Georgetown in Penang Island, Malaysia, has the largest surviving ensembles of traditional shophouses with the original town plan maintained in Southeast Asia. These shophouses have been protected under the Rent Control Act of 1966. Since the year 2000 the Repeal Control of Act has changed the situation of real estate. The largest change was due to the soaring rent. Perhaps it will due to the tearing down of the shophouses of the new developments of urban housing in it's place. The focus of this thesis will be on four types of shophouses from four different periods of time. This report will show the past and present usage of buildings, construction space and town district. As for a result three point became clear. 1) Appearance and disappearance of the balcony 2) Remodelling the back court 3) Change of related characteristic of public space and private space.
For studying dwellings, it is essential to experience the place. Without this, it is hard to understand lifestyles, which are self-evident for the dwellers. Therefore, it may be presumed that there are 'default values' which are hard to be read from drawings. Setting our final purpose in generalizing these values as rules forming 'natural space', the aim of this paper is to investigate how to distill the values. To accomplish this, we analyzed Roji and Machiya in Kyoto as a case study and compared them by means of Space Syntax. As it turned out, a part of the values can be distilled by the spatial configuration analysis and the comparison revealed common rules and different tendencies. The analysis makes it possible to read the drawing from another viewpoint.
The purpose of this paper is to show the function of schools for next stage, and get the vision of spaces and school systems. Main results are as follows; 1) Primary function and advanced function are cleared. 2) There are three levels of school function. To improve the level, it is important for schools to realize the primary functions, to deepen the relationship with parents and community, and to communicate with them in daily life. 3) The spaces for realizing advanced function are lack now. We continue more analyzing the concrete problems of the spaces.
This paper describes the analysis of the sign planning in stations as the public space continuously from the previous paper. Factors in this research are compared with the following 5 surveys. 1. The transition of Law concerning of sign plan and guideline etc. 2. The questionnaires of sign plan to East Japan Railway Company and Tokyo Metro Co., Ltd., 3. The movement experiment in Tokyo Station premises of Tokyo Metro Co., Ltd by examinees. 4. The survey of installation form of the sign for movement and indoor advertising sign. 5. The type patterning of 40 areas.
In Japan, the vacancy rates of office buildings have been at high in big cities since 1992. This problem is especially acute in Tokyo, where over 2.27 million square meters of office floor area were oversupplied in 2003. On the other hand, people who prefer urban residence to suburban residence are increasing. In the central area of Tokyo, a lot of expensive condominiums are soled. Under these circumstances, it is expected that conversion of vacant office buildings into flats will be a good solution to regenerate redundant buildings although instances of conversion are still very few in Japan. In this paper, based on the field survey in Tokyo, the followings are discussed. Firstly, in order to identify issues of residential unit planning, existing office buildings are classified. Two kinds of classification are shown: The first classifies office buildings into four types by the size of typical floor and the second classifies them into five types by the situation of facing on streets. Secondly alterations of converting office buildings into flats are clarified in every type of office buildings. They are required to fix the gap between office use and residential use, and influence the profit of conversion project. Thirdly the change of rentable area is estimated, which is important to evaluate the profit. In many cases, the rentable area of converted flats will be less than office area because part of existing rentable space is changed into balcony and piping space. In conclusion, typical issues of conversion are summarized totally in every type of office buildings.
The purpose of this study was to establish the appropriate guidelines on homes with barriers such as steps and stairs. For this, an evaluating method of mechanical environment was proposed: a combined method of measurement of acceleration obtained by the small triaxial accelerometers attached on a human body and the perceptual test (Semantic Differential Method) with five pairs of adjectives. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, two different kinds of wheelchairs were employed in this study; 1) one with a caster to absorb the shock from bumping against the barriers 2) one without it. The findings are: 1) As the barrier became higher and the wheelchair speeded up, the acceleration was increased and the scores of the perceptual test were rated low. 2) The caster with a bumper successfully reduced the shock. 3) Measurement with the accelerometer was considered to be effective for the evaluation of mechanical environment in daily activities, although this research restricted only to barriers.
The purpose of this paper is to show how much influence the atmosphere of various street scapes has on the mental state of people. In order to clarify this, firstly a new terminology, 'the feeling of fluctuation,' is defined in this paper, and secondly, by using the term, the elements of various street scapes are analyzed in 'forms,' 'materials,' and 'fluctuation' through 'the semantic differential method.' As a result of this experiment, the strong distinction between modern street view and historical street view is observed. What is more, through factor analysis, seven factor axes can be found in 'form', while six psychological factor axes in 'materials.' Therefore, it is clear from the above that through the analysis from the viewpoint of the idea 'fluctuation,' the strong influence of townscape on human mind can be found.
This paper aims to clarify the following from the viewpoint of agriculture and trend toward farm households earning income from other jobs. 1) The formation factors of three-generation households. 2) Difference of changes in households composition for the elderly by difference of the factors. The conclusions are as follows. 1. The formation factors of three-generation households are farm households earning income from other jobs, urbanization, degree of secondary/tertiary industry, rice crop. 2.Trend to changes in households composition for the elderly are not different. However, changes in number of aged-couple households and aged-single-persons are different by difference of the factors.
Recently, environmental problems have been discussed as global theme. One of them, rebirth of SATOYAMA has been experimented in many regions to create idealistic relation between forest and sea in Japan. By the way, author has researched the SATOYAMA of the deciduous trees of Izu Peninsula and many problems are recognized in its results. In this report, relation between a situation of planting deciduous trees and the environment of the region has been described especially.
Our research points out that most of the temples in Tainan City are being used as community centers. It is considered that people in the community voluntarily conduct maintenances and contribute financial aid to the temples. In this paper, we research the characters of the management systems and financial aids from the side of the management groups, the budget and the groups of the worshipers. It is found that the management systems of Taoist temples vitalizes the gathering functions and the daily maintenance is aimed to attract not only the worshipers, but also more public visitors to come for leisure, which is supported by the sense of belonging to the temples, and also that the number of visitors who come for leisure is increased by its active operation postures.
The inner colony development system in Hokkaido through "Hokkaido Shokuminchi Sentei Hobun" and 'Land Adjustment Plan' at Tokachi-Koku region were analyzed on following 3 aspects. (1) the contents of "Hokkaido Shokuminchi Sentei Hobun" are not only the results of the selection of suitable sites for inner colony but also the inner colony development system, (2) this system consists of 4 strong points on 4 principal roads with view to connecting the interior and the seaside area, and the land adjustment project follows the policy of this system, (3) Obihiro civilized area created as the central strong point of development has the commercial city for public officials.
This paper aims to clarify practical use of former factories with peculiar appearance in a traditional craft city, Tokoname. The results are as follows: 1. Practical use of former factories with peculiar appearance is related to sale system, progress of city planning and tourism. 2. Former factories are variously used with store, work space and gallery. 3. Craftsmen use former factories for art and commerce.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the location characteristics of shrines included in the "Pictorial Record of the Shights in Japan Fukuoka Prefecture" and to acquire basic knowledge about the effective uses of such shrines as local resources. The geographical features and microtopography around the shrines were quantitatively analyzed and the locations were classified into seven categories-cape, seashore plain, inland plain, basin plain, basin highland, mountain periphery, and mountaintop. By analyzing descriptions of local landscapes in the pictorial record, the authors also clarified that shrines located at capes and on mountaintops are appreciated for their views, and that based on these location characteristics, locations commanding a view of the sea can be positioned as local resources.
This paper aims to clarify a possibility that a model of the civic center plan in Yamagata city by Michitsune Mishima in early Meiji was the Sapporo prefectural office plan. Tatsuyuki Usui who was a government employee in the Ministry of Hokkaido development had an opportunity to know the Sapporo prefectural office plan. It is quite likely that he who became a local government employee in the Yamagata Prefecture suggested a civic center plan in imitation of the Sapporo prefectural office plan, and Michitsune Mishima who trusted him accepted it as a governor of Yamagata Prefecture.
By the our past study, the Prefectures' landscape ordinances have been classified in 3types of the total development type which develops the hard measures and the soft measures for all of the Prefectures, the region limitative type which does them for the specified region in the Prefectures, and the idea active type does the soft measures mainly for all of the Prefectures. In this study, we've made the hearing for 12 Prefectures and 12 municipalities of the total development type which occupies the Prefectures more than the others. So we've surveyed the situation bearing the landscape administrative measures of the total development type's Prefectures by making clear not only the applying circumstances of the hard measures of the wide-landscape region, the landscape-forming district, the large-scale activities etc., the important landscape structure etc., and the soft measures of the enlightenment etc., the landscape-forming agreement, the landscape-forming group, the support etc., but also the Prefectures' role for the municipalities. There're the 3 roles in the landscape administrative measures of the total development type. "The wide region role" through the wide-landscape region and the enlightenment etc., and also "the leading role" through the large-scale activities etc. and the landscape-forming agreement except for the landscape-forming district, the important landscape structure etc. and the landscape-forming group, have been bom in many Prefectures. Besides "the promotive role" has been bom through the enlightenment etc. and the support etc. in a lot of Prefectures.
An important task of urban design is to provide an attractive environment in which both strangers and frequent visitors to a city may be stimulated into diverse pleasurable activities such as window-shopping and strolling. Past studies on the relationship between citizens' activities and visual information given by the environment, suggest that such studies can provide general guidance for urban design. Limiting subject of the study to observing the relationship between visual information and the behavior of people, the authors developed a prototype of an interactive visual simulation system in which one can virtually experience window-shopping and strolling activities in a specific area. It is an objective of this paper to assess the system as a tool for such studies.
The purpose of this study is to formulate routes and load of quest for objects based on visual information in urban space. First we defined signs, objects attached to buildings and articles on display as visual information and classified them into five categories. We assumed that finding out visual information of a category means finding out an object included in it and that we search visual information of the target object hierarchically in urban space. Secondly, we defined the probability of finding out objects by their visual information so as to formulate the routes and load of search for objects. The probability differs, if we remember signs and objects after we watch them once, from that if we do not. Consequently we formulate a mathematical model for determining the route of searching goods and the load of the search. Finally, we applied our model to the real urban space in Akihabara.
Itabashi Hittakuri Map (IHM), an information provision system about crime situation through WebGIS was developed to raise citizens' awareness about crime and help their action against crime in their neighborhoods. The result of the analysis of the questionnaire shows that they determine their attitude on IHM comparing its contribution to self-defense, necessity of information disclosure, and bad effects of it. It's suggested that information provision by media other than internet is also required and that other measures to help citizens' action against crime are necessary as well as information provision.
The present study is performed to clarify kinds, contents, expression elements of references of campus master plans. The campus master plans studied were from 42 universities in the U.S., Canada and Australia. The results were as follows; 1) References include drawings, photographs, sketches and tables.The contents of the references are historical documents, articles, geographic data, regional data, existing setting, analysis, concept, plan and details. The expression range of CMP are large regions, an university, an area, unit space, architecuture and the others. 2) References are used appropriately in accordance with the purposes. 3) Expression elements of references can be classified into 10 categories and 31 elements. 4) About 40% of the drawings display the periphery area of the campus.
Based on submitted comments and discussion in ISO/TC59/Sc17/W4, the paper discusses the requirements to the methods of environmental performance assessment to ensure comparability of results of assessment by different methods. It shows five categories of environmental issues of concern by stakeholders of building that could be involved as a basis of criteria of assessment methods. The paper identifies there exist significant differences in the scope of involves issues, because of regional based biases as well as technical feasibility. Respecting on interdependencies of those categories of environmental issues, the paper indicates structural analysis method using the idea of concept network diagram. The agreed and standardized diagram could be the first step to realize compatibilities. The paper emphasizes that the clear statement of system boundaries, setting assumptions and information source is also significant requirements to assure comparability of the different methods.
Recently, the elevator installation in the existing municipal apartment-house is increasing in Japan. This study investigates the increase of the house rent and common service expense by settling the elevator in the existing municipal apartment-house. On this investigation, it was known that situation of the burden of the house rent and common service expense had been different by the administration This study is aimed to know the burden of those and be good for making a decision of the expense share standard.
This study aims to investigate the change in residents and the succession of dwelling with the aging of suburban detached housing areas. We surveyed the residential area maps and the movement of middle aged and elderly dwellers on a housing area in Yokohama City. The paper discusses: 1) the relationship between change in residents and scale of houses; 2) the characteristics of the later life stage dwellers about the change in dwelling and the next housing selection; and 3) the patterns of succession of dwelling from aged family households to young family households and the factors in preventing the succession.
Shounji Kyakuden was built in 1593 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi to mourn over the death of his son Tsurumatsu. Buildings of Shounji were given to Chisyakuin temple in 1615. In 1682, the Kyakuden was burned down, except the panel paintings, which Chisyakuin still possesses, the Kyakuden was 36.0m by 23.1m in area and contains 6 rooms, decoratived with panel paintings drawned by color and gold. This study aims for identifying the original plan and the panel paintings of Shounji Kyakuden.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the origin and impact of a "Shinden-zu". This study suggests the drawing is very similar to a mid 17^<th> century residence of the Kujo-family. It is possible that Kozen refered to, or transcribed, parts of the residence's building plans when subsequently developing the "Shinden-zu" which was included in his "Inkyu-oyobi-shitei-zu". Sukehira Takatsukasa, the master of Takatsukasa-family, got the "Shinden-zu" from Kozen and built a new shinden in a Heian revivalistic style. This shinden also was a model for residences of other elite families which served as the emperor's regents. As a result the "Shinden-zu" may have had an important impact on the formation and popularization of the Heian revivalistic style of the shinden.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the designs of floor planning, of the North American-style (the 19th century) in Hokkaido; from 1873 to 1884. These styles were imported into Sapporo; through the employment by the Japanese national government, of American civil engineer (from New England). We researched and analyzed the process, which the Japanese artisans employed to design and construct the New England-style buildings, in Hokkaido. To summarize, New England-style houses (of Hokkaido), in the first-half of the Meiji era, had all the hallmarks of the original New England-styles of floor planning: the formation of the principal building and attached building, the rigid symmetry, the main axial entrance, and central corridor.
This paper describes the formal characteristic of Built tombs on each age and area with the aim of systematizing the Hellenistic tombs. In this paper the author categorizes the Hellenistic tombs into Built tomb, Rock-cut tomb, Tumulus, Mixed Construction and make a comparison among Built tombs. As a result from the viewpoint of use of the column on these wall characteristic of Built tombs on each age and area was clarified. And it was clarified that using the Greek order is a character of Built tomb of the Hellenistic age, too.
This study is the series of study on the spatial structure of settlements in Amami-ohsima. This paper aims to clarify the formation process and the background of the spatial order of the traditional houses in Amami-ohsima. Using restoring method of the present houses we examined on the arrangement of dwellingbuildings, the formation of plan and site of them. The summary of the result is as follows: The spatial order which forms the spatial structure of the houses is penetrating through inside and outside the houses and the settlements and has not undergone a large transformation since the Edo-period.
"Museum of Modern Art, Kamakura" designed by Junzo SAKAKURA is one of the most representative modern buildings in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the proportion by means of the analysis on the golden ratio and the geometry based on the design process. The methods of analysis are as follows: extraction of module, golden ratio and element of geometric figure. The paper shows that design of "Museum of Modern Art, Kamakura" was composed by various geometries through the analysis on Plane figure.
This series of study attempts to give proper position to "New Village" plan and development, which was planned by British Colonial Government for suppression of communist revolt after World War II in the history of Town Planning in Malaysia. "New Village" was considered as something like detention camps, miserable isolation and surveillance of Chinese squatters. However, referring to the contemporary governmental documents, it is clarified that there was a strong intension to build the new settled area of the country and form a revolutionary step forward in rural housing. This paper argues the intensions by the British, Chinese and Malay officers to this scheme, the process of emerging and taking shapes of visions of "New Village" and its present situation.
The townscape of Siena as late medieval city is produced by City Hall with other numerous private palaces. They show the standardized facades with ornamental elements unique to Siena. Before the diffusion of bricks, cavernoso limestone was the typical building material in Siena between 12^<th> - 13^<th> centuries and continuously used for tower-house that had had no ornamental element and also for elegant palaces such as Palazzo Tolomei. The study on the facades of cavernoso and its ornamental elements indicates the origin of the designed facade and its distribution on urban tissue shows the embryo of the Sienese townscape.
In this paper we examine the formation process of the spa town in modern ages, by doing the case study of the Atami spa, Shizuoka. This spa town had prospered since Edo period. But in modern ages, that growth and development was so late. In this respect, we presuppose the both peculiarity that had succeed to Edo period and the modernization, in the community and space structure. In this paper, we focus in the use right of hot spring (Yukabu), and study about the change of that characteristic.
The simulation model of evacuation behavior from tsunami is constructed utilizing Multi-Agent-System in this study. The validity of the simulation model is verified by applying it to the case of Aonae, Okushiri Island during the 1993 Southwest-off Hokkaido Earthquake. And results of some case studies on current Aonae show that the improvement of evacuating environment affects evacuation behavior greatly, and that moving speed and earlier starting of evacuation are important parameters to minimize total mortality and missing rate.