In Tanekura, a village in the Hida district of Gifu, many traditional wooden folk houses and storehouses have remained. This paper aims to clarify transition of timber use for folk houses through use of common forest in Tanekura which is the mountain settlement in the north of Gifu prefecture. There are fifteen folk houses and twenty one storehouses (Table1). And Tanekura village consists of Hamaba mountain and Asou mountain (Fig. 1). This paper is based on a literature review, local residents' interviews and field survey from 2009 to 2017.
First, This research shows the summary of traditional wooden folk houses and storehouses in Tanekura through our research of the past (Fig. 2).
Next, This research clarifies transition on use of common forest in Edo period (in1844) (Fig. 3), in Meiji period (in1888) (Fig. 5) and now in 2009(Fig. 7), and considers transition of industries' relationship. And then this research clarifies transition of timber use for folk houses and storehouses through use of common forest.
Finally, this research clarifies the following as the conclusion.
1. In Edo period, burnt fields were dotted around shibakusa mountain where villagers took firewoods and grasses in common forest near houses area. In common forest so far from houses area, there are many beech, oak and horse chestnut trees. And in three plantations, chestnut and sugi (Japanese cedar) were planted. As timber for folk houses, villagers were permitted to use chestnut, oak and beech. According to old documents (contain plan (Fig. 10)), folk houses had thatched roofs, pillars constructed with chestnut and beams constructed with oak. According to existent storehouses, pillars were constructed with chestnut (Fig. 11).
2. In Meiji and Taisho period, burnt fields were still dotted around shibakusa mountain in common forest near houses area. Furthermore they were extended to far (Syaujitani) from houses area. About 1877, industry of horse and charcoal making were started in nearly village. And also early Taisho period, Villagers changed thatched roofs for single roofs used chestnut, so this research considers that a demand of chestnuts rose. But For folk houses and storehouses, many parts of pillars and beams were constructed with chestnut(Fig. 11).
3. In early Showa period, In common forest near houses area, there were grasslands called “Kariba” where ‘kariyasu’ was planted (Fig. 6). There, villagers picked grasses for industries of horse. For folk houses, a part of pillars and beams were constructed with sugi. For storehouses, continuously many parts of them were constructed with chestnut.
After 1945, Rice field was magnified in near house' area, industry of horse and charcoal making were on the decline. In not only ’Kariba’ but also many parts of common forest, sugi was planted, because sugi could be sold for good price in the future. Chestnut for building material was not planted in those days. For folk houses, single roofs were constructed with chestnut and sugi and so on, some parts of pillars and beams were continuously constructed with sugi. For storehouses, a part of framework , for example wall, was constructed with sugi (Fig. 11).
Villagers thought storehouses were more valuable than folk houses, so storehouses were continuously constructed with chestnut which was stronger. For folk houses, as necessary, sugi was used instead of chestnut.
Folk houses were constructed with kinds of timber which influenced by trees in common forest. In Edo period, chestnut and oak were used for many parts of framework in folk houses. Gradually, such tree species were replaces to sugi (Japanese cedar) (Fig. 12).