To provide the technical data for snow removal reduction on detached houses in cold and snow region, the authors investigated the snow sedimentation area for snow removal in Takasu Town of Hokkaido. The several factors to influence the snow sedimentation area were analyzed. The following results were obtained through the investigation and analysis: 1) The snow sedimentation area for snow removal decreased with the routine snow removal area and roof snow fall area increase. The snow sedimentation area in oblong area was large in comparison with the lengthwise area. 2) In the area that exterior structures was built, the snow sedimentation area decreased by the routine snow removal area decrease. In the area that gable roof was built, the snow sedimentation area decreased by roof snow fall. 3) The snow sedimentation area was limited by roof snow fall. And all snow sedimentation area was not available by the partial area. Therefore, the necessity of snow removal planning around approach in detached houses was clarified.
This study is case study about 3-stories mini detached houses by small scale developments located around the centre of city in Osaka. The intention is to investigate the possibilities and the problems as urban houses with low-rise and high-density grounding style. By the questionnaire to residents and visiting investigation, ‘process of acquisition’, ‘plan and living style’ and ‘actual situation of enlarging and repair were understood. The result of analysis, tree characteristics of space ‘narrowness’, ‘individuality’ and ‘countermeasure for car’ and three characteristics of gathering ‘disregarding the direction’, ‘facing each other’ and ‘openness of first story’ were extracted.
The purpose of this study is to show an observation method on the room-staying behavior of an elderly living alone in a detached house by active RFID. We succeeded on obtaining the objective data of when and in which room a resident stayed in successive 8 days. Results showed that the resident stayed longest in Living Room and Kitchen, and moved between the two rooms frequently. She had fixed or relatively fixed schedule to use one certain room in a period more than 3/4 of the time awake. From the Morning to the Evening, the moving frequency increased between Living Room and Kitchen, Kitchen and Toilet, and conversely, it decreased between Living Room and Toilet, Living Room and Washing room, Washing room and Kitchen.
This research based on current image and future image about private spaces as children's homes. As a result, characteristics concerning room image are brought together. If life style is different, room image is different. Structures of current image are thought as base of ‘activity of daily life’. Structures of future image are thought as base of better life. Finally, in future image, unit care system facilities are located in the middle of conventional large-type care facilities and ordinary homes. If room image elements of ordinary homes are reflected to children's homes, better living space will be provided for residents.
The purpose of this study is to seek concrete solutions for improving motorway rest areas “MRA” through wayfinding legibility from the viewpoint of universal design concept with an emphasis on visual search characteristics of elderly persons. Results and conclusions are as follows. 1) The experiment was shown that elderly persons found it the most difficult to find a way back to their vehicles among four routes. 2) Elderly persons tend to look down below for visual search, namely road surfaces and building floors. 3) Elderly persons found it difficult to make a quick identification of proper signs that help them find the direction. 4) Three major strategy factors of elderly persons extracted; a) Prior knowledge of target destination, b) Target destination location, and c) Judgment basis for target destination location. 5) Under an environment where the information is easily recognizable thanks to clearly identified target, the most significant factor was "Judgment basis for target location". 6) Under an environment where the information is not recognizable with ease, due to temporary installation of the signs or unclear identification of the target destination, "Prior knowledge of target destination" was of the most importance.
This paper examines the prototype and its transformation of southern planting system of premises forest based on the field survey of the farmhouses in Isumi Area that were depicted in the Meiji Era. The prototype was composed of 1) hedges called "maki-bei" surrounding the premises, 2) evergreen broad-leaved trees and pine trees which form background trees and a big tree with a small shrine, and 3) planted space for viewing with Cycad and cultivated space around buildings. Also it has turned out that although these patterns still remain basically, several patterns have transformed differently in response to the change of land use.
The purpose of this study is to redefine Hakka village in the whole land of Taiwan by using the Taiwan Bao-tu in which the spread of residential area and their spatial compositions of each ethnic groups can be recognized, and to clarify the characteristics of the locations and the forms of village. Moreover, I intend to grasp systematically the viewpoint of environment to Hakka, beyond the countries and districts, through the shares of the research of Hakka in Taiwan and the communications with local researchers. The results of this study are as follows. The Hakka village is classified into 4 types by village form and the characteristic of location space : these are 1)Independent Defense Type and 2)Scattered Adaptation Type and 3)Scattered Stably Type and 4)Scattered Cooperation Type.
This paper covers the reconstruction of three castle towers from the Warring States period, each at the summit of a steep precipice. In Gifu the reconstruction was done by a local historical preservation organization. It is a simple permanent structure built using scrap lumber. In spite of criticism, the foundation was also rebuilt. In Sumoto a modern ferroconcrete structure on pilings for the lower level was built as a rest area and observation platform. The reconstruction in Ueshi was privately financed by the Nanjo family. All three are simple structures that don't attempt to accurately reproduce the original castle towers.
The purpose of this research is to analyze how building stocks of different ages were accumulated in different districts in a city. I analyzed a fixed property tax roll of Hachioji city; this tax roll includes 134747 buildings in 182 districts. The results of my analysis are as follows: 1) Most of the building stocks were built after 1945. Before 1979, the building stocks increased year year, and over 2500 buildings existed after 1980. 2) The number of existing building stocks vary greatly on a yearly basis. Number of construction by year are related to increase and decrease of existing building stocks, and constructed building stocks disappear year by year by regular ratio. 3) The 182 districts of Hachioji city are classified into 9 categories. The highest number of districts fall in the "Average 11-25 year old architecture stocks, 10-20 year standard deviation" category; these districts are distributed in the central area of the city. The second highest number of districts fall in the "Average 25-35 year old architecture stocks, 10-20 year standard deviation" category; these districts are also distributed in the central area of the city.
The purpose of this study is clarify the process that linkage of various projects by the private enterprise from the public works in detail, the strategic program that promoted them. The object is the project of "Rekisi wo ikasu machidukuri" that was carried out in Esashi, Hokkaido. As a result, the five strategic programs promoted many projects. 1) Evaluate historic value and keep it alive. 2) Promotes piled-up development by the Machizukuri visions. 3) Promotes the created the mood of Machizukuri and the consensus development. 4) Promotes linkage of urban development. 5) Bring out inhabitants vitality.
This paper discusses the formation of the urban tissue of faubourg Saint-Antoine area in Paris, by analyzing the composition of urban blocks, focusing on the street construction and the exterior spaces in urban blocks. First, the transformation patterns are shown by analyzing the chronological order of the street construction and the shape of urban blocks. Then, the combination patterns of exterior space are described by examining the types of compound units formed by association of exterior spaces. Finally, by considering both of these patterns, 7 types of compositions appear, which show the characteristics of the urban tissue of faubourg Saint-Antoine area. Then, the comparison of these types reveals relatively typical or remarkable urban blocks in this area.
This paper aims to analyze the effects and problems of 'chiiki-kyosei-no-iezukuri' system, which supports the owners to form the place for community using their private spaces. The results are as follows; 1. Although this system was effective in 'chiiki-kyosei-no-ie' opening, 31 cases failed to open. The reasons in this system are 1) no mechanism to draw on owners and neighborhoods for understanding about 'chiiki-kyosei-no-ie', 2) insufficient mechanism to relate owner to residents' group, 3) no financial assistance for the space. 2. 6 cases established as 'chiiki-kyosei-no-ie' were effective. However, this system has no mechanism to support them for continuous management.
In Hida-Furukawa, Gihu Prefecture, vernacular urban houses which have traditional architectural style in the region, built from the 1950's are called “SHIN-MACHIYA” (new town house). The purpose of this study is to clarify developping process on facade of “SHIN-MACHIYA”. As a method, field survey, interview, etc., were used. Analysis was made from characteristics of facade and built year. Major results are as follows: 1)“SHIN-MACHIYA” can be classified by facade into 5 types as standard types, 2)“SHIN-MACHIYA” required a long time for establishment, 3)At first “SHIN-MACHIYA” gradually became decorative. But It finally settled down in a simple style.
A retail facility is one of an important part of people's daily life. Recently, retail distributions created by a collection of retail facilities change are rapidly effected by fashion, economic trends, urban redevelopments, and so forth. These rapid changes need to be traced and clearly understood to prevent residents and visitors of the city from their inconveniences. This paper proposes a method using circular statistics for analyzing and visualizing direction of retail distribution expansion in urban space. HSV color space is used for result visualization. An empirical study is done with NTT Townpage data of Shibuya ward.
Installation of the group home is called for as supply of a residence to elderly people or a disabled person. In recent years, it is advanced except the shift and institution to an area. Under the influence, the organization which uses public housing as a group home has appeared. Then, Article 45 of Public Housing Law is added at the time of the Public Housing Law revision in 1996, and a social welfare corporation etc. can use public housing now at a group home care home etc. Although it is thought that the use number of houses will increase from now on, the number of use, the trend and validity, a problem, etc. in the whole country are not clarified. In this research, it aims at acquiring the knowledge about the state of future use by investigation for use examples, such as a group home which uses public housing.
Recently, in Japan, the diversification of clients' demand in construction projects leads to emergence of various professions, such as construction managers, project managers, cost engineers, façade engineers and project finance advisers. Therefore, a new method of forming the project organization as an assemblage of such various professions should be developed. The final goal of this research project is to develop a method for optimizing the project organization from the clients' standpoint. This paper summarizes the second stage of the research project. The authors investigate the roles of 10 types of professions in three projects and classify them in view of the task and the period of time assigned to each profession in the sequence of sub-process of the construction project. The authors interview 6 types of professions for their tasks and backgrounds, and finally discuss the emergence process of diverse professions.
Myouo-taro built as chief constructor many temples and shrines in Sagami-koku region in the pre-modern period. He enlarged his sphere of construction making close relationships with its social background. There were some factors for expansion of his construction activities around Mt.Oyama. This paper points out three factors: First, he took many pupils, and they got works for him. Second, the people named "Oshi"(guides) lived in Mt.Oyama had huge network for Oyama-dera temple. Third, the people named "Danka"(supporters) had common information about Mt.Oyama.
After the Showa enthronement, the buildings used for the ceremony were granted to various places. Many of them were granted to religious facilities but also quite a number of them were given to educational facilities. This report will inform about those educational facilities including schools, social educational institutions, probation centers, orphanages and so on. In those days, social educational fields and welfare work facilities were still underdeveloped stages. Yet this conversion seemed to have contributed to the development of those fields and facilities. Through the process of the conversion, the search for the meaning of granted buildings may be found.
Hwang Ryong-sa was the most important national temple in Silla. This paper is about the site plan of HwangRyong-sa temple at the early stage. A change in site plan was inferred from a research excavation result, and a positional change of HwangRyong-sa in Silla was considered from performing temple of Buddhist rites and the change of temple name of HwangRyong-sa. And through these consideration results, a change of HwangRyong-sa at early stage was clarified. The results are as follows. The first buildings of HwangRyong-sa were the eastern main hall and a few buildings at the site of western main hall (Fig.5). With these buildings, form of a temple of HwangRyong-sa was tentatively shaped in around 566. But it was not the completion of HwangRyong-sa as the most important national temple of Silla. The second site plan of HwangRyong-sa was completed when the large central main hall was built in 584. There is three main halls in the second site plan, and the site was divided into three areas by the western and eastern cloisters (Fig.6). By this time HwangRyong-sa became the most important temple of Silla, and the national Buddhist rites was performed in HwangRyong-sa. Large nine-storied pagoda was completed in 645 and the western and eastern cloisters were removed. As a result the third site plan was completed as one pagoda and three main halls pattern (Fig.7).
This study is to show the spacial characteristics by restoring the plan of Hôtel de Rambouillet in Paris, and to consider the elements which caused the development of hôtel design. The restoration is made according to the imprints of the Rambouillet's plan which remain in the two study plans of Louis Le Vau, new materials. And I make the forms of the site and buildings clear. As a result, Hôtel de Rambouillet proves to have been planned in view of how visitors move and look. Not a few of Rambouillet's devices are found in the later hôtels.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of Batty Langley in the Gothic Revival in eighteenth-century England. Langley is famous for having published many influential pattern books on designs for gardens and architecture. Especially, Ancient Architecture Restored, and Improved (1742) can be considered as the seminal book in a sense that it offered a variety of gothic patterns which could be used for garden buildings and houses for many builders and architects. This paper analyzes the pattern book itself and shows how the book was influential throughout the eighteenth century.
This is the third part of the study on the two theaters for comedies built in 1581 in the parish of San Cassiano. In the latter half of the 16th century, Venice confronted dramatical changes in political and economical terms. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the realities of the opening, the presentation and the closure of these theaters, from the view point of characteristics of the venetian society.
The church of Imamura was constructed by the local master-builder, Yosuke TETSUKAWA, around 1913. This paper aims to clarify its management and the execution scheme of constructing the church of Imamura, by verifying comprehensively the various records, written by Yosuke at the construction site. As a result, it is presumed that Yosuke prepared to make architectural drawings for construction in advance and then estimated the proper amount of the building material by using the relevant drawings. Based on there evidences, Yosuke is highly presumed as a local contractor to have established the modern construction system for undertaking its project in the church of Imamura.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the composition of Le Corbusier's low-rise habitation block in the urban planning of Bogotá. He considered and investigated the composition of “cuadra” as one of the regional elements in the Spanish colonies. The three component elements of the vernacular cuadra are streets, “manzana” and gardens. Cuadra is surrounded by streets for pedestrians. Manzana, the low-rise houses, is placed facing these streets and also opens toward the tranquil gardens. The low-rise habitation block presented by Le Corbusier inherits these three elements from vernacular cuadra.
The aim of this paper is to examine Viollet-le-Duc's architectural ideology through the analysis of his thought on Rose. In his Dictionnaire raisonné de l'architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle, the doctrine of structural rationalism was invoked through his conviction that Gothic architecture was a rational affair of constructive logic. As well as the Gothic architecture, the rose window in the stone structure has its rationality and economy. In the entry Rose, Viollet-le-Duc viewed three ideas such as construction, composition and decoration, which played the very important roles in the progress of rose window in order to gratify the natural desire. Meanwhile, the functions of rose window are not limited in providing light, reducing construction, giving added solidity and withstanding wind pressure, but it has its movement based on the special system. Therefore, Rose is a work based on the system with its own reasons.
City map of chorography are the important historical literatures in Chinese history, which records about walled cities used to be graphs and texts; the former shows city type and location and sculptures urban environments and conditions through abstract figures. Analyses of Chinese walled city types can be intensely feasible through interpreting city map of the chorography. The research explores city of the Prince where mansion of the prince (HAN FU) was built (HAN JOU for short) during Min Dynasty In historical materials by city map of the chorography. We examine the construction form generation and distribution of the walled cities that mansion of the prince was built. In the early and first half in Min Dynasty, There are many examples that a city of the Prince is built. I was authoritative to Prince (HAN OU) in particular, and a specific walled city was chosen and became the city of the Prince however, after the middle, power of the Prince was limited, city of the Prince in an area northern without need to choose a specific walled city after the middle founding it disappeared.
The restoration project of Borobudur Remains is one of the successful examples of “International Campaign for Safeguarding of Cultural Properties” led by UNESCO. This project had been done from 1971 to 1982, through the cooperation with the experts from many countries including Japan. Daigoro CHIHARA was appointed to the member of the Consultative Committee for the Safeguarding of Candi Borobudur and had a great influence on the project. This project is very important in the Japanese history of international cooperation for cultural properties. This paper describes the details of the Consultative Committee and illustrates the history of the project itself.
From the very beginning of Panama's republican period Spanish heritage has been the “face” of Panamanian cultural heritage, at least for the country's elite. This image of Panamanian heritage was based on the remains of a greater colonial past in the face of foreign pressure. Indirectly this situation caused an imbalance in the perception of the heritage value of architecture, favoring rubble masonry buildings over timber construction with the subsequent neglect of the latter, a situation that today affects the integrity of Panama City's historic district as a world heritage site.