiba Park which was the end of the land are newly confirmed.
Of the sketch books left by J. Condor, the author has compiled a discussion of the sketches of the Nobi earthquake that occurred in 1891, among the sketches, the sketches of the stone survey of the Diet Building, which was carried out in 1887-88, the castle sketches drawn here. In addition to these, this article introduces the sketches that Condor has left in his sketch book with the title "Koiso" as a material.
Then, I show sketches with similar compositions, examine where these are drawn, and aim to clarify the background of the production. The "Koiso" sketch drawn by Conder were collected on page 67, right of page 3, of the four-volume Condor sketch book. The horizontal sketch had been rotated 90 degrees clockwise and attached vertically in the sketch book.
This article examined the sketch drawn by Condor and marked as "Koiso". The following points are clear. The sketch with the description "Koiso" in the Condor's sketch book can be regarded as depicting the landscape of Koiso in Oiso where Condor set his villa. The sketches drew Koiso can confirm 5 sheets, and all have a composition that the mountains of Hakone to the west from the beach are desired. Note that this includes the works of Condor's last years. Condor had already hoped to draw Japanese landscape paintings in the second half of middle age. Condor's villa was acquired from Kenzo Yoshida in 1890 and renovated, the villa building consisted of the main building, the detached house and the toilet. Among them, Mrs. Condor's old mother used the detached house.
This paper aims to shed light on the characteristics of the landscape design by Kenzo Tange that commemorates the war victims and promote peace. Two specific works were examined: the Great East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere Memorial Project (1942, hereafter called ‘the Project’), and the Memorial Plaza for Students who Perished in the War (finished in 1967, hereafter called ‘the Plaza’). The landscape design of these two works were compared and analyzed with Tange’s Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park (1949, finished in 1955, hereafter called ‘the Park’).
The architectural competition of the Project was held during the war in 1942 and was understood as a vision only that was not to be realized. The main part of the Project, the holy precinct for the dead, was located at the east foot of Mt. Fuji. The Plaza started and finished in the 1960s and is located on the south end of Awaji Island. It is positioned on the ridge of Ohmiyama that overlooks the Inland Sea. The Park was designed just after the atomic bombing in Hiroshima. While the historical context to commemorate the victims, the surrounding environment, and the existing materials differ greatly, the common spatial composition has to comply with a north-south principle axis and two trapezoid squares that face each other on the axis as pointed out by other researchers. The viewpoints to compare and analyze the landscape design have three aspects: how the common geometry was applied, how the monumentality was expressed, and how the planting was positioned.
Regarding the common geometry (two trapezoid squares on the north-south principle axis), it was clarified that while all works show the contrast between the northern part to commemorate the victims and the southern part to promote peace or for the place where people gather, the application of the geometry of the Project and the Plaza differs to the Park. In the former, the geometry was applied to emphasize the contrast and the separation of the two trapezoid squares through a different view and spatial experience provided on the bridge or the approach that connects the squares. In the latter, the geometry was applied to create a network and a center in the Park.
In regard to the expression of the monumentality, it was clarified that Tange planned monumental scenery both on the site scale and the landscape scale. In the scenery on both scales, the vertical or massive existence appear as a focal point. Moreover the scenery on the landscape scale, the vertical or horizontal expression of architecture made a contrast to the constantly changing nature.
Finally, in spite of the importance of the planting of the scenery in the initial design, Tange’s lack of concern about planting was confirmed through his final design.
Gunsan is located in the west coast of South Korea, there had been the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan from 1899 to 1914.
This study is aimed at clarifying the urban construction process of the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan. And main analysis elements are urban construction policies, a building regulation and construction situation.
Preceding study focused on Japanese colonial period (1910-1945) and big port cities (Busan and Incheon). However, this study is important to show the process of urban construction from 1899 to 1914, the period during which ‘the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan’ actually existed. Also, this study shows one method of modernization by the actual construction and it can be used as an important component of the Gunsan urban regeneration project. This study concludes followings;
1) The urban construction policies in the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan were ‘Regulations for the Foreign Settlements at Kunsan, Masanpo and Songchin’ promulgated in 1899 and ‘Building regulation of Gunsan’ promulgated in 1907.
In ‘Regulations for the Foreign Settlements at Kunsan, Masanpo and Songchin’, the initial settlement lands were classified as A(Village, rice-field, or low-lying lots not requiring further filling in to raise them above high-water mark), B(Hill lots), and C(Foreshore lots requiring further filling in). In addition, it sought rapid construct urban district (urbanization), and stipulates the urban beauty, urban sanitation and noncombustiblization of the building roof. And, ‘Building regulation of Gunsan’ is a more detailed regulation than ‘Regulations for the Foreign Settlements at Kunsan, Masanpo and Songchin’. This regulation specifies high control, secure of road width and rules for toilets and building ventilation for urban sanitation.
2) From 1899 to 1914, when the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan existed, urban construction and urban infrastructure facilities except harbor facilities were mainly carried out by the ‘The Municipal Council in the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan’. And then, from 1907, ‘The Japanese Residents Association in Gunsan’ took charge of some of the consignment projects.
In other words, from 1899 to 1914, including after the Korea-Japan annexation in 1910, the urban construction centered on the ‘The Municipal Council in the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan’.
3) The construction sequence of the Foreign Settlement at Gunsan was executed gradually, from the flat land near the coast to the inland. Using the topography of Gunsan, the western hill’s district was wider than other areas, and custom office, major administrative agency building, post office and police station were located.
And, on the eastern hill, a road constructed that connecting the existing Korean village and the Foreign Settlement. This was not in the initial plan and strictly controlled the approach of Koreans in ‘Regulations for the Foreign Settlements at Kunsan, Masanpo and Songchin’. This means Korean village has influence on the foreign residents’s life in the settlement. Also, the construction of the harbor facilities of Gunsan started six years after sign a ‘Regulations for the Foreign Settlements at Kunsan, Masanpo and Songchin’. In other words, the construction of the urban area preceded the construction of the port.
From MoMA`s “Ealy Modern Architecture: Chicago 1870-1910” exhibition in 1933 and through the publishing of Carl Condit`s The Chicago School of Architecture in 1964, the typical overview on the Chicago school of architecture in late nineteenth century and the “Chicago Construction” have been firmly formed from aesthetic, formalistic, and structural points of view.
In this essay, first we examine closely the discourses on William Le Baron Jenney`s Home Insurance Building(1885), which was once deemed to be the first metal framed structural building. In William Mundie`s manuscript, Skeleton Construction, Its Origin and Development, in 1932, despite the fact that it was written one year after the demolition of the building and the concomitant investigation on the structure of it, Mundie described the building as of metal framed construction. Regarding emphasis on the transition of the building construction, namely from traditional bearing wall system to framed construction, his description is considered to be also contemporary with MoMA`s emphasis on the same transition of building construction for modern architecture. On the other hand, in 1964, Condit described the building as an example of early curtain wall adoption not as that of metal framed structure, discussing from the same structural point of view. Condit also made criticism of the building from aesthetic and formalistic points of view, which were again the same as those of MoMA`s.
Closely examining these discourses and the typical floor plan, we attempt to position them in historical perspective.
Going back to the middle and late nineteenth century, the age of Jenney himself, we also attempt to reevaluate the “primitive hut in Manila,” which Jenney once saw on his trip to Philippine in his boyhood, as another great inspiration source of “Chicago Construction” again. The notion of “primitive hut” was an important one in the nineteenth century architectural history, in Eugene Viollet-le-Duc`s writings for example. In other words, by going back to Jenney`s age, we attempt to give a proper appreciation to the locale where the U.S. expansion to the Pacific Ocean by whaling which brought Jenney to Philippine and gave him an encounter with the “primitive hut” in Manila, and the notion of “primitive hut” in French theory of architectural history, merged into one architect to form the idea of “Chicago Construction.”
In this paper, “The Theatre, ” an article written by Architect Adolf Loos (1870–1933), is examined. He wrote this article in 1925 for the International Theatre Exposition held by The Little Review, an American literary magazine, in New York in February 1926. Loos criticized the old type of theater and proposed a radically new type that would have an effect on a person’s “nervous system.” Although many studies on Loos overlooked this article, it is notable because it demonstrates not only Loos’ interest in theater but also his resonance with contemporary avant-garde art movements, such as Dadaism and Surrealism. This paper aims to clarify the content and background of the article and locate it in its appropriate historical context. Further, this paper consists of three sections.
In the first section, the background of the article is examined by focusing on Loos’ relationship with contemporaries such as Tristan Tzara, whose house was designed by Loos, and Frederick Kiesler, who was the director of the exhibition. Moreover, two important events occurred between 1925 and 1926, which may have become a catalyst toward his writing of this article, namely, design and construction of Tzara’s house and planning of the International Theatre Exposition. As Loos, Tzara, Kiesler, and Jane Heap, one of the editors of The Little Review, shared a close relationship with one another, Loos was asked to write an article for the exposition during this process.
In the second section, the content of the article is examined in detail. This article begins with Loos criticizing the desire to return to the age of great playwrights such as Shakespeare and Molière; he was of the viewpoint that “the stage of culture” to which these playwrights belonged had already passed. Thus, he subsequently proposed “untheatrical drama” for modern people. However, this type of drama was unsuitable for theater and contradicted the essence of theater, which should be enjoyed by a collective audience. Consequently, he proposed a new type of theater that would affect the “nervous system” of its audience.
In the third section, the content of the article is compared with Loos’ other articles, including the famous “Ornament and Crime”; Tristan Tzara’s and André Breton’s Dadaist and Surrealist writings, respectively; and Walter Benjamin’s writings, whose arguments were similar to those observed in Loos’ article. These comparisons reveal that while the first half of the article could be regarded as an extension of his previous arguments, the latter half included a new argument that was not observed in his previous articles. To explain his proposition of a new theater, Loos compared it with slightly strange motives such as “a boxing scene,” “a death leap,” “noise,” and “a revolver shot.” These motives were also seen in Tzara and Breton’s writings and could be interpreted as causes of “shock,” which is one of the central concepts in Benjamin’s writings on avantgarde art as well.
In conclusion, it is possible to say that Loos was strongly influenced by contemporary avant-garde art movements. Due to this influence, he upgraded his previous arguments and envisioned a new theory on theater art that resonated with the Dadaist or Surrealist viewpoints of artwork.
Japanese professionals tend to harbor ambiguous feelings toward the overseas usage of the term Shibui in architecture, since despite being colloquially uttered in their language, they themselves have rarely used it as an actual architectural term. This divide in understanding seems to be a serious one, suggesting a potential miscommunication throughout the global sphere of architectural discussion. Based on materials mainly written in Japanese, English, and German since the 1920’s, this paper investigates the global reality of intercultural exchanges about this term, and how Japanese architects largely chose to sidestep them.
The propagation of the notion of Shibui started within the Anglosphere around the late 1920’s. It was introduced as something untranslatable, but which represented the ultimate aesthetics of the Japanese, tending towards that which is simple, austere but meaningful. In the mid-thirties, a group of mainly foreign American readers got a hold of such influential works as Soetsu Yanagi’s The Folk-Craft of Japan and Harada’s The Lesson of Japanese Architecture. Non-Japanese-readers gradually came to know the word through these publications as well as daily conversations with speakers of the language. The German architect Bruno Taut [1880-1938] was one of those who experienced these circumstances while staying in Japan from 1933-36, and interpreted the ideal beauty of Japanese architecture as Shibui, or the “unobtrusive, quiet and harsh.”
Besides Japan and the U.S., the German sphere in Europe was potentially another center for the production of knowledge about Shibui and Japanese architecture. While there was no German introduction of the word during the twenties, they had nourished their interest in the intrinsic modernity of Japanese traditional wooden construction as early as immediately after the end of WWI. A number of influencers would soon emigrate to the U.S., where Japanese promotion of Shibui to the American public was at the forefront, and the aesthetic of Shibui was in the process of making itself known to a German-reading public. Walter Gropius [1883-1969], for example, started to combine his idea of a “Japanese” modular, flexible, and nature-loving architecture with the word Shibui.
In this early stage of outbound knowledge production, Japanese architects were pretty much uncommitted to it, as the word was too colloquial to be aesthetically defined in their own language, and they did not share the goal of propagating Japanese aesthetics, for which Shibui had become a buzzword.
In the postwar craze of all things Japanese, the word gradually got popular among the Pacific-American public from the early fifties, before being further popularized by Elizabeth Gordon’s special issues in 1960 for “Discover Shibui” in the influential American magazine House Beautiful. However, due to her notoriously offensive attitude toward contemporary efforts in architecture, this prompted a string of critical backlashes. Japanese architectural historian Yuichiro Kojiro [1922-2000] spoke in The Japan Architect against Gordon’s “oh-so-wonderful romanticism,” and his criticisms would attract overseas followers like Bruno Zevi [1918-2000] in Italy.
Thus was formed a global space of dispute over the modernity (and anti-modernity) of the naturalized and de-nationalized Shibui. In fact, most Japan architects did not have the means to know about this external phenomenon, and those who did had no avid motivation to join, since its contents kept changing and diversifying according to each player’s ambitions and local contexts, making the whole scene appear as a quite chaotic one to their eyes.
This essay discusses the period between the 1910’s to 1920’s when Le Corbusier’s realization of the impact of industrialization grew and when he made an untiring effort to spread the awareness in society through his own works. As we already know through previous works, he received the effects of the optimization of labor and the systematization of mass production which had permeated Europe from America in a positive way. In response to that, he put into practice those ideas in terms of factory plans and suggestions of construction methods for residence models but distanced himself from it in the end to return to his original construction methods. This essay, however, will give a new interpretation of His perceived social responsibility as an architect and as such his position in this new industrialized society. I will shed some light on his tireless attempts to humanize labor’s living conditions in his projects during the afore mentioned period.
In the background of Le Corbusier’s contact with industrialization, there is the influence of two major ideas that had taken root in France at the time. In 1918 after the First World War, securing the number of labors and the mass production line was a major issue in France. It was the time period in which “The Principles of Scientific Management” by F. W. Taylor (1856-2015), which was published in America in 1911, was translated into French in 1912. He was also reading these methods of re-examining with a scientific approach the work processes and management systems of labor’s in terms of the production industry. The conventional methods were fundamentally changed that realized maximum efficiency along with new human relationships. Furthermore, “Saint-Simonianism,” which resonated with the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825), was being supported in the same time period, and it has been confirmed that he was in physical contact with these supporters. He grasped the labor’s class as an entity that will bear an important role of managing production in society, in which the development of technology would advance in the future.
Le Corbusier was in fact carrying out two types of plans towards labors: factories and residences, and this essay carried out an analysis regarding residences. First, I focused to Salle Commune which was one of the ten notations attached to rooms that functioned as living rooms. From 1922, the written expression of Salle Commune was not used, it was unified in the written expression that was used from the early stages known as Salle (Room in English), but it reappeared again in Unite d’habitation of 1945. It is found that apart from the meaning of “common room” and “an independent self-governing body”. From what is written above, it is shown that he placed Salle Commune as a room for a social community formed inside the building, and at the same time it showed that by having this definition feed back to the labor’ s residences, with the expression written in his planning. He showed that labors who bore the production industry, were forming independent social communities.
The conclusion of this essay is that Le Corbusier’s thoughts of Salle Commune that includes Taylorism and Saint-Simonianism. He sympathized the respect of human rights for labors.
Tokyo has multiple elevated railways that cross through the city. Under-railway spaces facilitate transversal movement and vehicular traffic, but also often create a negative impression to passersby. This study selects publicly accessible under-railway space and creates a taxonomy by focusing on their urban permeability, meaning the degree to which an urban area is permeated by publicly accessible space.
We conducted the research according to the following procedures. First, we selected the under-railway blocks that have under-railway spaces with commercial use or public use, such as a park or a kindergarten. After that we made units which were continuous among them. Also, we divided them when they were crossed by streets 14 m in width, which is the general width of the main road. Then we selected units with a length of 100 m or more and defined them as under-railway units. Then, we classify the under-railway blocks. For doing this, we consider their length, adjacency to the street, and presence of pedestrian alleys to check the relationship between under-railway blocks and the streets. In order to examine urban permeability, we examined the interface of the under-railway establishments with the street, we calculated the number of establishments along under-railway block (density) and number of access along under-railway block (accessibility). Next, we make a further classification of the under-railway blocks by looking at their position in relation to the station, the area, the programs of the establishments, and period of construction. As a result, we obtained a taxonomy, from which we can see that the types built before the Grade Separation Project of 1961, such as Ueno or Shimbashi stations, show a high permeability that result from the many small establishments. These establishments were built in the under-railway spaces after the elevated railway was constructed.
Also, we found under railway blocks built by the Grade Separation Project, located mostly in suburban areas, such as Nerima or Hachiman-yama stations, the under railway space is occupied by large establishments along the station with close interface. These types show lower permeability. The establishments were planned and built together with the elevated railway. However, among those built after the Grade Separation Project, we can also find types of higher permeability such as Ayase, Koenji or Nishi-Kasai Stations. These types connect with the surrounding area by arranging the establishments in high density and by subdividing the under-railway blocks by transverse alleys. In this way, the under-railway space, which has been negatively evaluated as a residual space, was utilized by collecting small establishments, opening their interfaces to the public, and subdividing the under-railway blocks by alleys. This research shows some examples how urban permeability can be implemented in under-railway spaces in order to make them an active part of the city.
Water supply cisterns have historically been an important element of Herat Old City, an oasis city on the ancient trade route in Afghanistan. This paper is intended to reproduce the distribution of water supply cisterns based on the existing literature and interviews with local residents, and to understand how the cisterns and their network developed within the city. Each of the eleven existing cisterns are measured and the typologies of their architectural forms are analyzed in order to clarify their historical development. The data used for the research includes Dari (Persian) documents, historical maps and satellite photographs, and field surveys.