We aimed to clarify the effects and issues of the partial insulation remodeling method from a lifestyle perspective by habitation-related experiment. The results are as follows: 1) Several residents frequently changed their pattern of opening and closing insulated sliding doors. Their lifestyles were affected by expanding the insulated area. 2) Another residents didn't change their pattern, because they felt comfortable even if the doors were open. It is necessary to consider the balance of the insulation in outer walls and doors. 3) It is necessary to develop insulated sliding doors which consider environmental items other than just the thermal environment.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics and actual situation of Self-Renovaiton(SR) by tenants in rental apartment houses, and to clarify the efficacy of SR. The following points are clarified. Lenders prepare the restrictions of the area, approval system and consultation for SR, because they want prevent extraordinary SR. But the tenants don't take them serious and work at SR in almost all houses easily. The characteristics of SR are an autonomy and diverse ways, such as rearrangement of rooms respecting functional aspects and refinishing the walls, floors and ceilings respecting design.
This study performed analyses of floor plans using 490 floor plans of Elderly Housing with Supportive Services (hereinafter, Sakojyu), obtained by a complete enumeration survey on all Sakojyu as of Dec. 31st, 2012 to see the current physical settings. The key results are as follows: 1) The area of dwelling units were focused on 18.0‐19.0 m2 adopting the relaxed criterion. The unit plans of 18‐19 m2 were focused in 1R type, and facilities set were limitied, 2) Comparison between areas of dwelling unit and common space led four groups: small unit & small common, small unit & large common, large unit only, and large unit & common. The small unit & small common group occupied 27.8% of the the 490 Sakyojyu , and had machinery baths in 21.0% of the group, kitchens were set in less than 70%. The results shows some of current Sakojyu is similar to the spatial composition of nursing homes based on lump treatment before the introduction of Unit Care.
A study was conducted on the activities of office workers at a café corner with a lounge in a free-address office to investigate communication at a “magnet space”. The major results were as follows; 1. The encounter probability between two office workers at the “magnet space” could be estimated by a formula based on Little's law, which considers the frequency of use as well as the mean and standard deviation of the sojourn time. By analyzing more data for the estimated formula of the encounter rate which is suggested on this study, it can confirm more minutely the actual situation of an encounter and the conversation in “magnet space” of their offices. 2. Installing the lounge-like workspace adjacent to the café space increased the encounter probability between workers at the café corner.
This paper aims to clarify what kinds of design elements in environments stimulate mental activity. This study examined the effects on the brain activity when wearable optical topography was worn in different color environments. The subjects' mental activity in the prefrontal cortex was measured during working memory tasks in four colored booths: red, yellow, blue, and white. By performing physiological and psychological analyses, this study obtained the following results. 1. The yellow booth can activate mental activity the most. 2. Fatigue increases due to the stimulation of brain activity. 3. "Stimulating" environmental factors can be assumed to affect elements in mental activity, especially information processing.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss about the subjects of educational environment for special needs education. Conducting a case study at the Saitama Municipal Sakura-so School for students with profound multiple disabilities, we grasped the problems and those of the reasons about the school facility for the students by performing hearings and questionnaires survey targeting the teachers. Some issues regarding usability of this facility, even newly-built, were cleared. We showed how to relate the school planning to educational needs, assisting methods, characteristics of the disabilities, and the security and safety for students.
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the form of continuous spaces and the thermal environment in warm urban areas by examining the room temperature change by the difference in outlines, partitions, and the insulation performance of the internal space as well as influence on air conditioning load, simulating continuous spaces. The present study has demonstrated the relationship between the room form and the indoor thermal environment on continuous spaces in warm urban areas.
The following discoveries were made about the factors affecting the usage period of main halls. 1. The factors contributed to the previous main hall being used for a short period were natural disaster at Edo Period. 2. Priests wish to continue using current main halls for the period of similar tendency as the ideal period of use. 3. The future planned periods of use of main halls seem to be affected by structural issues such as aging of materials. 4. There is a trend of the future estimated period of use being longer when previous main halls were used long. 5. Newly established temples with main halls of non-wooden construction are used for a short period.
The traditional community house, locally known as “Guol,” represents unique indigenous architecture of the Katu ethnic minority living in the mountainous region of Central Vietnam. In recent decades, changes in living environment have gradually eroded traditional lifestyles, particularly that of people using traditional community houses. This study explores all types of community houses in Nam Dong district and focuses on two traditional community houses in A Xang and Doi hamlets. A case study of the two hamlets shows the importance of natural resources, community cooperation, and indigenous knowledge. The research concludes with a discussion of conservation strategies in modern context.
Piedmont densely built-up residential areas in Korea have history of past. The area appeared on background of population concentration phenomenon in short period of economic growth after war. Lack of urban infrastructure and steep slope have impacted on living environment. Moreover, faster aging phenomenon compare with other areas that brings necessity of urgent measure. Recently, the Korean governments build many measures due to problem and potential of piedmont densely built-up residential areas. One of the measures is letting residents join build their own villages as highly evaluated measure of regional development. Case of building Gamcheon2dong village with applying art at Busan, Korea from 2009 suggest paradigm-shifting of improving residential environment and community planning. This study figures out flow and originality of the case of community planning with applying art at Gamcheon2dong. Also this research figures out current problems and suggests measures against of those problems.
The aim of this study was to analyze the change in a local resident's landscape recognition of Kobe's environmental transformation. First, the cognitive region was obtained using a map representing “change” and “identity,” and the cognitive region and components were investigated. Next, formative factors of the cognitive attitude were obtained by quantification theory III. First axis shows the complexity and the spread about cognitive region of the "changed". Second axis shows the dispersion and environment cognition about Kobe's identity. Third axis shows component attributes and bustling about becoming Kobe's identity . The sample score obtained by quantification theory III was grouped into four types by cluster analysis. And attributes for each type were obtained. Finally, after cognitive region and cognitive attribute of each type were obtained, we considered the attitude of residents' landscape recognition, given the location's environmental changes.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the number of remaining historic buildings in Niigata and to understand design character of these buildings. This is to prepare a basic data for expected district designation and establishment of a design guideline. Major results are as fi llows: 1) 1,405 / 10,358 buildings are estimated to be historic buildings. 2) Over 50 types of facede design are extracted from 490 Machiya, traditional marchants' houses. 3) Machiya in Niigata are essentially Tateya whose ridge of the roof is vertical to the attached street. Additionally, T-type, a Mixture of Tateya and Yokoya, whose ridge of the roof is horizontal to the attached street, is typical and distinctive Machiya in present Niigata.
In this paper, we propose a new caluculation method of user equilibrium assignment and derive the equilibrium arrangement of housings and jobs theoretically in the urban model with constrained capacity. When doing formulization, we show that minimizing the summation of the costs, commuting travel cost, working travel cost and location cost caused by the density of housings or jobs node, is non-convex quadratic programming problem and the problem results in quadratic programming problem using reformulation-linearization technique, and as a result we are able to derive the equilibrium arrangement of distribution of housings and jobs.
In a series of studies by the authors, treatment and positioning of skilled labors in the construction industry, it was pointed out that become ambiguous and obscure by a variety of call you. And, we were presented objectively describe how the relationship between professional Contractors and under the control of the employee using the variables based on the relevant laws and regulations. When diagramming the organization of professional construction company in accordance with the method, we made it clear that the intermediate region exists between outsourcing and employees in relation of professional construction company and technicians. We showed that it is to determine whether employment or not regular, it is necessary to look to "whether or not to join at the expense of labor and management equally to social insurance and labor insurance". Measures of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Social uninsured is positioned as an important issue, officials have been installed propulsion system for carrying out the comprehensive and continuous efforts together. This paper is intended to be discussed summarizes the findings of continuous 2012-2014. It is to organize the subscription status of social insurance professional Contractors, are classified into three types the relationship of professional Contractors and technicians, it was discussed treatment from the point of view of the skilled labors such as subscription status of social insurance.
This study examined the “Problem Seeking method” that is a typical method of architectural programming, in order to clarify the establishment process and the nature of its methodology structure as well as the development process after established, and then, to determine whether it is valid for today's architectural programming practice. For studying these issues, we had multiple interviews with those involved in its establishment, and analyzed author's study-notes and a variety of literatures that seemed to have influenced on its establishment. As the result, it was clarified that the “Problem Seeking method” have been established based upon the accumulation of huge theoretical and practical experiences as well as useful theories, ideas and heuristic approach exerted from the studies on various problem-solving methodologies, and that the method must be a very practical approach for architectural programming.
The purpose of this paper is to trace a process of housing supply of the residential complex that planned by the housing co-op and to point out that the form of the dwelling units and the ownership played an important role in defining the direction in which the housing estate was transforming. Kobushi-danchi, the object of this study, was composed of 490 semi-detached houses (980 households), which were built in the suburbs of Tokyo in 1966. It is assumed that the residents took part in the housing supply, because Kobushi-danchi was planned by the housing co-op and improved by the resident organization after the development. Therefore this paper, based on the research using documents, focuses on the planning, the ownership and the residents' activities to analyze the change in this project.
The purpose of a series of research on faults & troubles by authors is to suggest fundamental data in order to investigate maintenance scheme, especially, maintenance system or human resource in both office building and hospital. In this paper, labor load by maintenance personnel about restoration work of faults & troubles is newly defined as “maintenance load” and it is found that as maintenance load increases, a percentage of newly occurred numbers of put-off to the next day, or, put-off rate, increases using the 28,122 numbers of faults & troubles data. Furthermore, it is found that term to restoration depends on put-off by busyness of maintenance personnel with technical difficulty, etc. and effect of put-off on mean term to restoration is investigated schematically.
Lodgings such as Ota-ya, Oyado and Honjin were used by feudal lord for stay and rest in Kanazawa-Han and Toyama-Han during Edo-Era. Through the examination of historical materials on usage of the lords of Kanazawa-Han, Daishouji-Han and Toyama-Han in the course of periodical official trip between Edo and each home town, following results were ascertained; 1)Some stages had 2 or 3 lodgings though 1 lodging was sufficient for usage of these 3 lords. 2)Among 2 or 3 lodgings 1 lodging was used by the lord of Kanazawa-Han and others were used by the other lords.
This paper clarifies the architectural characteristics of the small structures with the Hottate-Munamochibashira structure found in Togakushi. As a result of our survey, we found that these nineteen Hottate-Munamochibashira-style structures were built by intermediate technicians who were not professional carpenters. The intermediate technicians used unprocessed materials such as forked branches or logs, which were easy to obtain and transport, while employing the Hottate-Munamochibashira structure that was easy to construct. In addition, the intermediate technicians did not learn the technology to build these Hottate-Munamochibashira-style structures by receiving special education or training, but by developing their own ingenuity and creativity naturally.
In this paper, I considered the place of Kanjyo in Kikke-Shinto and showed the following points. 1. The ritual place was made of thinking the functionality and effect of direction. Especially, it was notable that the buildings for exclusive use of individual ritual were designed. 2. These buildings indicated that Shinto has ability to make the idea the form, in early modern times. 3. After having established authority by fixing the designed place and the procedure of the regular ritual, describing the method for performing actually as simplified form showed flexibility and rationality.
This paper aims to delineate the way Omote-genkan (main entrance) changed over time in residential works designed by Isoya Yoshida. Eighty-four works were analyzed on the basis of the name used on drawings, flooring material, door type and difference in level between the dirt floor and flooring. This revealed that, from 1930 to 1940, the material used to finish floors changed from tatami to wooden flooring, the fittings disappeared, and the height of the step became shorter. As a result, Omote-genkan changed from an individual space to a unified space.
This paper aims to examine to consider the construction of vacation villas in Oiso through “Oiso Town Hall Administrative Documents”. The location, size of the land, arrangement of buildings, size of the main building, and layout of rooms were analyzed for 71 villas recorded in turn of the century housing registries, which were located in a broad area from central to outer Oiso. There were villas exceeding 3,300 square meters, while others were less than 330 square meters. Multiple buildings were constructed in many cases, including only two villas that had Western-style houses for visitors. Some large-scale villas had thatched roofs, which was a reflection of rural architecture. The size of the main buildings in some cases exceeded 330 square meters, but almost villas were small to medium-sized buildings. The installation of bathing facilities, which were sometimes in separate bathhouses or in other cases protruding out from other buildings, suggests their great importance at these seaside villas.
Edmund Morel, the fist chief engineer in railway division of the Meiji Japan, proposed in April 1870 the foundation of the ministry of public works, which consisted of execution, accountants and education sections. The education section's main objective was to train young Japanese under its institute by foreign teachers. The students would learn both theory and practice at its college after they acquired basic knowledge at its school. Although the Meiji government agreed to found the ministry in November 1870, the education section was neglected. Yozo Yamao who trained as engineer at Glasgow, entered the service of engineering section at the Meiji government in 1870, and insisted on the significance of engineering education and survey. When the ministry was officially organized in September 1871, he became a vice minister of the public works as well as chief of both education and survey sections, and assured that he could find and hire foreign teaching staff and build the school buildings before opening of the institute in August 1872. Colin Alexander McVean, a Scottish civil engineer, appointed as a chief surveyor to the survey section, assisted Yamao to build the school facilities and hire foreign staff.
This paper investigates the type and its transformation of spatial composition in Craig Ellwood's residential worksfocusing on structural system. Analysis deals with 28 works and consists of structure construction, structure of the main façade, inner space structure. As a result, following points are derived. In the 1950s, order in space is created by setting direction and showing beams in inner and outer space. In the 1960s, order in space is given by forming an architectural framework with pillars and beams clearly exposed in the exterior space.
This paper aims to grasp the changes of Tiananmen Square at the beginning of the 20th century by using public documents, newspapers, and other literature. In the Ming and Qing eras, Tiananmen Square was originally a "forbidden square", however after the Boxer Rebellion and the Xinhai Revolution, the square became a public space on New Year's Day in 1913. After opening to the public, several new gates were built in order to improve the accessibility of Tiananmen Square. Some organizations even planed to turn the square into a commercial district, but it failed to realize. On the contrary to the newly allowable public access, the security of Tiananmen became stricter, and the Beijing Government monopolized the square sometimes and used it for some events such as Yuan Shikai's military parades on National Foundation Day in 1913 and 1914. It can be said that Tiananmen Square had characters of both a “forbidden square” and a public space at this time.
This study explores the process by which the spatial structure of riverbanks in the study area were reorganized and new modern urban functions from the Bakumatsu period (approximately 1853－1868) to the Meiji era (1868－1912) were developed by investigating the formation and transformation of “Iida-kashi” (common riverside spaces). Our analysis first reconstructs the land plots at the time that the kashi were created and examines their spatial structures from tenant records. Then, trends prior to the kashi formation to understand their eventual transformation were investigated. As a result, we found that Iida-kashi is characterized by the location of the renters and their utilization of riverbanks. For example, some renters in Iida-kashi were located on the opposite side of the Kanda River. These observations suggest that property on their land plots is changeable. Moreover, tenants located on Iida-kashi state that their utilization is confined in the riverbanks.