Past studies, including “Ken Yokoi: Fundamental Investigation of Evaluating Method of Safety in Building During Childcare” (2011), and “Mai Kanto: A fundamental study on living environment preparation for the life difficulty of a pregnant woman” (2004), have reported regarding accidents that occur during pregnancy and the difficulty in performing activities of daily living (ADL) but have not examined the causes of accidents. We first identified the types of accidents that occur during pregnancy and then examined the difficulties in performing ADL. Furthermore, to identify physical changes in pregnant women, we examined abdominal circumference (AC) and body weight. We also evaluated the relationship between physical changes and domestic accidents, as well as ADL, to clarify where accidents occur inside and outside of the home and how accidents can be attributed to physical changes. The survey included 490 women aged 20－44 years who were at 12 to 39 weeks' gestation. The women were categorized in seven groups at 4-week increments of pregnancy, with 70 women per group. Accidents experienced within 1 month of the survey date were considered. The main survey items were subject attributes (age, week of pregnancy, body weight, and AC). Thirty items were regarding difficulty in performing ADL (21 items for ADL performed at home and 9 for ADL performed outside of the home) and 50 items were regarding accidents (37 items for accidents occurring at home and 13 for those occurring out-side of the home). Our survey results revealed the following five findings.
1. The relationship among body weight changes, difficulty in performing ADL, and accidents experienced Women who gained more weight compared with their pre-pregnancy weight experienced a higher number of accidents or events predictive of accidents. However, no relationship was observed between difficulty in performing ADL and accidents experienced. 2. The relationship among AC change, difficulty in performing ADL, and accidents experienced As AC increased with the duration of pregnancy, the difficulty in performing ADL increased. However, although the rates of accidents and events predictive of accidents were high when AC was 80－89 cm (20－32 weeks' gestation), the rate of accident somewhat decreased as AC further increased. 3. Accident correlations For pregnant women who experienced accidents while “open and close the entrance door,” and “ascending/descending the front step,” as well as events predictive of accidents, other accidents could be predicted based on the details of such experiences owing to a marked correlation found with other accidents within the home. 4. Correlations with accidents according to changes in body weight and AC Again, women who gained more weight during pregnancy compared with their pre-pregnancy weight experienced a higher number of accidents or events predictive of accidents. As AC increased from 70－79 cm to 80－89 cm with the progression of pregnancy, the number of accidents increased, showing a strong correlation. However, as AC increased from 80－89 cm to 90－ cm, the number of accidents decreased. 5. Locations of accidents according to changes in body weight and AC Accidents that tend to occur as AC increases include “<Collide> Kitchen: Cook” and “<Collide> Outside: Walk in a crowd.” Therefore, accidents commonly occur in places where the abdomen is more likely to bump into objects. Furthermore, the fact that a large number of women experienced events predictive of accidents indicates that accidents tend to occur when performing ADL while standing, such as “<Trip and fall down/Fall on the rear> Bathroom: Wash hair and body (while standing).”
1. Introduction As a method of reorganizing public facilities, a method of making a complex by turning school vacant classrooms and thus making them community-cores is often presented. However, little has been studied about how to predict the amount of changing vacant classrooms and implement a reorganization plan. This study aim to present a method of reorganizing public facilities by forming a complex and thus implementing a community-core with multifunction by means of renovating vacant classrooms into social education facilities. Through a case study based on the actual situation of the target city, the possibility of reorganizing by turning into a community-core and a complex is confirmed, and its method is proposed and organized. Just as a reorganization plan is actually planned, a case study is conducted. Next, the case study proposals are compared and evaluated, and the effectiveness of the reorganization method proposed last is confirmed. 2. Evaluation of the existing facilities and estimation of the future demand Here, as an evaluation of the existing facilities, we grasp the situation of aging, grasp the seismic performance, grasp the facility placement, predict the demand of social education facilities from the future population estimation, and predict the demand of school facilities from the estimated future number of children and students 3. Setting the basic reorganization policy Based on the above, Table 5 is set as policies and examination conditions for reorganization. The facility relocation policy are explained below. · Since earthquake resistance of the schools has been confirmed, it is judged that all school buildings can be utilized. However, for school buildings that have exceeded their service lives, it is evaluated that they need repairing. · The area of a public hall and a library is designated a junior high school district, and one library and one public hall should be placed in each junior high school district. 4. Examination of the renovation model plan As shown in Fig. 8, the model plan is examined. (1) Based on the prediction of number of classes in each year, grasp the schools that can be converted to a complex, and also grasp the years when renovation can. (2) In each junior high school district, select the optimum one among all the possible combining patterns (Table 8). (3) Create a plan for the entire city area (plan A) that integrates the plans for all the junior high school districts and corrects the bias of the construction schedules. (4) Create plan B that grants the most accessible school an expansion. 5. Evaluation of the reorganization model Compare A, B, and the current arrangement (Table 13). Compared to others, plan A is better evaluated in terms of the number of times of construction, etc. Plan A has a facility with high usefulness as a base in three junior high school districts, but plan B has such a facility in five districts. Because of this, the evaluation of plan A is somewhat inferior to that of plan B. Proximity to public halls, plan A is inferior to the current situation. However, since 70% or more of the total are accessible with the distance of less than 1 km, it is judged as an acceptable range. 6. Disscussion We discussed about how this method can be used in other municipalities and financial evaluation. 7. Summary As a result: 1) It was shown that the reorganization of facilities is realized by making bases out of surplus space. 2) The examination procedure were organized and shown.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of wall and floor lightness on the perception of interior space under lighting from the ceiling surface. A series of psychological experiments were conducted to evaluate the four spatial parameters: magnitude values of volume, width, depth and height of interior space, using a one-tenth scale model of a room measuring 2.4 m in height and 4.5 m in width and depth. A luminous ceiling comprising a 2 mm polystyrene paper that transmitted light was included to maintain uniform interior illuminance. LED lamps were installed above the polystyrene paper. The average vertical illuminance level was approximately 60 lx. This experiment was conducted to compare results from the standard model with those from comparison model. The comparison model consisted of base and assort colours which means that one of surfaces (sidewall, opposed wall or floor) was painted in a colour different from other surfaces. The four achromatic colours used in this experiment were N9.5, N8, N6 and N3. A magnitude estimation method was applied to evaluate the four spatial parameters. The twenty subjects (15 women and 5 men) were asked to look into each model in turns through a viewing aperture in the rear wall and to compare the four spatial parameters of the comparison model with that of the standard model. The results can be summarized as follows. · The higher the base colour and assort colour lightness, the higher was the perception of the interior space. · As for the magnitude value of volume, when the lightness of base colour was higher than that of the assort colour, the magnitude value of the volume decreased. However, if floor was painted with an assort colour, this effect was blurred. On the other hand, when the lightness of the base colour was lower than one of the assort colour, the magnitude value of volume became increased. However, if the opposed wall painted with the assort colour, this effect was enhanced. On comparison with previous studies, these results turn out to be similar. However, there were a few differences in floor colour lightness effect. For example, the effect of extend to the model for the upper by floor colour lightness can't found, and floor colour lightness has significant in only magnitude value of depth.
The objective of this research is to propose an analysis method of cognitive map that is expressive of interaction between architectural/urban space and human beings, in order to consider a design method of Human-Environment System, a type of system in which all the elements (including human beings) continue to interact with each other. In order to analyze the cognitive map, which is invisible, sketch map is used as externalized drawing of the cognitive map, based on the past researches.
In this study, focusing on the meaning aspects of above-mentioned interactions, cognitive mapping process is
understood as thinking process through signs based on the concept of Semiosis proposed by C.S.Peirce, who was an
American semiotician. Therefore first of all, the cognitive map is modeled as a result from the interpretation of the
architectural signs which represent the architectural/urban space using the concept of “architectural sign”, “university area”, and “cognitive map” following Peirce’s concept of “sign”, “object”, and “interpretant”. Then the “co-occurrence” between two co-occurring architectural signs is understood as the relation between the “sign” and “object.” Then, the cooccurrence types of all architectural signs pairs are classified into three categories based on Peirce’s concepts of “icon,” “index,” and “symbol.” Focusing on the relation between “sign” and “object” is the same as focusing on the semantic polysemy of “sign”. Thus, through this classification we focus on the semantic polysemy of architectural signs.
On this basis, as preliminary study, “co-occurrency” of architectural signs is analyzed in order to understand semantic polysemy of architectural signs as follows.
Sketch map experiments are conducted in 2 campuses in the Université de Franche-Comté following the experiments methodology of the past research. Geographic information database of architectural signs is then created using GIS. Based on the names of architectural signs written on the sketch maps by students, each architectural sign gets each geographic information. As the first step of analysis, main drawn architectural signs which represent their university area are understood classifying the architectural signs based on their size, distance from the university, function, and so on.
Then using database, Jaccard indices of the pairs of architectural signs which drawn by at least 4 students are
calculated, and co-occurrency networks are structured based on the Jaccard indices. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between Jaccard indices and quantitative valuables which shows architectural signs characteristics (height, size, function, etc.) are also calculated. Based on these evaluations the co-occurrency of architectural signs are assessed and analyzed.
Through the analysis result, we found that architectural signs representing their university area differed depending
on the characteristics of their university area. For example, in “Center City” campus, various cultural or commercial
functions which are closely connected with our daily life represent the campus as “icon” or “symbol” of the campus. On the other hand, in “Bouloie” campus which is located far from the center city, such functions don’t work as architectural signs, but transportation functions represent the campus area. Through the analysis method presented here, we can analyze co-occurrence tendency of drawn elements on sketch
maps focusing on their semantic polysemy as architectural sign set, and then architectural signs which represent
architectural/urban area can be extracted. Then we show that the same architectural elements are analyzed as different meaning signs depending on from which meaning aspects we analyze, which indicates a way forward for presenting the method of quantitative evaluation of interaction between architectural/urban space and human beings considering the Human-Environment System design.
This study aims to understand how designers create dialogues with their collaborators in their creative design process. In the past growing society, the role of design was to increase the production speed and efficiency. In this background, researches on design methods has greatly developed since 1960's. However, design problems become more and more complicated in this contemporary society and new design methods are required beyond systematic design methods based on technical rationality. We are trying to explore the new design method under the framework of “designing through dialogue”, in which designers create a dialogue with various situations and develop their design flexibility.
In this paper, we aim to clarify how designers build a relationship with their collaborators and control their design process for activating a dialogue generating new ideas for architectural designing. In addition, we focus on a role of an individual design thinking in their creative design strategies for dialogical design.
Firstly, we conducted a design experiment, in which 16 architectural students participated. After that we analyzed the verbal protocols in their design process and extract key ideas for their design. Secondly, we constructed networks of the ideas they generated based on relations among design ideas and analyzed the networks using network analysis methods. In addition, we tried to grasp the relation between active thinking process and reference relationship using two indexes, the times of self- and other-reference as well as eigenvector centrality in the networks. As a result, we suggested the importance of individual thinking in designing through dialogue. Finally, we extracted the concrete verbal protocols in each teams' design process and considered design strategies for activating the individual design thinking and developing their dialogue process. Specific details are as follows.
1) Conscious development of self-thinking Through the analysis, we pointed out the importance of reading the characteristics and situations of the dialogue partner's thinking for developing self-thinking process generating new design ideas.
2) Development of design thinking based on the change of situation of the dialogue partner Also we found the strategy for making the partner generate new ideas by encouraging partner's thinking process actively. For example, they asked questions to the idea that the dialogue partner generated and had the partner share the situation of own thinking process.
3) Design thinking process developed complementarily Of course, self-thinking process is not always necessary to generate new design ideas. Therefore, we analyzed the design process of two teams expanding the idea complementarily. In the design processes, they always tried to build their consensus about the contents and policy of their design steadily by setting opportunities to share what they are thinking about.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the psychological and physiological effects of seismic ground waves depending on the character of the individual. The main results were summarized as follows. 1. An analysis of character evaluation showed that the elderly group who has the special quality different to seismic ground motion compared with a youth exists. 2. The elderly- male of "the stubborn type" and "the willful type" has a low price of the AC (the good degree of child). They get a stubbornness, bigotry and behavior on their concerned street , and they're agile, it tends to be low. 3. Many of "the stubborn type" and "the willful type" neither feels a scare to an earthquake nor feels anxiou about stronger shaking, and there is a possibility that they are thinking fire fighting can act appropriately. 4. An elderly- female generally tends to have the conscious special quality near the youth group in fact than an elderly- male. 5. An elderly- male has a high price of V (the energy) according to a POMS analysis. But an elderly- male tends to have a low price of the T-A (tension - anxiety), D (fatigue), A-H (anger-hostility), F (fatigue) and C (confusion) compared with a youth group. 6. The young- female is different from a male in a sensuous face. To seismic ground motion, "of shaking, hard" "of sense time, long" "of a scare, hard", it was admitted by them to tend to feel.
The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the living environments in neighborhood spaces (living environments based on the principle of normalization) from a variety of resident perspectives and, based on the results, to identify the future role and direction of shopping streets. The basic knowledge obtained in this study can be used to develop a systematic methodology for creating good spaces and functional distributions and so on that will allow those engaged in activities to play a leading role in future urban planning in neighborhood spaces. The study consisted primarily of a comparison of operator consciousness and activity characteristics, based on the interrelationships of people, activities and spaces. The following basic knowledge was obtained through the study.
1) From the standpoint of the stores and offices being operated, there was a connection between (a) activities related to the measures taken in the store to provide easy access for the elderly and physically disabled and the efforts in the area around the store and (b) the operator consciousness toward revitalization of the shopping street. 2) From the standpoint of the relational aspect of the shopping street as a whole, there was a connection between activities in the shopping street that also included promoting interchange in the community as a whole and operator consciousness toward revitalization of the shopping street and the degree of satisfaction with the shopping street. Moreover, based on a comparison of operator consciousness and activity characteristics: 3) In terms of “people,” operators with an awareness of use by users other than regular customer persons and able-bodied persons tended to be engaged in various activities in one's own store and the shopping street. 4) In terms of “activities,” operators with a low level of interest in future measures to provide easy access for the elderly and physically disabled also tended to be unmotivated with regard to current activities. 5) In terms of “space,” operators with an awareness of barriers at other stores were implementing measures to provide easy access for the elderly and physically disabled at their own stores, and operators with an awareness of barriers in the shopping street as a whole tended to be engaged in activities within the shopping street and local community and activities to revitalize the shopping street. This indicates a connection between awareness and activity. 6) A comparison of activity characteristics and operator consciousness with regard to shopping streets revealed that concerns regarding stimulation and overall degree of satisfaction were related to the aspects of the store or office being operated and the relational aspects pertaining to the shopping street as a whole.
In particular, this study revealed that there is a correlation between activity characteristics and operator consciousness toward people, activities and spaces. Conversely, the results obtained from the study did not provide support for a cause-and-effect relationship between operator consciousness and activity characteristics. Continued research will be needed in the future in order to organize the trends in operator consciousness and activity characteristics, and to conduct a factor analysis. Moreover, the author intends to conduct a study of the actual situation and the consciousness of shopping street users, for the purpose of more deeply verifying the sustainability of living environments from the standpoint of diverse residents.
This study aims to clarify the key factor for community development at isolated small fishing community. The site of small fishing village locates in the narrow land which is surrounded in a steep mountain and open in the Pacific Ocean. Izari school (juxtaposition school in the elementary and junior high school) which has be a core of a community was hit by a crisis of the closing school by the reason of decrease of number of children in 1990s. From that times community development for the continuation of school and the revitalization of Izari village has begun by residents, teachers and local government. Activity to accept the childen of the urban aria as a foreign student has begun in 1999. The number of enrolled pupils of the Izari school and the population of the district has increased by the revitalization of village and the acceptance of children form the urban aria. The background which characteristic community improvements in the Izari district advanced has be the combination-related strength of the fishing village and school of the district. Finally, the following became clear. The key points for community development are formed from the three factors, the recognition of local issue and sharing of it, the issue solution type organization, the functional operation of organization. (1) The recognition of local issue and sharing of it By tradition in the izari village, there has be consciousness to bring up children by the whole village people cooperation with the school. Meetings to thoroughly discuss the problem of the district between the whole inhabitants with the closedown problem of the Izari school have be opened. From the meetings, inhabitants have arrived at the issue discovery type event. That event has brought big result and clarified the concrete problem that should be settled. After that event, arguments were repeated more. As a result, the problem is not merely a problem only for the school continuation, and the recognition which is the important problem about society, economy of district's future beyond personal interest, have be shared in the whole district. (2) The issue solution type organization In April, 2000, "a promotion meeting to think about the future of Izari" by all inhabitants has be organized for the continuation of the schools and community development. All inhabitants have participated from a child to the elderly, and have be born as a new issue solution type organization not to be seized with convention and the weir of the existing organization. (3) The administration of issue solution type organization As for the administration of the organization, a generous policy has be carried through in consideration for the independence of the member. It is tolerant, and what all inhabitants can enjoy has becomed basic. (4) Result of the community development The number of children have increased by activity of the studying in fishing village, and the number of pupils of the Izari school exceeds 20 in 2004. The unoccupied house repair business for immigrants have advanced. The district population was restored by 124 people in 2006, too. A result, the issue of Izari school closedown have be dissolved. In 2007, Izari cafe of the sightseeing accommodations have been built, and Izari has come to be recognized for seeing the sights widely.
This paper discusses choice sets in consumer behavior. We have many works analyzing individual choice behavior. These objectives are path choice, household choice, commercial area choice and so forth. Almost all these works take the way that is to express choice behaviors as a mathematical model to analyze and most works assume individuals with the complete information. The assumption of the complete information is the precondition that all individuals have all information about alternatives and relates deeply to individual choice set. In case that there are a large number of decision-makers and alternatives in the area applied the model, the larger size of the area, the larger size of choice set of decision-maker, the assumption, that is decision-maker with complete information, is not valid and gets unreal. There are two ways to consider choice sets in previous papers. The first is the way to determine sets a priori and the next is the probabilistic approach. These approaches are considered multi-steps choice structure. That is the choice an alternative from subset continued from the choice a subset from the set of subsets. The deterministic approach considers that the choice set is consist of available alternatives that the decision makers consider actually. There are a few considerations in terms of the methodology of generation of choice set in the papers that take its approach. The another approach is that the choice probability derives from the joint probability that the choice probability of alternative and subset. There is the representative model that is the Nested Logit model described in Ben-Akiva(1985). The choice sets in the NL model are considered similarity in alternatives in the master choice set therefore it is the subset characterized by similarity. It assumes the individuals with the complete information. In this paper, in the sake of applying the consumer behavior model to a large area such as Tokyo, we at first propose the choice set generation methodology that is deterministic and a priori sets and extend the previous model. The methodology defines the scale of commercial area and distance. The next, we apply the models on Tokyo area and calibrate the models statistically. Then, we assess the proposed model comparing the previous model. Finally, we discuss the distribution of the attractiveness of the choice sets in Tokyo area using the calibrated parameters.
Former DDR cities in Germany have experienced a tremendous population decline since the unification of the country in 1990. This phenomenon was seen in most cities of former DDR, but more manifested in planned industrial cities during socialist era. The loss of population in these planned industrial cities has created not only the loss of economic vitality and social cohesion but also the increase of vacant housing. The vacant housings were more prominent in Plattenbauten (prefabricated large apartment complex that was constructed in DDR era) built in fringes of the cities. To mitigate the problems associated with vacant housings, some former DDR cities of Germany have begun to dismantle the Plattenbauten. This action has been supported by federal government of Germany with its affluent subsidy program called Stadtumbau Ost enacted in 2002. This paper tries to clarify how the dismantling procedure was executed, especially the selection process of the dismantling buildings, and the idea behind it from an urban planning context. The paper focused on city of Hoyerswerda, one of the above mentioned planned industrial cities as a case study. Hoyerswerda is the city in State Saxony who has experienced a loss of population after reunification that resulted in an abundance of vacancy housing in Plattenbauten. The city dismantled 8291 housing from 1990 to 2011 to remedy the situation. To achieve the research objective mentioned above, the author has conducted a series of literature surveys and interview surveys to whom engaged in the actual policy along with a field study of the site to observe how the policy has executed. The research found out that the selection of building to dismantle was decided from two perspectives: city-wide scale and neighborhood scale. The objective of dismantling plan for city wide scale was to save the urban core by demolishing Plattenbauten in fringe of the city. Its idea was articulated in city documented reports: Urban Design Concept Plan (1999); InSEK I (2003); and InSEK II (2008). The research found that this objective was accomplished according to the plan. The objective of dismantling plan for neighborhood scale was more case specific. Urban Design Concept Plan suggested detailed criteria, such as putting emphasis on whether the vacant land after demolition would create new benefits to the surrounding area or not. The new benefits that the report suggested were lower density, quality of landscape, scale of buildings. However, the later published InSEKs do not articulate specific criteria since stakeholders such as bank have begun to influence the decision. The research provided the selection of demolition building procedure in diagram as its result.
“Transfer of development right (TDR)” has been considered as an important institution for the urban regeneration since recently. The TDR system is first released in 1990 in Taipei city. Today, there are many TDR institutions in Taipei, Taiwan. The important point is that all of them could be utilized overall the Taipei city, so the integrity between TDR and existing urban plan is important. We focus on the TDR institution for conservation of historical district in Dihua Street (DS), Taipei city, Taiwan. Previous studies have revealed the basic system and its historical background of the establishment of this institution. This study focuses on the analysis of the characteristic of sending site as well as receiving site of DS-TDR form the view of urban plan. Besides, we also analyze the meaning of the latest detail plan (revised) which is released Jun. 2016. We estimate the achievement of DS-TDR from both the view of sending site and receiving site based on the latest data. We consider that bias of the amount of receiving site exists, most receiving sites are located in Zhongshan district. What' more, although Datong district is also designated as the priority area for receiving site, there are only few cases as a matter of fact. The integrity between DS-TDR and existing urban plan is secured by the double-deliberation system of Taipei city urban regeneration committee and Taipei city urban design committee, TDR can still give impact to the nearby environment of receiving site. It will be a solution to integrate DS-TDR into the new type of urban plan TDR: Floor area bank. Actually, it is proposed as an article in the latest detail plan (revised) in 2016, however the residents of Dihua Street are still fighting against that. Based on our estimation of macro level about the integrity between urban plan and DS-TDR, we consider that the preservation is successful from the view point of sending site. On the other hand, the achievement of designated receiving site is not effective from the view point of receiving site. Besides, we consider although the preservation is successful and those historical building is now revitalized as community space, a huge amount is provided as the reward for it based on our estimation of micro level about the integrity between urban plan and DS-TDR.
“Machidukuri Katteren” (hereinafter referred to as MK) is defined as an entity participating in community development activities for subject area from disinterested standpoint. The objective of this study is verification of effectiveness of MK activities through understanding of the factors driving the activities, via examination of roles and cooperation methods of various participating entities of the community development activities in the case of Sankyubashisuji, Osaka. In this study, community development activities in Sankyubashisuji were chronologically examined by activity records for overall picture, while organizing those various participating entities. Total of 16 entities were roughly categorized into three groups: (1) “entities not located along the street” including four aforementioned “MK” and two “entities that donated gas lamps”; (2) “entities located along the street” including three entities deeply involved in the activities, and five entities of “companies/stores other than the above mentioned” and “local entities/community associations”; and (3) five “public entities” included the “Urban Renaissance Agency”, “Osaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry”, “Osaka City Chuo Ward Office”, “Osaka City Urban Redevelopment Bureau”, and “Osaka City Construction Bureau”. In the next step, nine major activities were extracted. For each activity, diagram was prepared to illustrate the approach of each entity for participating in activities at two time periods as “initiation period” and “vigorous activity period”. Interpreting “changes of the participating entity number” and “changes in standpoint of each entity” from the diagram, five points were revealed: (1) participating entities increased as the project progressed, (2) the leading entity changed as the project progressed, (3) the entity taking initiative changed over time from 2000 to 2014, (4) participating entities increased over time from 2000 to 2014, and (5) the degree of MK participation changed over time from 2000 to 2014. Therefore, the study revealed that the role of MK was as the first entities to take action in Sankyubashisuji when there were no community development activities, that all activities in the early phases were led by MK, and that later there were activities led by other entities as MK activities spread to involve other entities. Hence it can be said that MK played the role of creating a trigger, connecting with other entities to pass it on in the course of Sankyubashisuji community development activities. In order to verify the above, a hearing survey was conducted from April to June 2016, with 16 people from each entity (6 from the entities not located along Sankyubashisuji street , 5 from the entities located along the street, and 5 from the public entities). The survey asked about the role, evaluation, and necessity of MK and clarified that in Sankyubashisuji community development activities: (1) MK functioned effectively as they played the role of creating a trigger, connecting with other entities to pass it on; (2) MK, a key factor of the activities, had functions of “consulting”, “taking action”, “taking risks”, “acting with business sense”, “human networking”, “communicator”, and “cooperation”; and (3) MK had characteristics of “neutrality/externality”, “reliability”, “modesty”, “responsibility”, and “cooperativeness” in order to exert its functions.
In recent years, municipalities have various problems. Meanwhile, collaborative activities to utilize universities to revitalize the region have come to be carried out. It is expected that university students and faculty members work on regional problems to revitalize the community and develop human resources active in the region. Many of the current collaborative activities mainly are fieldwork, and these can be obtained local unique information and concrete awareness by actually experiencing the site. In addition, continued discussion between universities and municipalities after fieldwork can be expected to further increase the effect of collaborative activities. On the other hand, we have been developing consensus support system by using web technology. The system supports discussion of users who are temporally and spatially separated. This study conduct experiment in which students and civil servants discuss on the Internet using the support system. The objective of this study is to clarify effectiveness and issues of the experiment. The experiment was examined by utilization situation of support system, impression evaluation of the areas, evaluation of experiment, and hearing survey. The results are as follows. Table4 and Fig. 8 show the number of posts and views and their transition. We found that about half of participants only viewed the discussion without posting, while the discussion was continuously activated until the end of the discussion. Table5 shows the proposals summarized by discussion among participants. I found that concrete proposals were finally made in the discussion using the support system. Table6, 7 shows results of the impression evaluation of areas before and after the discussion. We found that there were no change in “areas the students want to live in” and “areas students wanted to go out”. Table8, 9 and Fig. 9, 10 show results of the evaluation of experiment by students and civil servants. In addition, Table11 shows results of the hearing survey with civil servants. We cleared that it is effective for learning of students and opinion collection of civil servants.
This article aims at developing a method to analyze the location potential distribution of retail stores, formed by population distribution and major road, and analyzes a case with a bypass in a local city to circumvent the urban area. Along major roads in suburban areas of local cities locate roadside shops targeting automobile users. Many of these roads are bypasses prepared to accommodate the increase in traffic due to the spread of automobiles by circumventing the urban area. The impact of the bypasses on the location of commercial facilities has been huge. Therefore, this article explored the location of commercial facilities, especially retail stores in local cities, from the viewpoint of the relationship between the size and shape of the urban area and the bypass around it. This article defines the location potential distribution of the retail stores as follows. The use behavior of retail store is classified into the one from the residences of the urban residents, the one when passing the bypass, and the one when moving from the city to the outside passing along the old road. The sum of the distributions of these three types of use behaviors is called the location potential distribution of the retail stores. Using this, the distribution of retail stores is analyzed by the following three phases. First, this study formulated the potential using the normal distribution, and applied it to Tateyama City in Chiba Prefecture. The results showed that the traffic and the area of the densely inhabited districts of the census were selected as explanatory variables that can reproduce retail store distribution with high precision. This means that not only the population distribution but also the traffic volume affects the distribution of the retail stores. The fact that in 2007 the area of the densely inhabited districts of 1960 was selected as an explanatory variable implies that even in 2007, when motorization has progressed, both the use behavior by walk and that by private cars influenced the distribution of retail stores. Next, analysis on simple urban models showed that the place where the retail stores are most likely to be located can be classified into three places depending on various conditions of the city, that is, in the center of the city, near the entrance of the urban area and the bypass midpoint. When the traffic volume of the bypass is small compared to that of the old road and the urban area size, the city center is the most likely location. If the traffic on the bypass compared to the urban area size is large, the vicinity of the entrance of the urban area is the most likely location. When the urban area is slender, the location potential diffuses and the retail stores may be more likely to locate at the entrance of the urban area than the city center. Furthermore, as the urban area expands, retail stores are more likely to locate in the city center. These results show that in cities where traffic volume responds to the urban area size the stores are located in the city center, and in cities with higher traffic volume on the bypass than in the city center they tend to locate in other areas than the center. Finally, the simple urban models were compared with Tateyama city. The number of employees corresponds to the model where the retail facilities are located at the entrance of the urban area. These results suggested the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The author demonstrated a new evaluation method of construction workers' activity sequence.
Chapter 2 describes the previous works in the field of work study in Japan. Analyzes of activities at construction sites in Japan originally started in 1960s and these methods were compiled into “Recommended Practice for Method Improvement on Construction Work” (AIJ, 1990).
Chapter 3 describes the actions at construction sites. The sequence of construction can be regarded as the sum of the sequences of each parts transportation. So the author classified the worker action to nine categories, these are ‘Insert’, ‘Remove’, ‘Arts’, ‘Walk’, ‘Get’, ‘Carry’, ‘Place’, ‘Stay’, and ‘KAKUNIN’, based on the change of condition (e.g. rotation, position, shape, and finishing).
Chapter 4 describes the method to record action categories. The author describes new datasets named ‘Action Array’. It is an array of capital letters of action categories which was captured in construction activity on 1Hz. The author focused on methods in genetics (e.g. transcription and translation in the Central dogma of molecular biology) for solving the problem on translation from capturing data to sequence information.
Chapter 5 explains the flow of calculation of ‘Smoothness’ of Action Array and ‘Similarity’ between pairs of Action Array. The proposed method needs compression of action array, which is a step for shorten consecutive letters. Smoothness is a ratio of sum length of ‘Action Set’ to the length of Compressed Action Array. Action Set means some words which are repeatedly shown in compressed action array. The author classified 7 standard types and 22 derivative types. Similarity is a ratio of the Levenshtein distance to the average length of pair of compressed action array.
Chapter 6 presents the verification of the proposed method by test calculation using sample data which was captured in the experimental construction of scaffoldings. The author got 88 action arrays from the experimental construction and calculated 88 smoothness score and 3916 similarity score. Some results of analysis were shown in chapter 6.
1. Introduction In building construction, large varieties and tremendous amounts of materials are required. Important planning items to be considered in construction planning include methods of logistic activities (carrying-in, elevating, and transporting), the capacity of construction equipment, scheduling, and the locations and areas of the stock yard for materials. The author's previous paper discussed the methods for representing activity-oriented models such as assembling, installation, and demolition works at a construction site, as well as calculation methodologies for simulation. This paper discussed the method for representing logistics-oriented models such as the activities of carrying-in, elevating, transporting of materials, and carrying-out of waste materials. The author verified the validity of the simulation results based on case studies.
2. Components at a construction site When classifying logistics at a construction site, the following three aspects should be considered: (1) the condition of components, (2) the location for unloading components from carts and for unwrapping packages, and (3) the generation of wastes from activities using the materials. Activities for logistics include (1) carrying-in to a site, (2) loading to an elevator, (3) elevating, (4) unloading from an elevator, (5) unloading from a cart, (6) unwrapping a package, (7) transporting to an activity area, and (8) carrying-out of empty carts and wastes from a site.
3. Outlines of methodologies for representing activity-oriented work models The author shows methodologies for representing and simulating activity-oriented work models discussed in the previous paper.
3. Methodologies for representing logistics-oriented models The above-mentioned logistic activities are modeled based on the work models discussed in the previous paper. For logistics -oriented models, the author creates scripts with various functions to simulate the logistics handling materials at a site. This paper also discussed the representing methods using graph structures and scripts, as to model both constraints of volume in stock area, and the movements of an elevator in detail. The material carrying-in schedules should be decided according to the start dates of each installing work. This paper clarified that the material carrying-in schedule can be obtained through several repeated simulations.
4. Application to a construction project In a case study of the methodologies discussed in this paper, work models are created assuming the logistics of interior works for an apartment house. Simulation is carried out at 0.5 minute intervals. An apartment house is 9-stories high with 8 dwellings on each floor (from second to ninth floor), so it has 64 dwellings in total. There are 15 logistic works and 10 interior finishing works. Logistic works are done for each materials, and interior finishing works are done for 64 dwellings. Therefore, the number of works re aches about 900 activities as a whole. Based on the results of simulations, together with the movements of an elevator, detailed time schedules from carrying-in to installation of materials, and time schedules of whole construction works, the author verified that this simulation can reproduce the progress of logistics at a site accurately.
6. Conclusion This paper verified that the progresses of logistic activities are reproduced accurately with the proposed simulation models and the simulations.
This paper presents a numerical model in order to consider counter measures for vacant dwellings from the point of view of comprehensive housing stock management. This model gave 2 “statuses” to “housing stock” as aggregate. One is “housing” (means house in use), the other is “Vacant” (not in use).And it set 3 “variations” between “housing” and “vacant”. One is the change of status called “state variation” (“housing stock → vacant” or “vacant → housing stock”). Another is the unchanging status “stay”. The other is “lost” means housing demolished. Taking particular note of these “status” and “variation” makes it possible to grasp the detailed situation and consider to the concrete counter measures every few years, region by region. Analysis using this model shows following facts: 1) By grasping the dynamics of housing stock about whole of country over time, the paper points the declining rate of lost housing stock, the slowing rate of demolished housing stock with new construction and the increasing rate of continued existence housing stock. These may disturb the “updating of housing stock”, and that may cause the problems of vacant dwellings. 2) Looking at updating of housing stock by type of vacant dwelling, it become slower in relations between “other vacant dwelling” and “owned house”, and it seems to be kept in constant level between “vacant dwelling for rent or sale” and “rented house”. The housing stock lost rate of the former decrease widely, and the rate of latter become slower moderately. This can show the possibility that “rented house” become “other vacant dwelling.” This kind of apparition of vacant dwelling is less common previously, a new countermeasure is required considering the way to demolish complex housings. 3) On the basis of transition trend of housing stocks, areas (including whole country, prefectures and municipalities) have been classified as following 4 groups:  Group is comparatively under stable situation.  Group where there may be a growing potential need for handling vacant dwellings problems.  Group demands urgent attention for a rapid pace of state variation from housing to vacant.  Group which scale of housing stocks become smaller. 4) Analyses based on 3) make clear that areas where have much existing vacant dwellings require appropriate response because there is a tendency of raising “potential vacant dwelling” , and areas whose scale of housing stocks become smaller needs comprehensive measures including aging and declining population. 5) Quantitative analyses of housing stocks movement show that it is seen in municipalities where have much “existing” and “potential” vacant dwellings, there are huge increase of vacant dwellings. And analyses in case that transition trends change show that raising the proportion of “lost” is effective for control the future rapid increase of vacant dwellings.
In the post-earthquake renovation of the Nihonbashi Mitsukoshi Main Store Building, changes were made in the floor and space usage plans to eliminate the financial burden of improving earthquake resistance and disaster prevention. The building plan for the Nihonbashi Mitsukoshi Main Store Building is reexamined depending on the compatibility between disaster prevention and profitability meant for the construction of large urban departmental stores. The methods selected in the Mitsukoshi case had a considerable influence on the way in which departmental stores were built in subsequent years.
The content analyzed in the article can be summarized into the following five points: 1)Minimization of open-ceiling space and enlargement of floor space by extending and reconstructing the upper floors. 2)As the method of removing footwear upon entering the building was abandoned, there was (1) diversification of entrance and exit locations, (2) consolidation of reception space, and (3) enhancement of show windows. 3) As the method of removing footwear upon entering the building was abandoned, liberalization of in-store flow lines, and the securing of flexibility for the sales space. 4) Enhancement of customer facilities and refinement of floor-by-floor functional configurations.
During the renovation work that followed the Great Kantō Earthquake, although the size of the store itself remained unchanged, significant changes were made to the building plan. This trial-and-error process, which sought to balance profitability with earthquake resistance and disaster prevention when proceeding for the renovation, can be reevaluated as a case having a significant influence on how departmental stores were to be built as departmental stores in Japan became popularized, large-scale and high-rise.
Till date, evaluation on the novelty and value of the Nihonbashi Mitsukoshi Main Store Building has been focused on the time of its establishment in 1914, when full-scale departmental store architecture was built in the departmental store industry as a pioneer. However, one may suggest that significance lies in the fact that the prototype for building plans with management methods of modern departmental stores targeting the general public was formed instead of those used in kimono stores in Japan. Such formation made significant progress as a landmark when the renovation work following the Great Kantō Earthquake was completed in 1927.
The ATBAT (Atelier des Bâtisseurs), probably best known as the architectural design office of Le Corbusier that realized the Unité d'habitation of Marseille, was not solely Le Corbusier's main place of activity; many architects and engineers from various origins attempted to produce their own planning theory through activities all over the world. Assuming the ATBAT is an international exchange organization, this research will clarify how its key members joined it, what they learned about the related area through cooperation both within and outside of the ATBAT, and how they finally became independent from Le Corbusier. Unknown previous experiences of the key members, who later became important architects and urban planners, are historically clarified. The result of this historical research will be meaningful for future studies examining the ATBAT's planning theory from the cultural and regional viewpoints. The overall picture of the ATBAT, which has been an object of much praise, criticism, and reassignment from members, is complicated. In this research, four key members who represent the international exchange at the ATBAT are chosen and the background of their participation and collaboration with the ATBAT is clarified. The key members are Vladimir Bodiansky, George Candilis, Gérald Hanning, and Gyoji Banshoya. The contents of their exchanges, including points of opposition among them, will be examined by analyzing primary materials, such as their letters, business records, autobiographies, planning documents, and magazine articles, to clarify the history of the ATBAT's organizational transformation. In contrast, in this research, I will not examine the content of their plans; my consideration is limited to the simple facts of the members' footprints by studying the remaining documents and records. This research aims to clarify the history of the ATBAT organization as this aspect has not been systematically treated in previous studies in which planning-theory research was the main focus. Based on the participation process of the key members and the work experience in the Unité d'habitation of Marseille, the history of the formation and transformation of the initial ATBAT was clarified. In the formation process, the key members worked for the creation of the CSTB, associated with the Syrian–Lebanese expert Michel Ecochard who could deal with historical urban spaces and modernism very well, and worked with the United Nations and the MRU. All their works can be regarded as international exchange activities in the ATBAT that were created for promoting the reconstruction of war-damaged France. The organizational change of the ATBAT can be understood in the era of industrialization wherein architects and engineers were divided according to their specializations. Furthermore, Le Corbusier was a highly successful architect of the Unité d'habitation. In other words, the friendly relation between Le Corbusier and the ATBAT members at the beginning of the formation rapidly changed, and the engineers were adopted by the architects to work at a disadvantage. Therefore, the talented ATBAT members who had contributed to the project in Marseille had to explore their own path. Hanning willingly left Le Corbusier. Candilis was ambitious enough to be an architect himself. Bodiansky began pursuing an independent career as a consultant engineer. Since then, the ATBAT underwent a further major change, but its trigger was brought about by the work experience of the Unité d'habitation of Marseille, which is still a symbol of the era.
This is a trial study of analyzing the space of the sea, which was indispensable for the port city in early modern Japan. With historical documents and reconstructive maps, this study elucidates the activity of the port managers of Kanagawa in the bay, where ships can anchor safely since medieval period. As a premise, this presents two historical facts. First, the executive council of diplomacy of Tokugawa shogunate grasped the whole area around the bay including several towns and villages as one region for regulating the trade. Second, 80 years before the opening of the port of Yokohama, the port managers demanded to change the location of stakes driven in the sea for remaining the area for anchoring. This indicates that the territory of the port managers included the sea not only their house, estates and unloading places. The drawing attached to the document which depicts the bay of Kanagawa including Yokohama village suggest their spatial interest. The main analysis of this thesis is about the tactical activity of the port managers around the opening of the international port city of Yokohama, which newly developed on the opposite side of the bay of Kanagawa in the middle of the 19th century. They tried to handle even the commodities (especially goods for daily use) carried to the city of Yokohama or for international trading. First, they tried to grasp the right to handle the commodities from Osaka, which had not been permit to them. Second, they approached the administrators of Tokushima domain and Ako domain where huge amount of salt was produced and proposed handling their produce carried to the bay of Kanagawa. The demand of daily necessities should have increased because of development of Yokohama and it seems to have been exactly the chance of expansion of business for the port managers. These activities of the port manager were evidence of the prosperity of the port of Kanagawa. In addition, this thesis present the hypothesis that the petition for change of the location of stakes with the drawing was roots of these activities. The port managers seem to have claimed the bay of Kanagawa as their territory which was necessary for reception of ships from all around Japan. Coupled with the regional administration all around the bay, they tried to enlarge the territory to the vast area including Yokohama. In early Meiji period, the port managers opened the business of handling the commodities in the city of Yokohama. One of the cru of that seems to be the built of reclaimed land and railroad from Yokohama to Kanagawa (towards Tokyo) which destroyed the estates and unloading place in Kanagawa. But we can find the ambition to expand their business because they had petitioned the government for the opening of that business in 1868 before the built of the railway. Focusing on the activities of the port managers in the bay of Kanagawa, we can find that the space of the sea became obvious and developed through the intervention such as stakes, regional administration and the birth of the city of Yokohama.
Visual programming has quickly become widely used tool for algorithmic design in the past several years. Because the contents of visual programming are easy to understand and intuitive, it is also leveraged for describing design process. On the other hand, the authors studied 3D based knowledge representation for traditional wooden architecture or wooden skeleton structures houses. In previous studies, detailed 3D models could be created using parametric part classes which were defined with text programming; however, contents in the part classes were complicated and unsuitable for sharing as knowledge, challenging the requirement that the part classes and parts structure should be represented clearly. In this paper, the authors attempt the executable graphical representation of building system for traditional tokyo-bu by using visual programming. Through the development of a visual programming system, multiple ways of representation are considered. Representation methods with visual programming are studied based on two themes: part class including design method and parts structure. In the study of design method, eight types of components are defined: parameter, variable, vertex, segment, plane, solid, process and func. The components are similar to a craftsman's work. Process components include sawing and chiseling by subtracting solids from a solid. Func components imply drawing practices such as drawing perpendicular bisector or solving intersection of two lines. By using the components and directed connectors which have an entry sequence, the design method for masu and hijiki are descripted graphically. The design method has some inputs for parametric forming. To represent systematized proportionality relations which are typified as kiwari, a base of part class comprises two kinds of information, design method, and its inputs, which are described with parameters and variables. By this composition, part classes for masu, which are based some traditional drafting rules, are represented as organized diagrams. A base of part classes for hijiki, which are based on traditional rules called kansatsu, is also represented. Parts structure based on part classes in the preceding section results in a complex diagram. Many components and connecters are employed for describing the location of each part. It is shown that mistakable redundant description, such as a redefinition of a variable. To solve this issue, the authors incorporate a technique called scene graph. Scene graph is a technique for creating a tree-structured 3D scene. The technique establishes a Parent-child relation, which makes a tree-structure containing relative attitudes and the locations of each part that are calculated by pursuing relations. Relative attitudes to connectible parts type are added to the description of the part classes. Finally, the part class is represented with three kinds of information, design method, its inputs, and contestability. The behavior of a part will be represented by the part class. With these part classes, part structures of tokyo-bu are represented clearly. The representation shows a formal order for dimensions of parts. Connections of each part also illustrate its assembly. Processing systems for visual programming are also shown. It makes the graphical representation executable. The system consists of a visual programming editor, database, for managing components and connectors in editor, and interpreter to convert visual programming into executable scripts. The authors conclude that the part class, including the design method, and the parts structure is clearly represented through visual programming. Executable graphical description with visual programming could be used for knowledge representation for building system.