Japanese architect Yoshiji Takehara, has completed lots of architecture projects, especially in the field of housing, mainly in Kansai area. There are also lots of great dwelling practices like Kindergarten and elderly housing. Thus, he is considered as the master architect in housing design. Since 1980th, he has got significant attention because that his works are published on variety of Japanese architecture magazines more than 100 times.
This productive architect, keeps capturing attention for decades. After analyzing his works, the author capture its features. The most important one is the arrangement of approach. For example, in his works, by bending the approach flow, it makes approach tortuous and ambiguous. This kind of study is important when analysis design method of detached house. So far, the studies about the relationship between inner and outer space of Japanese detached house are almost all focus on the position relationships or connecting method between both space. Nearly no study about the house approach's method have been found. Therefore, this study focuses on analyzing the approach space design method in Yoshiji Takehara's detached house works.
The cases of this study are 78 detached house works designed by Yoshiji Takehara, which are published on main architecture magazines with adequate study material.
Based on the study for Yoshiji Takehara's words and the result of interview with him, this paper summarizes the keywords for Yoshiji Rakehara's approach design method and concludes the items to be analyzed. Those items are: the design intention of approach which is obtained from his comment of his works, the classification for approach layout, the regression analysis for the approach data, the space composition of approach and its variation, the comprehensive analysis of the items above, and the comparison with normal works in the same decades about the approach design method. The results are as follows: 1). The time axis of approach has been extended by extending the overall length of streamline and adding turn, thus creates a transitional space before entering the house and makes the limited space widely felt. 2). A variety of spatial experience of approach have been made by arranging space with different limitation. Thus increased the contrast of approach space and brings sensual transitions and diverse spatial experiences.
Yoshiji Takehara ingeniously integrates the traditional Japanese tea house layout into the contemporary housing design by applying the method of approach. He gives an answer to the relationship between human and nature in contemporary housing design. Especially for the reality that residential land becomes smaller and smaller, the approach method for where it is impossible to be complicated proves to be an effective way to make a tiny space not visibly tiny and the experience before entering the house is enriched. Lots of work using this method has already been built, meaning this method strikes a popular chord.
Introduction: In the history of the worship space, such as basilica type and centralized temple type in Christian churches are characterlized as symmetry and rotational symmetry has been used as a norm of the worship space. And they also have symmetrical section along the axis or point, such as gable roof and dome, that have highest point above them. In addition, the altar will be directed to the east where the sun rises until recently as a norm. In this norm, the priest pray to the direction of the sun rising in the morning, and received the evening light in his back from rose window in the Gothic churches. So that it seems to be possible to understand the natural light to produce a worship by the priest and laities around the altar. In such worship space, skylights which can be arranged at free position is plan is considered to be attached position within the normative spatial types. This study aims to clarify the day lighting methods in the worship space of contemporary religious buildings by their morphological characteristics as seen from the relationships between the form of the worship space and the arrangement of the skylights towards the altar.
Methods: The worship spaces in the contemporary religious buildings built after 1950s were selected as cases to study. First, planar form of worship space were examined by its symmetry and proportion as refereing to the type of basillica and cetralized plan. In addition to this, the composition of chancel and nave, the arrangement of congregation's chair were also analyzed to know the direction created by theirarrangement. And sectional form of ceiling were analyzed by the axis along the altar and digonal axist of it. Second, arrangement of skylight in plan was viewd. First, the orientation of altar was confirmed wether if they face to the east as its nome. Sectional form of skylights and planar arrangement of skylights were analyzed. Third, based on all these results, we discussed the morphological characteristics of adopting day-light methods by the combination of sectional form of worship space as seen from the inclined direction of the ceiling and arrangement of skylights in worship space.
Results: 1) Symmetrical planar form at the worship space is still keeped as a nome. And deep proportion is the major in them. As the sectional form, flat ceiling and the ceiling inclined along the cross axis like dome are both major. The sectional shape can be characterized by the planar composition of chancel and altar, and the arrangement of congregation's chairs. 2) The major orientation of altar is still east in the four orientation even though the cases which don't face to east are more than half. Skylights which placed above chancel and nave are the major placement more than above chancel. By analayzed the combination between the area and the position toward to the periphery of whorship space, there are clear diferent relashinships between each sets. 3) The conclusion has came up with 6 adopting daylight methods by the combination of the sectional form of ceiling and lit area by skylights. There are some methods adopting to the original form of the worship space such as the basillica and centralized types. And some other methods to adopt new type of form of the worship spaces were founded, such as the sectional from inclined to the altar direction and the form with flat ceiling. And there are some methods which have different shape under the same types, especially by the placement of skylights.
In Japan, with fewer children being born, the necessity of social support for children and their families is rising notably with factors such as child abuse and increase in poverty. On the contrary, the support available for raising children at a community level seems to be decreasing. Therefore, the role of residential care for children has become more significant. Children's homes need to transition from facility-based to community-based care to develop a comprehensive support system for children. In this research, we focus on children's group homes operated by residential institution. The aim of this research is to clarify the advantages for children of group homes compared to residential care facilities, in terms of activities and community interaction. We conducted interviews with children in 16 group homes in Chugoku region regarding where and with whom they played and went shopping, and if they interacted with the neighborhood when they stayed in residential facilities and after they moved to group homes. Then we compared the activities during those two periods and distinguished the changes. In addition, to clarify how children develop through the group home experience, we conducted interviews with staff. The primary results are as follows: 1. Comparing the children's activities during the residential main facility period and group home period revealed that children in group homes had more opportunity for community interaction. 2. Children in group homes tended to interact more with neighbors and used the common park and amenities outside the facilities more than children in residential main facilities. 3. Pre-teens and early teens went out more often to shop with staff after moving to the group home. In addition, children had the opportunity to go shopping more often when the group home purchased and cooked food themselves rather than using the catering services provided. 4. The location of the home and system of operation affected the frequency of children's playtime, shopping, and interaction with neighbors. The strong connection between the group home and the residential main facilities in terms of distance, interaction, and catering limited community interaction. 5. Community interaction enabled children in group homes to learn prosocial behavior and increased their independence. 6. In order to enhance community interaction, it will be necessary to develop a cooperation system with the neighborhood.
To project population, cohort analysis has been generally used. However, cohort analysis cannot be used or can guarantee high accuracy in the case of new residential area development and redevelopments, because historical data of population is essential to calculate reproduction ratio and moving in and out ratio. For these reasons, this study aims to propose a new method of population projection, called A.O.H method. Parameters of A.O.H method are average population of each age cohort living in 1 unit by types and age of house. So, this method could be used in the case of new residential area development and reconstruction, because historical data is not needed for calculation. To make parameters, property tax ledger and basic resident register were used and those were collected in Kashiwa, Chiba Pref. The process of making parameter is as follows: Firstly, we consolidated the property tax ledger and basic resident register, so the integrated data of house information and resident information was made. Next, the integrated data was classified by types and age of house, and converted into average population by age cohort living in 1 unit. In order to confirm the estimation error of A.O.H method, we estimated population and age structure of an area located in Kashiwa City and compared with actual value. As a result, (1) The error rate between actual population and the estimated population is about 5.9%. (2) The shape of the age structure very similar to each other. (3) The error rate of each age cohort is about 10.1%, and the error rate is particularly high in age cohort over 65 years old because a couple of facilities for the elderly are in the target area. The error rate of each age cohort under 65 years old was only 3.6%. To show an example of application, we conduct a simulation. The goal of the simulation is to adjust age structure of an area to target age structure by adjusting the ration of types of house. The target area of this simulation is UR collective housing area where reconstruction is in progress. As a result, it was found that there is a possibility to control the age structure of areas by providing a various type of house. Finally, as a future task, the parameter was made a data from one specific area, so there is a need to improve the parameter so that it can be used in various regions. Next, consideration should be given to the occurrence of vacant houses, loss of houses. Finally, parameter for other factor related to house, for example total area of house, condition of utility, plans and also, environmental factor like distance to hospital, school, park, need to be developed.
Open spaces created as part of Japan's Comprehensive Design System in line with the easing of the floor-area ratio and so on are determined as a whole by technical standards, with plan evaluation based on the partial shape types of open space. It is almost accurate to say that the aggregation of the partial shape types is planned, rather than the whole open space. However, with respect to considering the partial shape types, there are no detailed standards of good open space use, and the provision of quality standards is considered necessary. This study thus aims to obtain knowledge fundamental to a technical standard review by focusing on privately owned public spaces (POPSs) in New York City (which has detailed urban open space standards concerning important use as places for passive recreation and amenities), thereby producing spatial models that enable an evaluation of the coherence of open space use and the partial shape, vis-à-vis existing open spaces. A drawing method (Fig. 1, 7) was devised wherein a “partial shape” is defined as an open space unit articulated mainly by buildings; an “open space shape with broad coherence” derived using this method is defined as an “articulation.” Articulation shapes are aggregated as “clusters” that comprise combinations of frontage and depth at four-meter intervals. Finally, characteristic clusters derived from the proportion of articulations used as spaces for passive recreation, an important public use, and those used for entrance, vehicle path, or other private use, are taken as spatial evaluation models. From 314 examples, 978 articulations were derived, with each open space as a whole comprising an average of three articulations (Fig. 8, 9). The average number of articulations for each spaces is 2.5 for outdoor spaces, 1.8 for semi-outdoor spaces, and 1.7 for indoor spaces. In outdoor spaces, where articulation segmentation is notable, articulation unit planning could be an important perspective. This implies that the totality of an open space can be understood in quantitative terms based on the number of articulations. Targeting outdoor clusters, effective articulation shapes were observed using the characteristic spatial evaluation models for various public and private uses (Fig. 11, 12). The minimum requirement for use as a space for passive recreation is a depth of eight meters and a certain necessary frontage. Among effective clusters with this minimum width is C4, which accommodates over 97 people. A depth of 12-16 meters significantly expands the potential for creation of passive recreation use, and such clusters include C44 and C31. Among clusters with a depth of 28-32 meters is C10, which includes the articulation with the largest space for passive recreation and is considered an effective articulation shape. In contrast, clusters including articulations for private use are concentrated in the 4-8 meter depth category, and layout becomes more appropriate as the distance between building and road becomes shorter. In conclusion, from among the variety of articulation shapes used to provide space for passive recreation, it was possible to derive the partial shape with the minimum effective unit of frontage and depth. Additionally, for private use, it was possible to confirm many articulation shapes with coherence. Because the effectiveness of these uses varies depending on depth, depth could be an important planning indicator as a standard for designing the effectiveness of open space use.
Introduction Japanese government is aiming to establish the community care system for it that the elderly can continue to live in their own community where they have lived long. The elderly housing with supportive services (below is called the housing) institutionalized in 2011 is regarded as the one of central pillar of this system. The number of the housings has been build more than six thousand from five years ago, and it has been increasing rapidly, meanwhile it is indicated problems of quality of the dwelling units. The purpose of this study is to obtain knowledge about an improvement in quality of the living environment in the housing by clarify mismatches in the housing between the health condition of residents and the quality level of the dwelling units. Method At first, we gathered data of 3,414 about the building from the information providing system on WEB site. At next, we conducted questionnaire survey about the resident image and the health condition of residents etc. targeting the management bodies of 3,414 housing, and 617 questionnaires were returned. (Table1) Result Many the housings have been built in the city where more than 10,000 people lives, there are only 5.1% of overall in the countryside. (Table2) The dwelling unit equipped with only toilet account for 56.2%. Especially in the countryside, there are as many as 82.2% this type. (Fig. 3) There are three types to the floor plan of the housing, Shared-type account for 69.0%. (Fig. 6) The support services divide into four types; major service types are MO and PC. (Fig. 7) We classified into six classes by combination of the floor types and the support service types, analyzed the result of the questionnaire. (Fig. 8) R-S and R-A tended to expect only single-person move into the housing in comparison with F-S and F-A. (Fig. 9) F-S and F-A has expected residents who are self-support or need to mild care move into the housing, but others, R-S and R-A has expected residents who are moderate or severe care too. (Table9) We conducted a cluster analysis about the care degree for residents. We could get four characteristics clusters. (Fig. 11) While CLU1 or CLU2 are account for about 75% of F-S and F-A, CLU3 or CLU4 are account for about 60% of R-S and R-A. However, about 40% of residents who live in R-S and R-A are self-support or mild care. (Fig. 13) Conclusion Most of the housing have poor facilities and small floor areas in the dwelling unit. Therefore, the living environment is lower quality. Especially the countryside tends to its. We consider that the primary reasons for the lower quality are what the management bodies has expected residents of need to care and the single-person move into the housing. They may be imaging that shared type is adequate areas and facilities for such residents. Actually, about 50% of residents are self-support or need to mild care level. Therefore, there are mismatch the floor plan and resident life in the housing of the shared type. There are little the number of the housing in the countryside. Furthermore, there are problems of quality of living environment. We conclude that standards of the housing should be considered about the quality of living environment. The housing will need to be improved that are able to match for the lifestyles from self-support to sever care level.
Through collecting and arranging the historical and archaeological data about Manchu residence in Northeast China, this paper aims to analyze the evolution process of Manchu residence form(primitive cave dwelling, semi- subterranean dwelling, above-ground-Courtyard Residence) and heating(stove-Huodilong-original Kang-Wanzi Kang). China's Manchu and their ancestors have three times to rise, the sphere expands, agriculture develops, and communication with other ethnic groups deepens, so they also have three times quantum leap in residence form. The first time is that the residence form evolves from primitive cave dwelling into semi- subterranean dwelling. Sushen and Yilou people's building technology was lower and they had to live in deep cave to endure cold. In 5-10 century, Wuji and Mohe people began to widely use pillars to support beam and their technology for building roofs was also more mature, the depth of the cave also became shallower, and the semi-underground residence was formed. And at this time the heating method evolved from primitive stove into Huodilong that the shape was “┓”and it had one narrow flue to connect stove and smoke vent. The second time is that the residence form evolves from semi-subterranean dwelling into above-ground. In 10-12 century, the Jin Dynasty, Jurchen people's heating method had been greatly improved, it evolved from Huodilong which had only one flue into primitive Kang which had three or four flues. Primitive Kang solved the heating problem and it was a necessary condition for Jurchen people to build the above-ground dwelling. Besides, Jurchen people mastered the construction method that how to build the roof on the vertical wall, so they had the technical conditions for building the above-ground dwelling. The third time is that the residence eventually evolves into the courtyard form. In late 16th century-early 17th century, the later Jin Dynasty, Jurchen people's sphere was expanded and the residential culture was influenced by the Han-nationality, the 2-span's residence appeared that the bedroom and kitchen was separated by wall. After that, the building scale was expanded and the 3-span's residence which called Pocket room generally appeared. And then, in the bedroom, three sides (south, west and norths) were built Wanzi Kang and the Wosaku was hanged on the west wall which preserved genealogy and ancestors' portraits, the Kuahai chimney stood beside the west gable wall. They constitute the characteristics of Manchu residence. Qing army entered the Central Plains in the mid-17th century, the east-west symmetrical residence type appeared that had one kitchen and two bedrooms. But because the west room was the Manchu people's important place for religious activities and it needed larger area, so the 4-span's residence appeared. Since the 19th century with the raise of Manchu economic and social status, the building scale expanded again, Manchu people generally built the symmetrical 5-span's residence which liked the Han's. And most of middle-class and upper-middle-class Manchu people imitated the Han's residence style to build three-section-compound and Siheyuan. Generally, the west-wing-room is warehouse and the east-wing-room is stored food, if family is big, the west-wing-room is also used to live.
In Tanekura, a village in the Hida district of Gifu, many traditional wooden folk houses and storehouses have remained. This paper aims to clarify transition of timber use for folk houses through use of common forest in Tanekura which is the mountain settlement in the north of Gifu prefecture. There are fifteen folk houses and twenty one storehouses (Table1). And Tanekura village consists of Hamaba mountain and Asou mountain (Fig. 1). This paper is based on a literature review, local residents' interviews and field survey from 2009 to 2017.
First, This research shows the summary of traditional wooden folk houses and storehouses in Tanekura through our research of the past (Fig. 2). Next, This research clarifies transition on use of common forest in Edo period (in1844) (Fig. 3), in Meiji period (in1888) (Fig. 5) and now in 2009(Fig. 7), and considers transition of industries' relationship. And then this research clarifies transition of timber use for folk houses and storehouses through use of common forest. Finally, this research clarifies the following as the conclusion. 1. In Edo period, burnt fields were dotted around shibakusa mountain where villagers took firewoods and grasses in common forest near houses area. In common forest so far from houses area, there are many beech, oak and horse chestnut trees. And in three plantations, chestnut and sugi (Japanese cedar) were planted. As timber for folk houses, villagers were permitted to use chestnut, oak and beech. According to old documents (contain plan (Fig. 10)), folk houses had thatched roofs, pillars constructed with chestnut and beams constructed with oak. According to existent storehouses, pillars were constructed with chestnut (Fig. 11). 2. In Meiji and Taisho period, burnt fields were still dotted around shibakusa mountain in common forest near houses area. Furthermore they were extended to far (Syaujitani) from houses area. About 1877, industry of horse and charcoal making were started in nearly village. And also early Taisho period, Villagers changed thatched roofs for single roofs used chestnut, so this research considers that a demand of chestnuts rose. But For folk houses and storehouses, many parts of pillars and beams were constructed with chestnut(Fig. 11). 3. In early Showa period, In common forest near houses area, there were grasslands called “Kariba” where ‘kariyasu’ was planted (Fig. 6). There, villagers picked grasses for industries of horse. For folk houses, a part of pillars and beams were constructed with sugi. For storehouses, continuously many parts of them were constructed with chestnut. After 1945, Rice field was magnified in near house' area, industry of horse and charcoal making were on the decline. In not only ’Kariba’ but also many parts of common forest, sugi was planted, because sugi could be sold for good price in the future. Chestnut for building material was not planted in those days. For folk houses, single roofs were constructed with chestnut and sugi and so on, some parts of pillars and beams were continuously constructed with sugi. For storehouses, a part of framework , for example wall, was constructed with sugi (Fig. 11).
Villagers thought storehouses were more valuable than folk houses, so storehouses were continuously constructed with chestnut which was stronger. For folk houses, as necessary, sugi was used instead of chestnut. Folk houses were constructed with kinds of timber which influenced by trees in common forest. In Edo period, chestnut and oak were used for many parts of framework in folk houses. Gradually, such tree species were replaces to sugi (Japanese cedar) (Fig. 12).
In recent years, the cultural heritage value of cities and architecture constructed by western powers in the former colonies mainly in Asia and Africa is beginning to be realized. While the cities and architecture tend to be regarded historical negative legacies for the former colonies, recent research suggests that they are important legacies representing the process of modernization of the city and accepting and coexisting with the other. In the discussion of shared heritage that began in 2010 in such a framework, colonial architecture is one of the important elements of the modern era and it is connection parts between the present and past. However, because evaluation of such cities and architecture are getting behind and the economic situation is developing in recent years, some of them are destroyed before being evaluated and protected as cultural heritage. Therefore, in order to consider the cities and architecture of the former colonies as a shared heritage, it is necessary to clarify the formation of the city including it's architecture. The foundation of the former colonial cities were constructed by western powers. Colonial cities originally existed in the form of rural areas and villages that were required for trade and military functions by western powers. Furthermore, these cities were continually formed as these functions expanded. When people in each suzerain came to visit, the cities began to be constructed as planned cities considering their various functions. Especially, hill station, planned for people stationed in hot climate colonies but accustomed to cold climates, is one type of the planned city formed by the requirement for these diverse functions. Therefore, in this research, reveal the urban formation in the formation of Dalat, hill station in Vietnam, with focusing on the function required by France and the aim of this study is to reveal acceptance and development of modern idea brought from western Europe called planned cities. Chapter 1 focuses on the process of gathering and categorizing relevant original documents. In order to grasp the location of organizations that hold documents used in past research. Documents relevant to this research were then identified. Chapter 2 organizes the urban planning of the entire Dalat chronologically and focuses on zoning changes and revealing the changes in the function in the city. Chapter 3 extracts a discourse on the functions revealed in Chapter 2 from the document set grasps when each function was required for the first time. Chapter 4 compares the urban formation revealed in Chapter 2 and the required functions revealed in Chapter 3 chronologically. As a result, although there is a difference in time from request to reflection, it is revealed that the requested function is reflected in urban formation, and Dalat is a city formed by requirement of various new functions over time. Chapter 5, we revealed how modern ideas introduced by France in current Dalat is developed from a field survey of architecture. As a result, modern industries such as tourism had a great influence on urban formation in Dalat during the colonial era are still thriving. Furthermore, while several grand hotels for the upper classes were constructed during the colonial era, it is revealed that many small hotels called mini hotels which provide accommodation at low prices for all classes are being constructed at present.
“Ginza Street” is known as the main street of Ginza and it is a part of “Chuo Street”: a street links Shinbashi with Ueno. It has a long history since Ginza brick-faced building city in Meiji era, and modern urban spaces have been formed by modern buildings and urban design in this history. Ginza has been subjected to studies in many fields, and it is indicated the extinction in history of urban developing caused by war damage in these studies. However, it is considered that there is the continuity from pre-war to post-war in purposes of movement for urban design by proprietors of stores along Ginza Street. They have continued to argue what to do to make future vision of Ginza Street come true for a long time. So we pay attention to Ginza Street Association: store association has been composed of proprietors of stores along Ginza Street, and reveal history of movement for urban design by them from 1930's to 1960's. We find out a new context of history in Ginza by means of this research. In 1930's, Ginza Street Association started movement for “Urban beauty” of Ginza Street and their goal setting was to achieve it by Tokyo Olympic Games in 1940. Main purposes of this movement were removal of telegraph poles and abolition of tram, and they have appealed to city government. In 1936, Ginza Street Association developed movement with “Nihon Toshifukei Kyokai”, and they carried out a noise survey for abolition of tram. In 1937, they planned “10-year plan for remodeling of Ginza Street” as a long-term plan for urban beauty. However, this movement ended in failure as the society entered into the war regime after 1938. In 1945, Ginza Street Association planned “Ginza reconstruction plan”. In this plan, purposes of movement in 1930's were succeeded though it was under the condition buildings had been burnt down by air raid. And it was also held up purposes of movement: removal of telegraph poles and abolition of tram in “Remodeling plan of Ginza Street” in 1958. They have repeated petitions to city government, and they have consulted with Tokyo National Highway Office for reconstruction of Ginza Street. As a result, they achieved removal of telegraph poles, abolition of tram and construction of new pavement in 1968. In parallel with this movement, they have planned a big scale festival in Ginza Street. They have continued arguments for Ginza Street as festive spaces, and it was held “Daiginza Matsuri” on reconstructed Ginza Street. In conclusion, it became clear that there was the continuity from pre-war to post-war in purposes of movement for urban design. Especially, three themes: removal of telegraph poles, abolition of tram and new pavement have been found the value in each era. On the other hand, arguments about street trees haven't been decision clear directions in history of Ginza Street Association. From the above, it is considered that construction of Ginza Street in 1960's had a value as the ultimate goal of movement for a long time from pre-war.
In Tokyo, the accumulation of various restaurants is realized as resources of food culture. Nowadays, “eating experiences” in restaurants is getting important. However, the study on the quality of eating experiences and its geographical characters has hardly been conducted. Thus, it is important to reveal the empirical value of eating in the urban area. The purpose of this study is to identify the geographical characteristics of restaurants accumulation and “eating experiences” within Tokyo wards area. Through this research, the following has been identified:
1) The distribution characteristics of restaurants accumulation In the 3rd chapter, the correlations among the geographical distribution trend of 19 types of restaurants were revealed. They were divided into 3 similar groups and 7 independent groups. Then these accumulations were categorized into 3 similar groups. “Types with correlation between diner (A. - E.)” accumulated along Yamanote line and the linear area spreading from central Tokyo area to Shibuya area. “F. Traditional food and Japanese Food” accumulated into northern Tokyo wards area. “G. Soba and Udon and Chinese Food” accumulated into eastern Tokyo wards area. Second, the accumulation characteristic of all restaurants was figured out and it became clear that restaurants accumulated in 5 areas; (a) area with some parallel lines in Tokyo wards area, (b) lines from Shinjuku to eastern wards area, (c) lines from Shibuya to eastern wards area, (d) around Ikebukuro, and (e) some station areas on the suburban railroads. Third, based on these characteristics of restaurants accumulation and the number of passengers, station areas could be divided into 4 similar groups; (a) Multiple types, Few passengers, (b) Multiple types, Many passengers, (c) Single type, Few passengers, and (d) Single type, Many passengers.
2) The typology of eating experiences and its differences among station areas In the 4th chapter, station areas with noticeable trend of each groups based on the characteristics of restaurants accumulation and the number of passengers were extracted. These were 9 station areas, which are Keiseiueno, Uenookachimachi, Shinjuku, Shibuya, Higashishinjuku, Daikanyama, Kitasenju, Ohtemachi, and Meguro. Second, regional characteristics based on “eating experience” were cleared. As a result, 82 types of enjoyable “eating experience” in Tokyo wards area were extracted. Then, they are divided into “contents (32)”, “spaces (26)”, “events (15)” and “surroundings (9)”. With respect to “contents”, Higashishinjuku and Daikanyama shows original trend but others didn't have distinguished trend. With respect to “spaces”, there were no differences by station areas. With respect to “events”, there were no differences by station areas without Higashishinjuku and Ohtemachi. With respect to “surroundings”, it was identified that the “surroundings” is the most unique “earing experiences” which differs by station areas. Then, summarizing characteristics of station areas based on these 4 “eating experiences”, 5 regional characteristics based on specialized cluster within “contents” and extra specialization in eating experiences were identified; (a) enjoy contents (Uenookachimachi and Higashishinjuku), (b) enjoy alcoholic drink and spaces, (c) enjoy ambience, (d) enjoy events, and (e) enjoy location and night view. These characteristics were different from those we have seen in the analysis of restaurants accumulation and the number of passengers. Therefore these were unique characteristics seen from “eating experiences”.
The paper deals with the exterior design of town houses both inside and outside monument zone of the eastern part of Bhaktapur in Kathmandu Valley registered as a World Cultural Heritage site in 1979. This paper consists of following four steps. 1) Firstly, authors composed the original format of survey sheet for Nepali town houses. The categories of this sheet are grouped into four items, which are frame, silhouette, part and element, each of which contains more detailed categories. The survey sheet was completely made from scratch with reference to the several important existing researches. The number of samples are 104 buildings inside Monument Zone (core + buffer zone) of World Cultural Heritage and 73 buildings outside Monument Zone. More than 90 % of the total sample buildings are classified as townhouses. 2) Secondly, the paper tries to submit a hypothesis on that either a town house experienced the extension of the upper floors or totally reconstructed during the course of time. Authors propose ‘eaves types’ as the key idea in this hypothesis. Eaves types are classified into 8 types depending on which floor level eaves are attached to. Eaves types are classified into three upper level groupings, i.e. pitched eaves group, flat eaves group and without eaves group. As for structure, pitched eaves group are basically masonry construction as opposed to the RCC construction (confined masonry) or mixed structure (masonry wall + RCC beams, masonry + RCC rooftop) for flat eaves group. In addition, three-storey buildings of without eaves group turned out to be masonry construction and four-storey buildings of the same group chiefly consist of RCC construction. The former eaves type shows similar characteristic to pitched eaves group. So does the latter to flat eaves group. Regarding the relations among eaves types, the paper made an attempt to establish a diagram that explains the transition among important eaves types whether an eaves type is reconstructed or just upper floors are extended. 3) Result of the exterior design survey is primarily compared between inside and outside Monument zone of world cultural heritage. Further analysis is conducted by two levels as needed, i.e. comparison among eaves group and that among eaves types. The items to be examined here are frontage, roof shapes, roofing materials, finishing on the first floor wall, openings on the first floor as well as on the third floor, wood carving, window lattice and cornice between the second and the third floor. The result turned out show distinct characteristics among eaves types or eaves groups that led authors to provisional proof of the hypothesis with eaves types. 4) Eaves types are finally confirmed with the construction period and upper floor extension period. In Nepal, for the past one century, prior to Nepal-Gorkha earthquake in April 2015 earthquake, two devastating earthquakes happened. They are Bihal-Nepal Earthquake in January 1934 and India-Nepal border region earthquake in August 1988. These years are applied to separation of periods for recovery from the disaster was the chances to reconstruct the affected buildings. The result of the comparison of reconstruction/extension periods with eaves types again very well explained the characteristics of each eaves type.
Monitoring of the spatial distribution of vacant houses across broad areas by local governments requires substantial labor, time, and money because the main survey method involves visual checks via field surveys. This is a major obstacle for local governments when developing means to measure the number of vacant houses. Therefore, we developed a method for estimating the spatial distribution of vacant houses using varied spatial data and sample field surveys of part of the target area instead of a field survey of the whole target area to reduce the cost and labor required for the vacant house survey. The target area was the city center of Kagoshima city, Kagoshima Prefecture, shown in Fig. 1. In chapter 2, we detected the spatial distribution of vacant houses via field surveys according to the criteria for vacant and non-vacant houses shown in Table 3. This was conducted in sample field survey areas that contained 3, 134 detached buildings, shown in Fig. 1 and in Table 2. Table 4 shows the results of the field survey in the sample field survey areas. The table shows that there are 173 detached vacant houses in these areas. In chapter 3, we developed the vacant house database to first integrate the results of the field survey, digital residential map, and municipal public data that included the basic resident register, closed hydrant information, and the building registration information. Second, we calculated the number of vacant houses and rates of building use for detached buildings based on the presence or absence of public data using the vacant house database shown in Table 5. The number of vacant houses in each 500m square grid could be estimated by applying these values. Finally, we calculated vacant house scores for all of the detached buildings based on Table 6. Detached buildings were assigned as vacant houses in descending order of the vacant house score until meeting the number of vacant house by 500m square grids. Scores tended to be larger for smaller numbers of people per household and building area, larger proportions of older residents, the maximum and minimum duration of residence, and earlier construction year. Using this method, the spatial distribution of vacant houses in the target area could be estimated. In addition, we verified the reliability of our method. We compared the number of actual vacant houses monitored by field surveys in the sample field survey areas with the estimated number of vacant houses calculated by our method, accumulated within 500m square and 250m square grids. Table 7 shows the comparison results for the case of a 500m square grid and Table 8 the case of a 250m square grid. Both set of results showed that there were no significant differences between actual values and our estimated values. This indicates that the method proposed in this study can estimate the spatial distribution of vacant houses with good accuracy. Chapter 4 introduced the results for the estimation of the spatial distribution of vacant house in the target area i.e. the city center of Kagoshima city. Fig. 4 to Fig. 7 show the estimated results of the number of vacant houses and rates aggregated into 500m square grids and city blocks. The results estimated that 1,740 detached buildings were vacant of the 32,448 detached buildings in the target area, i.e. 5.36% of houses were vacant. Our method can estimate the number of vacant houses and their rates to aggregate them into spatial units according to the objective.
The building of Hie shrine (built in 1659, destroyed by fire in 1945) was built in Gongen-style. The building of Nezu shrine (built in 1706) is in the same style as Hie shrine. Usually, in the Gongen-style built in the shrines other than Tosho-gu before the Shoo era, it often has Nagare-zukuri (asymmetrical gable roof) style main sanctuary of which status is lower than Tosho-gu. In contrast, the main sanctuaries of both shrines have same style as Tosho-gu although they are common shrine. However, No this fact have been pointed out. This paper pays attention to the building of Hie shrine was also known as the most luxurious shrine building in Edo since the Edo era, through comparison with Gongen-style built in Tosho-gu and the shrines other than Tosho-gu before the Shoo era, clarify that the characteristics of Hie shrine and Nezu shrine. And we considered that historical context of the shrines other than Tosho-gu built in Gongen-style constructed by Tokugawa Shogunate.
Through this analysis, we establish the following facts: 1. Before the Shoo era, the votive offering hall type Gongen-style has simplified form compared to the stone hall type Gongen-style, in the width of eave in front of main sanctuary, sectional shape of column, and innermost fence type. 2. The buildings of Hie shrine and Nezu shrine are basically given in votive offering hall type Gongen-style before the Shoo era. But, the main sanctuaries, the eave in front of main sanctuary, and innermost fence type, are ranked as the stone hall type Gongen-style. 3. The votive offering hall type Gongen-style was brought into use in the shrines which are treated as a certain Tokugawa Shogun's ubusunafami (guardian deity of their birthplace). Especially Hie shrine was also placed as the successive Tokugawa Shogun's ubusunagami.
The authors conclude with Hie shrine is the building that adopting status expression of the stone hall type Gongen-style in the votive offering hall type Gongen-style, as the successive Tokugawa Shogun's ubusunagami, and it became the most luxurious shrine building in Edo. Also, The building of Nezu shrine is following the building of Hie shrine, and modest composition compared to Hie shrine as the Shogun Ienobu's ubusunagami. A portion of back ground to collapse of combination of main sanctuary and the building between main sanctuary and worship hall has been brought to light. And the status expression example of Gongen-style by official carpenter of Tokugawa shogunate is clarified.
From ancient times, mountains have been worshiped in Japan. Mt. Fuji is archetypal, and the stone huts that served its pilgrims can be regarded as the original form of current mountain huts. Nowadays, since Mt. Fuji is a World Cultural Heritage site, its huts are required to be historically based. Although some historical materials describe the stone huts that existed from the Edo to the beginning of the Showa era, the changes stone huts underwent during the era of tourism after the establishment of Fuji Hakone National Park remain unclear. To investigate these changes, we examined historical materials, held interviews, and conducted field surveys on the Yoshida trail, from where great numbers of pilgrims who belonged to Fuji-ko societies made worship-ascent. In Showa 6, the National Park Act was established to preserve the natural landscape, promote the welfare of the people, and attract foreign tourists. In Taisho 12, Mt. Fuji became a candidate for inclusion into the park. Yamanashi Prefecture and local people embarked on campaigns to establish the park and increase tourism. In Showa 11, Fuji Hakone National Park was established. During the Pacific War, national parks were used as training grounds. An increase in the number of climbers training and ascending Mt. Fuji to pray for victory was observed. Under these conditions, the stone huts that seemed to have kept their original form since the Edo era underwent gradual changes. Traditionally, huts had a wooden frame structure and were covered with wooden boards. Stones were piled on the roof and around the walls, which had one or two sweep-out windows. From the prewar to the postwar period, almost all stone huts changed their fa?ade by incorporating waist-high windows. Furthermore, some of the piled-up stones were removed on about half of the huts, and exposed wooden boards were either covered or replaced with galvanized iron. About 3 years after the war, tourism in Yamanashi Prefecture returned to prewar levels. In Showa 27 and 39, a mountain bus line and the Fuji Subaru Line (a motorway) serviced the fifth station, dramatically changing the approach to climbing Mt. Fuji on the Yoshida trail. The wooden huts and sections of the trail below the fifth station fell into disrepair, while more than half of the stone huts above the fifth station were either newly constructed or renovated. The traditional floor plan of the stone huts had a main room (hiroma), which had wooden floors and a fireplace. The newer huts had larger dimensions and eave heights compared with huts at the end of the Edo era. Three patterns of change were evident. First, new huts were built with a roof truss structure (yogoya). Second, the new huts were built beside traditional stone huts with Japanese-style roof structures (wagoya). Third, stone huts were renovated. Almost all of the stone huts introduced the roof truss structure to allow for an open floor plan, waist-high windows for an open fa?ade, double bunks to accommodate more climbers, and new facilities, such as water filtration systems and curtains to ensure the safety and privacy of climbers. A questionnaire survey in Showa 30 showed that only 2% of climbers were on religious pilgrimages, indicating that the changes to the stone huts were in response to the growing tourism industry. In the Edo era, stone huts were a kind of symbol of Mt. Fuji religious pilgrimages; however, in the early Showa era of tourism, the owners of the stone huts removed the stones as they modernized their huts.
More than 75,000 emergency houses, called the standard prefabricated house, were built in Okinawa after the war in approximately four years, beginning in 1946, which made a great contribution to reconstruction. The standard prefabricated house was designed by a local architect named Hisao Nakaza (1904-1962) at the U.S. naval military government Okinawa public works department on Nov. 30, 1945. The purpose of this study is to clarify the details of the situation about the process, the design and the supply system of the standard prefabricated house, and to also clarify the actual factor of the massive and quick supply. This paper consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 describes the background based on the career and articles of Nakaza and why he began to design the standard house. According to his career, he had experience with evacuation house construction in wartime. After the experience was evaluated, Nakaza designed the standard house at the U. S. naval military government Okinawa public works department. Chapter 2 considers the standard house plan situation of the U.S. naval government from directions. The naval government gave orders that let local people resettle from camps to their original places of residence on October 23, 1945. Therefore, the government had to supply houses. The direction of October 31, 1945 shows the design guide of the houses. It is thought that the scale and materials of the standard prefabricated house were decided based on this. Chapter 3 analyzes the design drawing. The standard prefabricated house responded to the situation of a lack of engineers in that the frames of the walls and roof trusses were designed as prefabs which were produced at a factory. Furthermore, the design can respond to the lack of material flexibly, and the choice of finishing materials depending on the local situation is possible. Chapter 4 investigates Nakaza's article and the Okinawa public works department relations documents, and understands the supply system. For approximately four months, from January to May in 1946, the constructions were instructed by three people, including Nakaza. From the period of May, 1946 to the end of 1949, constructions were carried out by an organized system by the public works department of Okinawa civil administration. The department was able to settle the U.S. government budget directly. Architectural division managed the material yards and carried out construction by construction units. In addition, motor pools of the land transport division took transports. Chapter 5 analyzes the monthly construction number on the activity reports of the U.S. military government and assumes the construction end time. Construction was carried out most actively during the periods from the beginning of 1946 to mid 1947. The first action system was good; more than 4,000 houses a month in December, 1946 and January, 1947 were built. There are construction reports until October, 1949, which show that the houses were built until about the end of 1949. A total of about 76,815 houses were supplied within four years, from January, 1946 to October, 1949. As above, the standard prefabricated house was designed by architect Hisao Nakaza, and supervised by the U.S. military government, and managed by local government, and constructed by mutual support among residents. The main reasons to be able to serve a large quantity and quick supply are as follows. (1) The houses were a prefabricated type which the residents could easily build. (2) The design could respond to the lack of material flexibly, and the choice of finishing materials depending on the local situation was possible. (3) The compact organization system could perform the stocking, manufacturing, sending, and budgeting execution of the construction.
This article examined the photographs without mention of the photography place and these photography points in “Nobi-sinsaiti-syasin” ever possessed by Tadasu HIKI. It's following points become clear. In 34 points of "Nobi-sinsaiti-syasin", there are three sheets of photos serial numbers 20, 22, and 23 that had not written down the photography place on back side. Serial numbers 20 is the photograph which photographed Mitinisi iron bridge of Tokaido Line, looked up at the bridge from south-southwest. Serial numbers 22 is the photograph which photographed Tokaido Line Shinkawa iron bridge, foresaw the down stream side of the opposite bank from the east bank upper classes side diagonally. The photograph of serial numbers 23 shows the damage situation of the Tokaido Line Kisogawa bridge, photographed the north side from the trussed girder of sixth from southern coasts among 11 trussed girders. HIKI who held these photographs and SAKOTA who took these photographs were the other actions in the investigation of the Nobi earthquake stricken area. Because HIKI obtained the photograph which SAKOTA photographed after the return to Tokyo, the photographs of photography place non-mention were included.
This study considers the impact of articles contained in the Munich building ordinance (1489) (as follows; the ordinance (1489)) on architectural forms and proposes a hypothetical model regarding architectural forms in Munich at the end of the 15th century. Previous research on building ordinances in various cities of Germany from the mid-13th to 15th century state only that building ordinances had an impact on urban architecture and townscapes. Researchers have failed to conduct a sufficient investigation of the role played by the ordinance (1489) in the formation of the architectural forms and townscapes of Munich. Therefore, opportunities for investigating the correlation between the ordinance (1489) and the architecture and townscapes of Munich remain. The enactment of construction law in Munich can be summarized as follows. The first order related to construction was a document ordering the removal of wooden huts in the market plaza, issued by Ludwig IV in 1315. Thereafter, rulers continued to enact construction regulations and organize firefighting systems whenever there were large fires. After construction regulations were announced in 1342, a set of regulations consisting of 11 articles related to construction was enacted as part of Munich urban law in 1347. In 1489, the ordinance (1489) comprising a total of 44 articles, which included the articles of 1347, was enacted. In this study, we considered articles of the ordinance (1489) that are related to architectural forms, and classified them into 11 regulations regarding single structures and 13 regulations regarding neighboring structures. We considered the text of each article and interpreted it as follows. Regulations of individual (Table 2) · The regulation states that walls must be constructed of bricks, with the specified wall thickness. The regulation also specifies that the roof must be covered in tiles. · The grounds must be enclosed by an exterior building wall and a boundary wall. · Restrictions were placed on wall protrusions that would block road traffic. Regulations of neighboring relationship (Table 3) · The text of the articles indicates that neighboring buildings shared walls and that the heights of the walls were unified in a range of 2 gaden to 3 gaden. (“gaden” is a unit of length. 1 gaden is about 3.6 m) · The regulation restrictions the orientation of the eaves to prevent rainwater falling from the eaves from flowing toward the neighboring house and land. Through the discussion presented above, it is apparent that the Munich building ordinance (1489) defines stipulations regarding fire-prevention measures for buildings and attempts to solve problems related to rainwater disposal and ground conditions that affect relationships between neighbors. Images of architectural forms in Munich that can be inferred based on the contents of the articles are shown in Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7.
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the role of painting in Le Corbusier’s concehpt of the syntèse des arts. In the late of 1920s, Le Corbusier began to introduce les objets à réaction poétique into his paintings. These heterogeneous objects made inefficient the Purist technique of painting. In the 1930s, he attempted to achieve the synthesis of homogeneous objects through the countless paintings of “women”. The pseudo-synthesis of the “women”, however, was still a long way from his original goal. In the 1950s, he solved the problem of the synthesis of the heterogeneous objects through the “bull” that served as a model for the synthèse des arts.
Focusing on the public retail market in Tainan city in the early phase of Japanese colonial rule, this paper discusses the significance of urban planning and public works in the period of Japanese rule, and clearly depicts the transition process of market policy. While the research in urban planning history or institutional history has focused on Taipei in the capital city, the paper targets Tainan, which had a history of 300 years before Japanese rule. Historical materials of this research have been compiled using the "the Public Documents of the Governor General of Taiwan's Office (台湾総督府公文類纂)", which is an administrative historical document that past studies does not fully utilize. The conclusion of this paper is as follows.
1. Urban hygiene problems and public works The administration of Tainan implemented projects such as installation of toilet bay, disinfection of houses, dredging of canals, sewerage maintenance, to cope with the unsanitary problem of the city. In Tainan five years after the Japanese's rule, the disorder of plague subsided and the social stability was seen. At that time, the administration aimed to establish market facilities as public works for sanitation and financial resources.
2. Consolidation of traditional markets and promotion of city remodeling Tainan market before the Japanese rule was an open-air market or stalls. The largest scale traditional market in Tainan was Suisengugai (水仙宮街) market and Kaisengugai (開仙宮街) market. When city remodeling was requested due to hygiene problems, the market plan was realized. However, architectural space is not planned. After that, private market opened (Meiji 33) in order to accommodate merchants. The purpose of private market was not only the hygiene issue, but also the immediate city remodeling by transferring the traditional market from the walls and the main streets.
3. Planned technical impact on public retail market The private market was built in open space other than street, was characterized by construction plans such as the development of ground and sewers. However, the private market did not form a commercial area. After that, the public market (Meiji 38) opened at a vast site along the castle wall, integrated the block and the building, and built the two stores in the middle passage. The planning of public market directly utilized the experience of the private market.
4. Potential of the market as a platform of the merchant The location and planning of private market had a close relationship with the urban structure, so there was a possibility of being used by merchants. As the market institution was developed, the administration abolished the private market. Through the experience of the initial privatization stage, the publicization stage was built more closely with the urban space.
1. Introduction This paper examines the characteristics of architectural documents in Japan using quantitative analysis. The research objective was the result of a nationwide survey entrusted by the Agency for Cultural Affairs to the Architectural Institute of Japan. Although the survey's results help understand the qualitative characteristics of the documents as “diversity,” quantitative analysis methods failed to support such features objectively. In this paper, we first organized (chap. 3) and tabulated (chap. 4) the data of the survey results, and then performed analysis using statistical hypothesis testing (chap. 5). Finally, we discussed the test results based on archival science (chap. 6). 2. Outline of the survey This chapter contains the background of this survey (2.1) and elements of the “Modern Architectural Documents List in Japan,” thus summarizing the survey results (2.2). The list consists of the following nine elements: 1. Reference Number, 2. Document Name, 3. Repository, 4. Repository Type, 5. Access Status, 6. Documents Summary, 7. Major Projects, 8. Criteria, and 9. Survey Scope. 3. Organization of the Documents List We inspected the entire Documents List, and modified the data (3.1). By defining the attributes of “4. Repository Type,” we ensured consistency, which helped us reselect them (3.2). To examine the relationship between the Public Records and Archives Management Act, ordinances of local organizations, and the architectural documents, in Japan, we included a new element “Archives, etc.” in “4. Repository Type” (3.3). 4. Tabulation of survey results The tabulation targets were “4. Repository Type,” “5. Access Status,” and “8. Criteria.” For each of the eight attributes of “4. Repository Type,” we tabulated the distribution for the attributes of the other two elements. From the results, we obtained five hypothetical characteristics of the documents. 5. Analysis by statistical method The adequacy of the hypothetical characteristics was analyzed using statistical hypothesis testing. We conducted a chi-square test with qualitative variables of “4. Repository Type” and “5. Access Status” or “4. Repository Type” and “8. Criteria.” The test revealed whether the variables were independent or had statistical significance. Based on the results, we modified the hypothetical characteristics of the last chapter, and indicated the seven characteristics. 6. Discussion The contexts of the seven characteristics from the test were discussed based on archival science. Consequently, considering the “Passage of Time,” we classified the characteristics of the documents as follows: (1) various conditions governing access; (2) association between museums, libraries, archives, and regional characteristics; and (3) client documents. In addition, we noted that issues remaining in the survey itself have limited the analysis. 7. Conclusion In this paper, we reviewed the characteristics of “Modern Architectural Documents in Japan” by organizing, tabulating, and analyzing the “Modern Architectural Documents List in Japan,” which summarizes the nationwide survey of architectural documents. In other words, we clarified three characteristics of “diversity,” which are notable as characteristics of the architectural documents.
This paper aims to grasp the background of the formulation of Gestaltungsplan (hereafter GP) and its planning process by the city of Zurich, and to clarify the features of GP to be referred as a method of contemporary urban design. GP is one of the urban planning methods used for developing buildings and urban space since 1980 in Zurich, Switzerland and it is a comprehensive urban design method which regulates building volumes, arrangements, uses and infrastructures and so on. Currently in the city, the department named "Amt für Städtebau"(Urban Planning Bureau, hereafter AfS) is in charge of services such as management of urban design and planning. GP is formulated by AfS for effective utilization of land including regulations concerning on the three dimensional form of the building. Apart from GP, AfS operates the plan for the whole city called "Bau- und Zonenordnung" (hereafter BZO). BZO includes regulations that are the foundation for determining land use and architectural forms. With the GP being formulated, you can overwrite the contents of the BZO in the planning site and plan beyond the provisions of BZO individually. Since the city established GP in 1980, the city authority has run 83 cases throughout the city by May 2015, and the GP plays a major role in the urban development activities. In addition, the urban design method established by GP in Zurich city attracts attention as a superior system in which local governments, especially the city have great authority and operate. The authors came up with the following conclusions. When AfS started to operate the GP in Zurich city, there was a situation in which urban environment was worsening because of densification due to population increase in the city and reduction of construction space. We clarified that GP is a spatial planning method that decides comprehensively the three-dimensional arrangement of buildings, architectual form and scale and land use. We also clarified that GP is custom-made for each planning site. As a management system that enables such urban space design, we clarify the following three points in the planning process system. In the planning phase, the application of the landowner is the starting point of formulation of GP. As for the plan, AfS cooperates with landowners, designers and multi-disciplinary experts including construction and urban experts, and they establish agreements with each other. Finally, regarding the design, since the planning contents of GP has legal force, it determines the role of the designer, and it leads to the realization of excellent buildings. This system which executes planning and design by establishing agreements in order to achive a superior urban space in a feature of the GP management system. Buildings and urban spaces realisation based on GP are not only beneficial to the landowner but also they are successful in creating excellent urban landscapes and public interest. By GP, the city respects the context of existing cities and practices high-quality urban design coordinated by each department of the city. By referring to the concept of GP system, we can get useful knowledge in orienting towards the formation of excellent urban spaces.
The purpose of this paper is to make the initial action system of the hospitals in the 2011 Pacific coast Tohoku Earthquake clear. Therefore a questionnaire survey and verbal survey were put into effect. The main results are summarized as follows:
1. The priority at a hospital is "ensuring safety of patients and staff". Next "establishment of anti-disaster headquarters", with the purpose of " safety confirmation of patients and staff". 2. Clear differences could be seen at an accident base hospital and a general hospital in the areas of "outside cooperation", "initial triage action system" and "implementation of the earthquake emergency drill" 3. Initial action is clear and swift in an accident base hospital. On the other hand "safety of patients and staff" is given priority over "establishment of anti-disaster headquarters" by a general hospital. 4. While a disaster prevention plan for an earthquake was seen at all accident base hospitals, they were seen at only 45% of general hospitals. As for an emergency drill, general hospitals had an implementation rate of 30% compared to 75% at accident base hospitals. 5. An accident base hospital tends to do its own critical evaluation of the effect of the emergency drill. 6. Countermeasures against earthquake disaster aren't used in small-scale general hospitals below 3 floors. 7. Cases of no full-time disaster-prevention officer being employed at large-scale hospitals are often seen.
"Establishment of the system until human life is saved" and "establishment of a chain of command" are important in times of an earthquake disaster as an initial action system in a hospital. And it's necessary to be putting more realistic planning and practice into effect for realization of this initial action system. It's also important to cooperate outside. The important condition of outside cooperation is "mutual understanding of polity, a civilian agency and a resident", "mutual complementing system" and "system to receive information at the time of initial action". The data this questionnaire survey gave was an answer from the engine which doesn't have much damage relatively. Therefore we have to consider drafting of a disaster prevention plan by the severer condition.