In the mechanism of international manpower movement from Bangladesh to Japan, the main focus is how the living environment and social position of return migrant families are improved by their experiences and results of overseas employment. Their accomplishments have a big influence on their own re-adjustment of return migrants. The internal migration of return migrants' families and relatives has accelerated the concentration of population in the capital city of Dhaka District. Moreover, because of the biased chain migration, the decline of rural area has been occurred in Munshiganj District. The international manpower movement has exerted a large influence not only on the living environment of return migrants but also the social structure and the populational movement both in the sending-off countries and the receiving countries.
In this paper, we would like to clarify the way of differentiation among the dwelling unit plans by their spatial configuration in super-highrise condominiums developed in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. In the former part, through the interview to the architects, we illustrate their understanding toward the livingroom-connected type, which is used as relatively compact units, and corridor-connected type, which is used as larger and more privacy-secured units, is structured. In the latter part, we analyze that the variation among the livingroom-connected, intermediate and corridor-connected type is used for the ordering of unit plans, and that the order of the three unit plan types form an axis of values. We also point out that there are a few patterns of strategic unit arrangement in an apartment building and discuss that the architects use the axis to fulfill the various request from their clients.
In this paper, the characteristics of the spatial structure of courtyard style settlement, Baha/Bahi, originated from Buddhist Monasteries are illustrated. Firstly, the transition process of Baha/Bahi from a learning place of celibate monks to ordinary residential place of noncelibate monks is clarified. Secondly, a framework to analyze spatial structure of present Baha/Bahi is developed through examining the relationship between courtyard's surrounding building and courtyard's accessibility which are extracted from spatial structure of typical Baha/Bahi. Lastly, the framework is applied to 65 numbers of Baha/Bahi in the Patan old residential area. As a result, twelve types of spatial structure are discovered and characteristics of major types are figured out.
Echizen-hama is an underpopulated village located in Niigata city. Recently some young artists move to live there for their creative activity and hold the art event, Hamameguri, which uses traditional houses for exhibition space. Focusing on spatial and social transition caused by such an activity of newcomer as the Hamameguri, this study reveals as follow; (1) Hamameguri makes the place that residents and visitors happen to be. And they communicate each other and evolve the Hamameguri into village-wide event in Echizen-hama. (2) Because the traditional social factors that form a spatial character of traditional house are similar to a spatial demand of artists joining the Hamameguri, traditional house is suitable for exhibition space of art event.
Actual condition and problems of after school child care centers are recognized by an investigation of cases in Naha and Urasoe city in Okinawa prefecture involving many high-density cases. In many cases territories of static actions and dynamic actions are overlapping and staffs try to make a partial division of them. Quite a few staffs recognize the importance of spaces where children can be detached. Condition to form living space composition varies according to the type of facilities. Expansion of dedicated room and utilization of external spaces are necessary in order to acquire multi step living space composition.
City skyline is an element of the cityscape, but makes a whole image of the city.This study is to develop the new way of express city skyline with notes of music.After drawing some city skyline with photoes was drawned, pitch and length of tone was measured and transfferred to notes. Through this study, it came out to be possible to note skyline, remaining features which some of the buildings have a characteristic figure of skyline. Skyline seems to consist several pitch and length of line without meanings.With this method of note, it is possibled find the meaning of composition of skyline and compare between cities big and small in one measurement.
The demand expression of “it is desired” is the important expression when we consider the validity of planning. We examined the logical relations in the document of planning among the plan expression, the demand modal expression and the possibility modal expression. As the result, we obtained a logical relation which was always concluded between the three. This logical relation implies that 1) the result of planning should be desired, 2) the result of planning should be possible. However, this relation does not imply that the result of desiring should be planned.
This study shows a way to design architectural/urban space, composed of infinite elements including people, through human behaviors in a daily situation. The study is organized into the following 3 processes; 1) Observation and description of human behaviors at Seika University, 2) Spatial and behavioral modeling and simulations with Cellular Automaton based on rules extracted from the semiotic analysis of step 1, 3) Consideration of an architectural/urban space design resulting from the comparison of the spatial characteristics of the simulated and the observed spaces.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze a knowledge worker's work style. When, where, what kind of work, with whom a worker of a certain status engaged is conducted by a time-budget survey. The relationship between a worker's status and his work style is indicated in the result. A higher-ranking worker tends to stay within an office shorter, to have a meeting longer, to work alone shorter in shorter continuous working time. Worker's line of work and line of business are classified into three categories, which are type of within office, type of outside office and type of intermediate. Each category presents characteristic work style.
Although we still can find a lot of traditional landscape along the Roji where are small alley spaces spread in the central part of Kyoto, but recently, we concerned that these traditional landscape might be destroyed. Therefore, First, we compare the central area with the other areas, Imagumano and shichijyo, whose formation process is different from each other and clarify the difference of their urban block. Second, we pick out and analyze the Road Contact Failure to grasp the sorts and the situation of distribution. Third, we survey the relation between the site and road to recognize the law of Kyoto and inquire into the possibility of the solution to Deregulation.
The aim of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of the everyday consciousness, daily and community activities of the nomads living on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar and the apartment complex dwellers in the urban areas of the city based on the results of actual condition, questionnaires, and interview surveys to obtain basic knowledge for creating the living and residential environments of apartment complexes in urban areas (urban apartment complexes) based on the regional characteristics unique to Mongolia. The results of the surveys revealed that a heightened sense of community and invigoration of various community activities with resident participation in co-operative activities contributed greatly to the creation and maintenance of good living environments. On the basis of the fact that Mongolians, including the nomads and apartment complex dwellers, have a heightened environmental consciousness, the creation and maintenance of green and community spaces in shared outdoor spaces and the performance of community activities with resident participation in co-operative activities and the reuse and recycling of resources among residents and neighboring districts will also contribute to creating good living and residential environments in urban areas, stimulate communities in urban apartment complex areas where these activities are rare, and reduce the environmental load.
In this paper we analyzed effect of Micro Credit in Resettlement Site with research of NGO staff and residents who belong to Micro Credit group. The results are as follows. (1) Micro Credit has economic effect in terms of life reconstruction through loan supply for economic activities in Resettlement Site where economic activities are difficult due to geographical and spatial features of Resettlement Site. (2) Micro Credit has social effect in terms of community formation through Micro Credit activity and re-organization of household relationships in Resettlement Site. NGO staff and residents organized Micro Credit group by using Neighborhood relationship and Blood relationship which were succeeded from previous settlement. And they also created new relationships which are across these existing relationships. (3) These results show possibility of Micro Credit as a method for sustainable residence in resettlement site design after natural disasters.
Authors have been conducting the field research on the former Spanish colonial cities under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities since 1999. In the Spanish colonial period, cities were planted and established in Philippines. This paper focuses on Cebu city which is the first city established by Spain in Asia. As cartographic database, images and maps from AGI(Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), other archives and libraries in the Philippines are used for analysis. Through the analysis of the colonial maps, authors discuss the Spanish Colonial urban process in the Philippines Island. This paper clarified formation and transformation process of Cebu City and present formation of urban core of the city based on the field survey on the distribution of facilities, building types, and so on, finally discuss the characteristics of early formation and urban planning comparing other Spanish colonial cities like Manila, Vigan and those of Ibere-America.
This study aims to consider the effectiveness of the Vacant Land Management (VLM) project by PHS in order to revitalize neighborhoods in Philadelphia.The VLM is composed of following two programs; one is the Vacant Land Stabilization Program (VLS) and the other is the Community Land Care program (CLC). The VLS is the program that changes vacant land/lot in target area of Green City Strategy by PHS and the City into interim greening open space. The CLC is the program that employs community based organizations, which can keep vacant land/lot clean in the designated area for management. Both programs can improve urban setting and stimulate affordable housing redevelopment in the abandoned neighborhood.
The objectives of this paper is, selecting downtown Kumamoto City as the case, first, to understand the features of downtown visitor's behaviors of rambling and consuming activities, including the spread of visiting areas, and second to find out guides for downtown planning that will be able to promote visitors rambling and consuming activities. The authors conducted hearing survey for 1416 visitors, at the time of their departure from the downtown, on their rambling and consuming activities on that day. Through a multivariate analysis that used 6 indices, as well as the observation of mapping data on their area for visit and shopping, those features are found: there are five types of visitors, that vary in the amount of consumption, the length of rambling route or the area of visit, length of stay: consideration on the layout of exit or entrance points to the downtown, large store, and major shopping street will be able to promote rambling activities of visitors: the existence of small shops and service facilities along narrow streets behind the major shopping streets will attract visitors of various socio-economic features to the downtown.
Taking Weipo village for example,this study is focus on how to protect the historic villages in rural China which were abandoned for modernization,and how to effectively use them in regional development as cultural resources.By field survying,analyzing residence types and planar structures,also comparing with other regions,this paper comes to a conclusion the Weipo traditional village is the architectural form which combined topography feature with quadrangle,additionally adjusted spatial distribution in narrow site(space).
This study clarifies the cause of scenic change along the Metropolitan Expressway and the influences on the visual impressions received from the sequential landscape. In more detail the following has been identified. 1) The change in scenery is inconstant but there are sections where significant change can be identified. 2) The significant change in scenery is mainly influenced by the curvilinear form and visual structure of the expressway, not by the surrounding urban fabric. 3) The impressions received from these sections where siginificant change can be identified tends to be “beautiful”, “modern” and “unique”.
This study analyzed the deregulation of height restrictions in the reconstruction of existing non-conformed buildings in height-control-zones and clarified following four items. 1) Since 1998 this deregulation has become widespread and has been adopted by approximately 80% of municipalities that have introduced height-control-zones. 2) The number of existing non-conformed buildings has influenced decision-making pertaining to the deregulation of height restrictions. 3) In contrast, the astringency of height restrictions has no real relevance to decision-making that pertains to the deregulation of height restrictions. 4) The application of deregulation is roughly comprised of two types. One is characterized by a cautious stance towards deregulation. The other is characterized by the automatic application of all items that adhere to uniform conditions and procedures.
Architectural offices embrace the concept of relationship marketing in general because relationships are considered important in the provision of professional service. The focus of this study is building a model for architectural offices to make a strategic decision based on positioning theory and link this to relationship marketing theory. To be more specific, I shall define the architectural offices based on the Coxe's Superpositioning matrix, in which professional design offices can be positioned into 6 categories. Then, I shall discuss relationships closely linked to the position based on Gummesson's 30Rs and the Superpositioning matrix. Additionally, I shall discuss the structural features of architectural offices and the concept of some matrices that can position them as well as the concept of the relationship marketing.
Japanese general contractors, the giants in particular, have been leading R&D activities since the period of high economic growth. Assuming that their R&D activities are directed to their customers' needs and that the specific needs create specific value network of the market, this paper analyzed patents applied for relating the two contrasting building markets, i.e. condominiums and semiconductor factories, differentiating the role of general contractors. The analyses using‘entropy’of the groups of patents in regard to the patent classification and the networks of joint appliers has revealed the fact that the positioning of general contractors' R&D in the condominium building market has shifted from the internally-and-externally integral to the internally-and-externally modular quadrant whereas with semiconductor factories their positioning appears to have converged in the externally modular and internally integral quadrant, suggesting that their R&D activities do depend upon the value network of their customer industries.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the utensils for tea-ceremony in Japanese Traditional Furniture Reference Books-concept of architecture-. The trait of a historical transition and the description of the utensils for tea-ceremony in 40 Books were analyzed. The conclusions are as follows. The number of items of tea-utensils in a functional classification is most, and the main content. It expresses the importance of tea-utensils among various furniture in books. As the characteristics of the description, several kinds are collected about one tool or furniture, the design size is detailed sometimes shown in old-rin-unit, and details like the material and finish, etc. are described as for the design.
The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristic of o-chaya with character of the amusement in Fukuoka domain. O-chayas is divided into two types by how to use. One was used for public; Hakozaki and Sokoino correspond to this. The other was used for private; Yusentei and Aratoyama correspond to this. The commonness of Hakozaki and Sokoino is to have the view of the superb view. This commonness is the same as private o-chaya and can place it with a characteristic of o-chaya with character of the amusement. These constructions started from in the middle of Edo period.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the historical transition of the purification cortex techniques called "ARAI" in Japanese traditional architecture. "ARAI" is one of a sophisticated traditional technique, in order to preserve the old wooden Japanese architecture. It is also important in the problem of what to do with the patina when we preserve an ancient architecture. To clarify the history and techniques of "ARAI", the investigation of the historic document and the hearing survey to the workmen are done. Then we verify aesthetics of an ancient wooden building technique considered from the purification cortex.
Uozu was a stage in Kanazawa-Han. Ota-ya, Oyado and Honjin were lodgings used by feudal lord for stay and rest in Kanazawa-Han during Edo-Era. Through the examination of historical materials, following results were ascertained; 1) Before 1783 Several Oyado or Honjin were used as a lodging. 2) In 1783 one house such as Oyado or Honjin was desingated to Ota-ya. 3) Plan of Ota-ya in Uozu was simlar to plan of Otaya in Higashi-Iwase and Urayama.
This thesis clarifies that did the arrangement of the house that enters from gable side in Kameyama from the 17th first half of the century to the 18th first half of the century, by 'Machikata-kajiba-sadamegaki'. The roof of these houses was tiled by the grass, and was weak to a fire. A fire is wide to the distance with a house next door in the vicinity. Therefore, there were a lot of destruction at a fire. Therefore, it changed into the roof of the tile in the latter half of the 18th century.
This paper seeks to clarify the spatial constitution of the Mejiro campus of Gakushuin, in the consideration of process of the school building construction, site planning and each building in campus. The campus of Gakushuin planned by Masamichi Kuru, the chief architect in the Ministry of Education, was the original suburb type: uses vast space and consists of school building and dormitory. It was based on the Ministry of Education planning and also Gakushuin' s educational policy in its design. Furthermore, the spatial constitution of Gakushuin is original in Educational Facilities of the later Meiji era.
This paper focuses on how Amis indigenous people's living environment was improved by Japanese government's policy during the colonial period in Taiwan. In 1930s, Japanese governors established regulations of public facilities such as lavatories, canals, cemeteries and shines for Amis villages. The governors also created two types of new dwelling house plans (Kairyoubanoku) to improve Amis' original houses. The regulations and the plans were made based on Amis' traditional customs and Han's dwelling house plans. It is thought that the purpose of the Japanese policy was to modernize Ami's lifestyle. The policy made great influences on Ami's living environments and some of them can still be seen in the villages today.
The main aim of this report is to analyze the constructional characteristics of Saint George Church (1657) and to check which of the two theories made by Yurchenko (1969) and Dragan (1937) is more realistic. Each theory makes the claims of the unusual form of the narthex and position of the door in above-mentioned church. Fieldwork was undertaken to accurately document the size of building materials and construction of the foundations for all parts of the church. As part of the methodological design, 131 church plans in the Lviv Region as well as a further 55 church plans in the Ivano-Frankivsk Region were analyzed to find out the forms of the narthex which were commonly used in those regions. Also, the meaning of the form of altar and position of the door within it were studied. Based on the above, it can be concluded that the narthex of the Saint George Church (1657) was made of the altar of the church from Nadievo Village, Ivano-Frankivsk Region which means that Yurchenko`s theory is more realistic than Dragan`s one in this context.
It is clarified that the book“City Crown”edited by Bruno Taut had a subtle structural outline in order to appeal the decline and the rebirth of urban image, composed of a theoretical essay with an architectural project by Taut, visionary poems of an expressionistic poet, a critique on social theory by a journalist and an essay on art history by a modernistic critic. The architectural thought created by Taut is discussed on following topics: 1. architecture as a medium of rebirth, 2.‘social’thought, 3. universality transcending Europe, 4. concentrated city image with a void core.
The aim of this study is to clarify the compositional characteristics of ‘urban delta area’ in special wards of Tokyo. Urban delta area is defined as territory surrounded by civil engineering structures, such as elevated railroad, elevated highway, waterway. Initially, the combination about the elements on the edge of delta area is investigated. Secondly, architectural volume in / adjacent to the delta area, and the size of delta area counted by the numbers of city blocks are investigated. Finally, 8 compositional types of urban delta area are generated through the characteristics above-mentioned, which are based on the mechanism in mixture of building and urban environmental elements.
This paper aims to describe the spread of 1950's city fireproof movement and its actors. The previous studies have clarified the central movement and public sectors as its actor. Although various actors containing the private sector will be envisioned as its supporters who enabled the spread of the movement, such studies have not been done. So this paper will grasp the fireproof movement synchronically and diachronically, especially clarify the existence of the various sectors throughout the country and their background possibly, and will draw rough sketch of the whole movement through these works.
In this study, the way city residents understood, responded and interacted to urban reform projects in the Meiji era of Japan is analyzed through one of the projects as a case example. The case example is the urban reform project called the Three Major Construction Projects which was carried out by Kyoto City during the end of the Meiji Period. The road widening work and the railroad track construction for streetcars which were conducted in this urban reform brought revolutionary changes to traditional residential organization. Negative reactions toward the project was observed during its planning period and shortly after planning decisions were made which caused protests against the plan. However, once land acquisition had begun the progress of the project became relatively smooth. The resident organization called Cooperative Association, which was established in the same period of time as the project, played a role in the process. Established based on the traditional style of resident organization, the Cooperative Association helped to organize actions of the residents systematically for the government agendas, such as urban redevelopment, for the entire city.
The purpose of this study is to explore the preservation concepts of the Pike Place Market Historic District in Seattle, which was one of the earliest examples in the U.S. that included ideas of neighborhood conservation. To analyze the way to raise the concepts I studied the ideas and opinions expressed by the citizens' group advocating to preserve the district, especially by Victor Steinbrueck (1911-1985), an architect and the leader of the group. The study shows that the preservation concepts based on Steinbrueck's socialism and regionalism were emphasized more clearly through a criticism on gentrification after the late 1960s. At that time Pioneer Square District, another historic district in the downtown, had succeeded in revitalizing by adaptive reuse of historic buildings, but at the same time low-income residents were forced out by steadily rising land prices and rents. Concerning that the communities around the Market would be lost for the same reason, Steinbrueck and other activists insisted to maintain communities and their activities as well as to preserve the market buildings. Thus the neighborhood conservation ideas were raised from a criticism against not only the urban renewal plan but also the historic preservation project that aim primarily to vitalize real estate market, and after the 1970s, such ideas were adopted in historic preservation policies of Seattle and other American cities.