This paper examined the factors affecting residents' acceptance of the support in terms of “trust” to others based on the action research on support for improvement of temporary houses and environment after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. We achieved questionnaire and interview research for the residents of temporary houses in Motoyoshi-cho, Kesennuma-city and analyzed how they accepted the supports. The results are as follows they shows that residents depend their decision not only on support based on technological approach but also on social and psychological approach including trust building. 1. Characters of residents' decision to accept the supports Some residents accept the support (countermeasure to hotness and coldness) because they properly understood the problems and technology with their knowledge or experience. However, other many residents couldn't understand them enough and depend their decision on “trust” to others. The former ones recognize “ability” of the supporters based on skills to archive the improvement. The later ones expect attitude of supporters as volunteers or students more strongly than ability of supporters as experts. For the later ones, sympathy to other residents are also important factors facilitating their decision. In addition, some residents more properly understand supports after acceptance of them than before through their continuous involvement to the improvement (ex. maintenance and repair etc.). Furthermore, limitation of resource and ability of supporters sometimes leads the residents more actively participate to the support. 2. Relationships of factors affecting acceptance of the supports Uncertainty relating to the technology and the support causes residents to feel them load. They have negative effect on residents' acceptance of the support. Other psychological factors as diffidence and hesitance also affect the acceptance. Continuous involvement (ex. works and maintenance and knowledge sharing) in temporary houses seems to be mere temporary relationships. However, trust building to others and technology acquirement sometime advance through the continuous involvement. In that case residents accept the support and achieve countermeasure by themselves with not only individual effort but support from others. In addition, effect of the support for residents are not only direct effect of the countermeasure (solution of coldness and condensation or technology acquirement) but also indirect effect as acquiring opportunity to communicate with volunteers. Supporters tend to evaluate supports in terms from physical improvement. However, not a few residents regard communication itself as purpose to accept supports. 3. Consideration on the support methods based on the results Firstly, uncertainty relating to the technology and the supports have to be reduced for keeping better precondition to supplying the support. It is efficient for the supporters to share information and make common recognition and mutual understanding among supporters and residents. Secondary, it is efficient to introduce more concrete and direct communication such as display of improvement model and explanation meeting for residents when residents have to decide acceptance of the support. “Trust” is important because it is difficult to remove uncertainty completely from the support activities. In order to build trust, roles of non-specialist such as students and volunteers are often important and specialists have to conduct them to achieve technological support appropriately. Thirdly, continuous involvement such as maintenance, communication and follow-up to problems are efficient to pull out more active involvement of residents.
The authors have examined the housing demands of one-person households in the twenty-first century with the aim of proposing housing design guidelines for one-person households. This paper focuses on the effectiveness for the elderly of improving the relationship between community and their houses, among various measures to support their lives. Its aim is to propose concrete improvements in housing design contributing to the more secure and fruitful lives of the elderly by studying elderly one-person households according to their ages and regions. Multiple-person activities, which are exchanges important for the elderly, need to be examined from both living and mental aspects. The living aspect refers to exchanges in the support for instrumental activities for daily living (IADL) such as shopping, cooking, and washing, which are usually performed alone. For some elderly people, it is difficult or impossible to carry out these activities for themselves; they need to cooperate with or rely on others. The mental aspect refers to exchanges through common hobbies or values, or social roles of helping others — exchanges leading to pleasure or motivation. In addition to these two aspects, there is also a community activity aspect, which is exchanges through community activities or events and helps keep connections with neighbors. These three aspects were used for the analysis. Concerning the living aspect, exchanges tend to penetrate into houses depending on the physical condition of the elderly. In this case, the elderly mainly interact with their blood relatives such as family members and relatives, but some interact with their neighbors. Exchanges in the living aspect are vital to households without blood relatives, who need to develop relations with their neighbors. Therefore, it is necessary to facilitate exchanges in the community activity aspect within their houses. Concerning the mental aspect, the elderly mainly interact with their friends and acquaintances; many of them do not seek exchanges in community. Although the sites of the exchanges are mainly outside houses, exchanges with friends and acquaintances are also found inside houses. As the elderly age and cannot move easily, however, they start to interact with their blood relatives or neighbors largely inside their houses. As in the living aspect, it is necessary for households without blood relatives to promote the community activity aspect. Concerning the community activity aspect, exchanges are mainly conducted outside houses. Although exchanges in the community activity aspect are those keeping connections with neighbors, some of them were found to develop into relationships of friends and acquaintances. If neighbors turn into friends, facilitating exchanges in the mental or living aspect, it would lead to a better life. Since the way people use space in houses is different among regions, the authors examined the elderly in suburbs and those in rural areas separately. In suburbs, exchanges in the community activity aspect tend not to penetrate into houses. One of the reasons can be that there is no space at the entrance to sit and talk. In rural areas, space beyond the entrance, such as an unfloored space, is large, or there is a room continuous to the entrance. These layouts facilitate conversations with others. In addition, if the entrance itself is equipped with a window, providing a good view, and comfortable to stay, passers-by can sense what is going on inside the house and enter it easily.
In recent years, an increase in vacant house and building space has been pointed out as a result of changes in social structure, such as a population decrease. National and local governments are also trying various measures. On the other hand, the need for welfare facilities for children, the elderly, and people with disabilities has increased because of an aging society, normalization, the need to support a balance between work and child care, and so on. As a measure to take advantage of both situations, efforts to renovate and utilize existing buildings for the establishment of welfare facilities have been attracting attention. In this paper, such renovation and utilization for welfare applications will be referred to as “welfare conversion.” This study examined the awareness and evaluation of welfare conversion using a questionnaire survey given to the municipal department that holds jurisdiction over welfare services for children, the elderly, and the disabled. The survey was also given to the fire department. In addition, we collected welfare conversion cases of which each department was aware and administered the questionnaire survey for the collected cases. A comparison of these responses revealed the difference in awareness levels between the bodies involved in welfare conversion. The area surveyed included Tokyo and six prefectures in the Kanto area. Regarding the will for and progress toward the promotion of welfare conversion within the municipal jurisdiction department and the fire department, the relationship between will and progress was analyzed based on items that were considered its factors. According to the summary, a number of municipalities answered “do not know.” Despite the increase in welfare conversion cases, it was found that welfare jurisdiction departments did not capture the actual situation and trends properly and also did not establish a system for proper guidance. It should be noted that many of the welfare jurisdiction departments, which was carried out the intention that welfare conversion should be regulated or not, had a positive attitude toward welfare conversion. As evaluation factors, benefits such as location, cost, and reduced time requirements as compared to new construction have been recognized. On the other hand, there has also been recognition that equipment and systems such as plumbing in kitchens and baths are difficult to adapt to new uses. Based on this fact, it can be said that the sharing of collected cases and the knowledge of appropriate conversion techniques are effective in promoting welfare conversion. Also, it has been pointed out that institutional development directly connected to the benefits of the converted facilities and local government action such as induction of subsidies by nation and prefecture are needed for welfare conversion to increase. In addition, according to the questionnaire survey of cases that were actually converted, answers were generally positive as to the means by which conversion was obtained, while there were reflections on the environment of the converted facilities. In responses from facilities for the disabled, there were both positive and negative opinions of the conversion. The jurisdiction departments of welfare services for the disabled have concerns that people generally lack sufficient understanding of facilities for the disabled, and it is possible that there are similar concerns at the other types of facilities. Moreover, the study revealed a lack of common recognition of the procedure flow of all parties involved in a conversion project. Safety is especially required in welfare facilities as compared to other facilities. For this reason, when welfare conversions are performed, there is a need for the conversion program to reflect the opinions of users and staff, not only the advantages for the local governments and facilities operators.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the regionality of schoolchild care facility supply situation of the old local government unit and to estimate the number of registered children of the elementary school district unit in Shikoku district 4 prefectures, and to consider the supply method of schoolchild care facility for the future. The results are as follows. Each old local government in 2000 was able to classify into five types, called Urban type, Flat-ground type, Middle type, Mountainous type A, and Mountainous type B. The old local governments classified into Urban type and Flat-ground type are located in a city area and they have more schoolchild than the old local governments classified into other three types. Although the establishment rate of schoolchild care facility in Urban type and Flat-ground type is over 100%, other three types are under 100% and the disparity between urban type and mountainous type is large. About the institution type of facilities, standard type (S single type) with which one facility using a school is installed in one-school division occupied one fourth of the whole, moreover, the other type (O single type) utilized other facility than school also accounts for twenty percent. Regionally, although S type accounts for about 70 percent in city area, applying to mountains area, S type decreases in number, and O type facility increases. It is thought that after-school facility improvement which applied a part of the existing public facility of school neighborhood and private sector facility, and the management cooperated with the community organization etc. are held. Based on the local type in consideration of the differences of geographical conditions of Chugoku and Shikoku region, the facility institution rate and the relation of local conditions were analyzed. These regions ware divided roughly into 3areas, Setonaikai coastal area where the rate of city and plain area is high (Kagawa, Ehime, Okayama, Hiroshima, and Yamaguchi Prefecture), San-in area where the rate of mountains area is high (Shimane, Tottori Prefecture), and the Pacific coast area where the rate of mountains area (especially mountainous type b area) is high (Tokushima and Kochi Prefecture). The facility institution rate exceeds 90% in Kagawa, Okayama, Hiroshima, and Yamaguchi Prefecture of the Setonaikai coast area, but, it is as low as about 80 percent in Ehime Prefecture where the rate of city type area is low. In order that the facility institution rate in intermediate and mountainous areas is relatively high, the prefectural average institution rate is as high as about 90 percent or more in Shimane and Tottori Prefectures. On the other hand, in order that the rate of city area is less than ten percent, and the rate of mountains type b area is high, the prefectural average institution rate is 70 to 80 percent in both Tokushima and Kochi Prefecture. In city area, although prepared by 1 or more facilities according to the number of pupils in school division, there are many facilities exceeding 40 persons of standard, so the facility increase is the subject. In mountainous area, in order that there are many school divisions facility has not prepared, facility improvement in few candidate pupils is the subject.
In 2012, the Japanese government revised the Child Welfare Act to improve support for children with severe disabilities. Previously, inpatient facilities were classified according to type of disability. However, after the law’s revision, these facilities were merged into the category of “medical-type facilities for children with disabilities”. Such facilities must adhere to standards for number of staff, room types, and room sizes, but not for floor plan or layout. Further, the facilities have not performed adequate verification for changes in facility usage and requirements.
This study aimed to verify the usefulness of the new layout at Center K after its transition from a facility for children with motional disabilities to a medical-type facility for children with disabilities. We investigated the following four aspects:
1) Children’s attributes in both facility types.
2) Children’s usage rate of locations by day (weekday vs. weekend), season, and unit.
3) Nurses’ and nursing teachers’ nursing actions and usage rate of locations.
4) Behavioral changes in children who were transferred from the old to the new facility type.
We selected Center K as the site for this case study. At the center, a new medical-type facility for children with disabilities was built in 2016 near the older facility for children with motional disabilities. We performed field research at the center before and after the transition in 2015 and 2016, respectively.
1) We recorded the size, position, and orientation of furniture and beds in each facility type.
2) We collected resident demographics such as age, gender, and primary diagnosis and severity.
3) We observed and recorded locations, behaviors, and postures of nurses, doctors, nursery teachers, children, and families on a floor map by using a tablet computer.
We evaluated the usefulness of three planning proposals by analyzing four items: children’s attributes, children’s usage rate of locations, nurses’ and nursing teachers’ nursing actions and usage rate of locations, and behavioral changes of residents who were transferred from the old to the new facility type.
1) Unit configuration
A 3-unit configuration based on severity was proposed for the new facility. However, this was modified to the following 3 units based on severity and gender: highest severity, boys, and girls. Although this differs from the proposal, it shows the usefulness of a 3-unit configuration. Staff members belonged to a single team for all units and were not divided by unit. It will be necessary to reconsider the location of the staff stations and dispersed functions.
2) Room configuration
As the children had more severe conditions and an increased prevalence of severe motor and intellectual disabilities in the new facility compared with the old facility, bedroom occupancy in the new facility was higher. In addition, the number of children with infectious diseases increased, so bedroom occupancy increased significantly in order to protect children with a high risk of infection in common spaces. This increasing bedroom occupancy in the new facility shows the usefulness of the proposed room configuration and room facilities. However, no children’s activities used the living space in the quad room.
3) Community space configuration
The usage rate of the dining space in the new facility was higher than before. It seems to be the reason that it is located inside the ward, rather than outside as it had been in the old facility. One child with less severe mobility disabilities could walk over a wider area in the new facility, assisted by the distributed layout of the day space, dining space, and play spaces. This case serves as an example of the usefulness of integrated community space.
In medical facilities with obstetrics, the In-hospital midwifery care system to make use of the specialty of midwives is promoted. On introducing this system, space planning and living environmental improvement for maternal care are carried out. This paper aims to grasp recognition for current environment in evaluation of puerperants and midwives, and requirements of environmental improvement for maternal care with this system. The questionnaire survey was conducted at two facilities with different spatial independence for obstetrics; all rooms are placed in obstetric space and shared with obstetrics, or all rooms are placed outside obstetric space and make it dedicated to the system. The research object were examination room, LDR, hospital bed room and nursing room. The investigation contents were evaluation for environmental improvement and satisfaction level of each room. After considering based on survey results by simple aggregation, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and principal component analysis, the conclusions are as follows. 1) On comparison of two facilities, there was no significant difference in consciousness for environment between puerperants and midwives, in spite of difference in spatial planning between them. 2) Though midwives appreciated environmental improvement of current situation higher than puerperants, they was not satisfied yet. There was a tendency for midwives to seek higher level of spatial environment 3) Midwives was strongly aware of need for individual response environment for securing privacy and guidance or nursing in improvement of hospital bed room. 4) Puerperants tended to emphasize satisfaction of space for delivery and inpatient life. Midwives tended to emphasize ergonomic aspects of furniture to come into contact with people. 5) As evaluation consciousness for midwifery space, "Functionality" related to midwifery behavior, "Environmentality" related to daily activities and "Privacy" related to personal actions were grasped.
This research is directed to the facade of all 47 locations of express way rest areas. Relationship psychological evaluation and color configurations are quantitatively grasp and analyzed. 1) Psychological evaluation received from the facade of the express way rest areas was found in the experimental results by the SD method. Psychological evaluation structure of the express way rest areas have been aggregated into a 4-axis of the "cozy," and "Japanese and Western style," and "unity," and "venture". By using these representative rating scales, the results that enables to capture comprehensively was obtained. 2) The degree of an impression dot map was made to thrust at the element and the arrangement which tend to be pointed out and catch quantitatively. I got the strength of the degree of impression received from a facade in rest facilities from an experimental result. 3) I added up a form to constitute the facade of expressway rest areas. The form that is easy to be pointed out, It was square type (53 places) and trapezoid type (31 places), signature type (22 places) and house type (ten places), half circle (ten places), others (14 places). 4) The form and the relations of the size were tendencies with many indication elements of the 1-15 (pixel) degree. 5) The multiple regression type showed relations with the degree of the impression in the form of plural for the psychological evaluation. As for the influence of each form, as for the signature type or the half circle, influence to give a psychological evaluation was provided generally although it was low. 6) I checked the position of the indication thing every each break facility to clarify a characteristic of the placement of the indication element. A tendency collected in the left side generally from the center was seen in the tendency of the placement. In addition, there were the most F lines and tended to have it pointed out with the row of A - J in the height direction.
The village studied in this research is Onoura, a village in Toyo island found in the Seto inland sea. Onoura has a unique landscape with high-density housing, narrow alleys, and varying elevation. With depopulation and aging in the area, the landscape heritage and space for socialization are threatened. This paper aims to describe how the village of Onoura is supporting everyone, especially the elderly through productive outdoor socialization. For people living in rural areas, opportunities to go outside the area for recreation and social purposes are very rare. So to improve the quality of life of the people in rural areas, especially the elderly, we need to create places that are conducive for socialization. Furthermore, this paper aims to analyze the distribution and behaviors of the people in the public area of Onoura and how they address the challenges regarding the physical structure of the area. The measures devised to obtain data are: (1) surveys to investigate the occupation and utilization of the public areas that are affected by the residents' perception of personal space, (2) the time sampling procedure to record behaviors of residents in relation to time-patterns, (3) behavior mapping to investigate the nature of activity, and (4) the last one, interviews, to investigate the perception of the residents. In conclusion, results of the study show: (1) positive actions by residents' autonomy in the use the public area. For instance, residents voluntarily encouraged the use of the public area, and this activity contributes to the formation of the village of Onoura, (2) the relationship between the composition of villages, how residents spend their time outdoors, and the factors that affect retention/stay, (3) The outdoor space that people stay in is also considered a place for local residents to watch over and care for each other.So it possible that this outdoor space where people stay can be a place for informal care system in the area.
The renewal maintenance of the public facilities becomes the important problem of the Japanese local government. The maintenance of the public facilities by the compound type is one of the one solving this problem. Therefore, it is expected that plans to maintain a library in complex public facilities increase. This study is intended to grasp the condition of the plan to install a library in complex public facilities. This article examines the influence that complex public facility gives to the use of the library after having grasped it about the facilities situation of the library.
The procedures of the analysis are as follows: 1. Grasp the situation of the library from a collection of books scale, an exclusive possession area in a setting form, the establishment year. 2. Grasp the situation of an established library from municipality type and agriculture area classification. 3. Grasp the situation of a library installed in the complex facilities from a kind, the installed number of public facilities, a combination pattern. 4. Examine the influence of facilities installed in complex facilities on users' use by libraries.
The results of the analysis are as follows: 1. The facilities condition of the library to install in the compound complex becomes severer than the construction in the independent building. It was revealed that limitation about the floor space was particularly big 2. It was revealed that it was more effective than municipality type to use the agriculture area classification as an analysis item. 3. The meeting place, multipurpose hall, government building, lifelong education facilities, culture facilities were typical examples of public facilities installed in the complex facilities. The numerical value that was the highest in a setting ratio of the public facilities was 53%, but the high numerical value of a frequent setting ratio was around 30%. 4. It was revealed that the number of the library visitors increased by installing it in the compound complex. However, in the public facilities prepared into the compound comlex facilities, there was the facilites which had no effect which increased the visitor of the library.
This study investigates the framing systems and semantic range of structural terms in Japanese and British vernacular timber house roofs. Typological analysis of frame forms reveals that British roofs are based either on “single-framed” systems, where inclined members stand alone, or “double-framed” systems, which incorporate both inclined and base members; whereas, Japanese roofs are based solely on “double-framed” systems. This difference reflects semantic differences between the inclined members of both countries. The semantic range of the English “post”, “strut”, and “brace” is not always reflected in that of the Japanese counterparts, but the respective ranges are superimposed upon one another.
Several small fishing villages were destroyed in the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Since 2012, we have conducted a research project named, “Study of Village Reconstruction based on Locality and Diversity of Areas in the Ogatsu Peninsula, Ishinomaki.” In the project we have helped residents plan moves to higher ground, where community centers and disaster public houses were built. We also researched the surviving housing and villages in the area. The present study aimed to clarify subjects of planning of new towns made via group relocations for future disaster prevention in those villages. First, this article shows planning conditions concerning the size of residential land, road shapes, shape of retaining walls, and consideration of community sustainability. It then verifies the rationality of the plans of new towns via a survey of relocated residents regarding selection methods of land and selected residential land. The research clarifies a number of points: 1) Outer ring roads are needed for managing retaining walls and cliffs in the construction of land in new towns. Many irregular housing lots were resultantly created. 2) The new towns are shaped differently from the villages before the earthquake. Previously, houses lined both sides of the roads, which aligned with the valley. Many of the new towns are surrounded by an outer ring road. Planners, including us, worried that interactions between residents would subsequently decrease compared with before the disaster. We therefore planned sidewalks to facilitate regular flow of people between homes. This plan was effective for maintaining daily interaction. 3) Lots for public post-disaster housing were made in the same new town as lots for self-made houses in the peninsula area of Ishinomaki City. The public housing was built as detached houses on each lot. Regarding placement of lots, the opinions of owners of self-made houses were prioritized because they were expected to live there longer than residents of public housing. As a result, in most towns, lots for self-made houses were situated with ocean views. 4) Lots in the new towns were selected through lottery or discussion. Residents were divided into owners of self-made houses and tenants of public housing, and decided their method independently within each group. Residents greatly appreciated this method. Responses to our survey indicated about 70% of residents were satisfied with their choice after moving, while about 60% were satisfied with the decided lot on which they lived.
This study examined the relationship between single-person households in the 20s, university students and Urban-Life-
Housing in Seoul. Single-person households in the 20s are mainly concentrated in Dong within 2km from the university
campuses, and has a strong correlation with university students of 4-years universities. The accommodation rate of the
4-years university dormitories is 12.8%. And the private sector is supplying 3 types of Urban-Life-Housing less than 40m²
outside the universities. The 4-years universities were classified into 25 groups, using kernel density analysis of Urban-
Life-Housing within 2km and classified into 4 patterns. The results showed the locational features and density distribution.
There are many historic spaces with alleys in central Kyoto. In the process of urban development, many of these spaces naturally developed as living space for people. Kyoto's historical townscape with alleys has commonly been considered its special charm. However, in recent years, such townscape is steadily disappearing. Against such a development, measures to protect these alleys are being initiated in Kyoto city. With the central area of Kyoto, known as Tanoji area, as the subject, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the disappearance of alleys by elucidating the transformation of plot, the transition of ownership, and changes with respect to use of buildings, over the period from 2006 to 2016. First, the alleys that disappeared during this period were clearly identified. The total number of alleys in the subject area declined to 391 from 424 in this period—33 (7.78%) alleys disappeared. As for the disappearance, there was a rapid rise in 2007, which was followed by a general decline up to 2009, and thereafter, it again started to increase. In recent years, the rate of disappearance is increasing in the southwestern area. The following three typical patterns of disappearance of alleys were identified: 1. A pattern where the plot of land that includes the alley is sold by the owner, and as a result, the building along the alley are demolished. The purchasers of such land are usually business corporations. Immediately after the alley disappears, the resulting plot of land is amalgamated with neighboring plots, creating a large enough plot of land, where very often, collective housing are built. In some instances, a trend is observed where parking lots are initially built, and within a few years, collective housing are built on such land. 2. A pattern where the individual owners of the land, including the alley, or the individuals who get ownership of such land through inheritance rights, decide to demolish the existing building along the alley and replace them with a new detached house. In such instances, since no amalgamation of plots is undertaken, even though the detached house may be built on more than one such plot, the official division of land still shows the alley as it was prior to its physical disappearance. 3. A pattern where a parking lot is built after the owner of the building along the alley demolishes them. Although the land used to build a parking lot often comprises multiple plots, since no amalgamation of plots are undertaken, the official division of land may still show the alley as it was prior to its physical disappearance.
The restructuring of public facilities is a important problem in aging society and shrinking population. The reduction of the number of the facilities is progressing and old community centers are unified to new public complex facilities. On the other hand, it is hoped that classrooms, which are not used because the number of children is decrease, are positively used for community activities. The purpose of this study is to grasp the intentions of school managers and users of community activities. Based on the difference between the intentions of both, it was cleared how elementary school facilities should be used for community activities. Furthermore, comparing the results of Ichikawa with those of Shiroi, regional differences of intentions of school managers and users were cleared. The concrete results are as follows. · The school managers are positive to accept community residents in school. However they are negativie to make users use rooms in school buildings. On the other hand, users are positive to use school facilities and they want to use rooms in school buildings for various actitivities. The intentions of both are different. · The school managers image community residents who have close relation with school as user. The users hope to use school facilities which are near from their home and are easy to access on foot or by bicycle.The intentions of both are almost the same. · The school managers hope to make users use the school facilities outside school hours because users don't disturb classes in that time. The users hope to use the school facilities from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. that overlaps with school hours. The intentions of both are different and it is considered tha exclusive room for community activities which is available in a multi-purpose is necessary. · The users are evaluating the existing elementary school facilities and it is cleared that there is little Improvement demand of facilities. For the active use of elementary school facilities for local community use, the improvement of the software side such as operation method is more important than that of the hardware side such as renewal of equipments of the classrooms. · In Ichikawa and Shiroi, there is little difference in the intentions of use and actual situations of use. It means that intentions of school don't have influence on the intentions of users. · In Ichikawa, when users choose the school which they want to use for their activities, they give priority to the relation with school. In Shiroi, users are thinking that the distance from the home is important. It is considered that the difference of traffic situation of these cities has influence on this result.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristic, the reason for institution and the issue of view protection with conceptual definition. The authors analyzed the landscape plan of 664 organizations (local governments) that instituted the landscape plan and extracted system of view protection with conceptual definition. As a result, 176 view protection districts from 85 organizations were selected as research subjects. The main contents clarified in this research are as follows. 1) The system of view protection with conceptual definition are operating for 176 districts from 85 organizations, and there are many relevant cases. 2) Four components of the system of view protection; view target, viewpoint, view protection district, view protection standard are classified into concrete type, conceptual type and no type. ·The high tendency to become conceptual type is view target and view protection standard. ·View target tends to become conceptual when it is a panoramic type for natural objects, and the view protection standard tends to be a qualitative. ·Viewpoint and view protection standard are sometimes no type, therefore it is deeply concerned about that no type cannot protect the view than conceptual type. 3) Through analysis of the questionnaire survey, it is clarified the main reason operated the system of view protection with conceptual definition are following. ·View target and viewpoint are included the wide area, it is difficult to decide a range concretely. View target and viewpoint are designated with conceptual definition, it is also difficult to decide view district concretely. And view protection standard are difficult to set the uniform height standards when the view protection district is a wide area and has various landscapes. ·Many organizations did not adequately record the process of instituting the system of view protection based on a conceptual definition. This is an issue in properly managing landscape planning. 4) It is considered there is no serious obstruction of view fortunately. However, some issues are pointed out when administrative officer explains the development company. For example, as it is hard to understand concretely four components of the system of view protection with conceptual definition, a judgment between administrative officer and the development company is sometimes different. Therefore, it could go wrong that view might be obstructed in the future. 5) It is desirable to change the conceptual type and no type to the concrete type regarding the system of view protection for solving these issues in the future. 6) The future task is to clarify the actual state of system of view protection with concrete definition and to consider the whole perspective.
In recent years, the Japanese government is paying attention to utilizing foreign workers. As a measure for this, the utilization of persons who completed practical training in the Technical Intern Training Program (TITP) in the construction industry and expansion the period and number of recipients of the TITP. These are clearly securing the labor force. However, the acceptance policy is currently "skill training”. In this paper, field survey on building production system in Singapore implemented three times from FY 2014 to FY 2016 summarized the introduction process and actual circumstances of various systems related to foreign workers in Singapore. Also, by organizing the its framework, we will grasp actual conditions and issues. I believe that this paper can contribute as reference material when considering the foreign worker acceptance system in Japan. Foreign workers working in Singapore have changed from Malaysia and China, through Thailand and India to Bangladesh and Myanmar. Naturally, if own country becomes rich, you do not have to go abroad to work. Therefore, there is no compensation for Singapore to keep foreign workers for everlasting. From this influence, it is thought that emphasis is placed on policies for restraining foreign workers and productivity improvement in recent years. In recent years, attention has been focused on utilization of foreign workers. From this situation, it will become a future issue for Japan that build an international strategy to win the competition for securing human resources with neighboring foreign countries.
The following is a summary of a part of Singapore's policies and institutions considered to be helpful.
·About dual policy with productivity improvement As a countermeasure against the labor shortage of their citizens, system design that integrates foreign workers' utilization measures and productivity improvement will be helpful. In particular, measures to alleviate the stay conditions of workers who acquired skills can be evaluated as measures that are beneficial to both workers and employers.
·About the system for skill improvement It is characterized by the establishment of a skill development system within the wage system guaranteed by the government. For example, it is a practical exam before entering the country which is a condition of WP, promotion to MYE or R1, etc. Since many of the foreign workers in the construction industry belong to subcontractor companies enterprises of a small-scale, it can interpret that the social development framework and the support of the former contractor business are operated in the system.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this study is to clarify the type of building arrangement and the factors of spatial formation of Okura-syo owned by Daisyoji Domain that was a branch family of Kaga Domain: head family of the Maeda Family. The Okura-syo for collecting the tax rice in the Daisyoji Domain territory were four places. But, only an Okura-syo in Nagamachi of the Daisyouji Castle Town was maintaining a form of Okura-syo. Also, there is the detailed historical materials on the spatial formation of Aramachi-Momikura-syo that stocked the "rice in the husk" for famine relief. From the above, Idecided to take up the Aramachi-Momikura-syo as an object of this study, and to compare the Nagamachi-Okura-syo with the Aramachi-Momikura-syo. Chapter 2: The previous studies and the procedure of this study were shown. Chapter 3: The spatial structures (history, elements of spatial structure, building arrangement and architectural elements of Okura) of the Nagamachi-Okura-syo and the Aramachi-Momikura-syo were shown, and I examined commonality between the two. Those elements of spatial structure were the same. As for the building arrangement, there was a period when both Okura-syo became the parallel C type. Technique of spatial design of Okura-syo in Daisyoji Domain was considered as follows. First, two or three storehouses form the center part, then new storehouses are built as surrounding a storehouse that is near to front gates. A group of buildings formed a square shape by the above technique. There were several partitions and an entrance hall in Okura. The entrance hall in front of the Okura was a depth of about 3.6 meters, and was connecting all the doors of Okura. From the above, in the case of the Daisyoji Domain, it was considered that the spatial structure of Okura-syo which collected tax rice and the spatial structure of Momikura-syo which stocked the "rice in the husk" for famine relief are the same. Chapter 4: I compared the Okura-syo owned by Disyoji Domain and the Okura-syo (parallel C type) owned by Kaga Domain, and clarified the characteristics of the former. The elements of spatial structure were the same, but the shape of group of buildings were different. The reason was considered the difference of technique of spatial design mentioned above. In addition, each Okura had a name (center, direction) which mean the position of building in the premises. Such name was seen only in the Okura-syo owned by Daisyoji Domain. In the case of the Aramachi-Momikura-syo, an Okura located at the center of the premises was called “left Storehouse”. But, “left Storehouse” formed the center part with “Right Storehouse”. And, at the other Okura, the name meaning the position of building in the premises was seen. I could find out such centrality of the Okura-syo owned by Daisyoji Domain. On the other hand, the characteristics about the entrance hall of Okura were not seen. Chapter 5: In conclusion, the building arrangement of Okura-syo owned by Daisyoji Domain was formed by technique of spatial design that was different from Okura-syo owned by Kaga Domain. For this reason, we categorized the Daisyoji-Okura-syo as Daisyoji-han type. The factor of spatial formation was the spatial consciousness called the centrality.
This article paid off the activity that Daikiti Taki performed in Kansai from about November, 1888 to February, 1891, and considered “Kogyo-yogakko” which Taki founded, “Kogyo-yogakko-kougiroku” used in this school, and the process of the bound volumes publication of “Kentikugaku-kougiroku”. It is the following points to become clear. In “Kogyo-yogakko” which Taki and others started on June 1, 1890, a class was performed three times every week of Friday, Monday and Wednesday from 18:30 to 21:00. And the separate volume of “Kogyo-yogakko-kougiroku” launched as a correspondence course in “Kogyo-yogakko” on October 5, the same year was published afterward on 25th on 15th on 5th of every month. Taki moved to Tokyo in February, 1891, he changed the name of an “Kogyo-yogakko-kougiroku” separate volume to an "Kentikugaku-kougiroku" separate volume afterward and continued publishing it, but the publication of the book stopped soon from June, 1891. "Kentikugaku-kougiroku" separate volume, continuing publication began in July, 1893 by pushing of Yoneziro Yoshihara, the publication of this book was 20th every month. The book met the final number of in August, 1894 and worked on editing, and "Kentikugaku-kougiroku" bound volumes was published on April 15, 1896.
This article adds the consideration to the photos that taken of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge by W. K. Burton after the Nobi earthquake, and the following points are clarified. 1) The picture of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge taken by Burton after the Nobi earthquake can confirm 12 sheets of five pieces of P(1) to P(5) which were picked up at “THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891.”- hereinafter, GEJ- and seven pieces of P(6) to P(12) that were paid to the Imperial Household Agency because of GEJ's non-collection. 2) The shooting spot of P(1) was on the 3rd girder of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge, Burton faced the west, and photographed the 3rd bridge pier, the 4th girder, the 4th bridge pier and the 5th cymbal. 3) P(2) was photographed the Railway Bridge facing the northwest from the southeast of the 3rd iron leg, centering on the 3rd and 4th iron legs of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge that was affected. 4) P(3) was photographed desiring north from the levee of the left bank on the east side of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge. 5) P(4) was shot a little away from the levee of the left bank of the Nagara-gawa, facing the north desiring the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge. 6) P(5) was taken to the west-northwest of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge from the top of the bank. 7) P(6) was taken on the fourth bridge piers of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge, facing north from the south side. 8) P(7) was taken at the southern side of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge 3rd pier, facing the north. 9) P(8) is similar to P(3) but was taken in the original picture, facing the north from the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge east bridge side. 10) P(9) was taken from the south side of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge 4th bridge piers facing the north. 11) P(10) was taken to the north northeast on the south side of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge 2nd piers, from a close position. 12) P(11) was taken from the south side of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge 2nd piers toward the north. 13) P(12) was taken from the south east of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge 1st Pier to the northwest and the whole was taken. 14) The shooting of the Nagara-gawa Railway Bridge by Burton was considered to be the request from J. Milne who had already conducted the survey, and a relatively large number of photographs of this bridge were taken at GEJ.
The architectural treatise “De Architectura”, written around 20 BC by Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, is known to be the best-preserved example of writings on architectural theory in the Ancient Mediterranean civilization. The core elements of the Vitruvian design theory, which were the proportional method of design known as the “module system”, and the analogy between architecture and human body, have influenced many architects and artists since the Renaissance Period, as seen in Leonardo Da Vinci's “Vitruvian man”, Albrecht Dürer's proportional studies, and Le Corbusier's concept of “modulor”. In contrast to the unequivocal significance of the Vitruvian treatise, the contents of his architectural theory has remained a subject of controversy. Due to the frequent usage of Greek words in Vitruvius' “De Architectura”, it is generally accepted that most of his ideas were derived from Greek writings. However, this only sets the terminus ante quem. Taking Ancient Egypt － where Greek philosophers, mathematicians, astronomers, historians and other intellectuals have studied － into consideration, and conducting a comparative analysis with the Hellenistic design method shines new light upon the possible origins of the concept of the module system, which hitherto has been considered a Greek invention, and would enable us to re-unite the scattered fragments of Ancient Mediterranean architectural history. Analyzing the Books III and IV of the Vitruvian treatise, a clear distinction between the module system of the Doric and Ionic style can be made. The Doric system uses a single module that defines all parts of a building. On the other hand, the Ionic system, which Vitruvius described as “the most sublime”, builds a chain of modules. It starts from a single module, as the in the Doric system, but some of the dimensions defined by the first module become the secondary modules and define further sets of dimensions. This process repeats until all parts of a building are exhausted. Concerning the technical drawings from Egypt, two examples of elevation drawings of an Egyptian shrine reveal the design method. A famous example, the so-called “Ghurob Shrine Papyrus”, shows the use of a grid as guidelines for drawing the front and the side elevations of the shrine. It is noteworthy that the width of the post and the thickness of the lintel are designed to have exactly one square of the grid. The rest of the parts are defined as simple unit fractions (1/n) or the value added or subtracted by them (1 ± 1/n). The second elevation drawing of a shrine is not drawn on a grid, but is drawn with notations of numbers and actual dimensions. The numbers are noted in demotic at each part of the shrine, again, the width of the post and the height of the lintel designated as “1”. In both examples, the Egyptian system implies the use of a single module system. Comparing the Egyptian and the Hellenistic module systems, the Doric system and Egyptian system used for shrines can be regarded as identical. The Ionic and other styles that evolved in the later period share the multi-modular system. The aim of such module systems was to adjust the appearance of the building, particularly the façade. Hence, it is natural that the use of the module concentrates on the elevation phase within the entire design process, and that it plays a less significant role in the prior phase of designing the plan and the overall size of the structure.
Byzantine architecture diverged from Late Roman architecture beginning in the 7th century, acquiring distinctive characteristics. In this body of architecture, the so-called ‘cross-in-square’ churches offer characteristic examples. Many previous studies have classified the cross-in-square into various sub-types, mostly based on variations in their plan, while few studies have discussed the relationships among the sub-types or possible chronological development. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the chronological transformation of the cross-in-square from 9th to 12th centuries, or Middle-Byzantine period, using as many churches as possible whose three-dimensional information is available (95 churches; Fig. 3; Table 1).
First, the churches were categorised into 17 types based on the wall part: according to the arrangement of arches and the number of the highest arches (Fig. 4), the shape (horizontal section) of the supports (Fig. 5), the number of the bays in the churches and the methods by which the arches and supports are connected (Fig. 6). Then, the churches were categorized into 11 types based on the ceiling part: according to the way the arches were arranged and the number of the highest arches, the number of ceilings and the number of transverse arches at the western and the eastern corner bays (Fig. 7). In total, 24 categories emerged from a combination of the wall and ceiling elements.
Then the features of each category were labelled according to the arrangement of arches and the number of the highest arches, e.g., the Arch-8 pattern, the Arch-4 pattern, the Arch-6 pattern, the Arch-2 pattern, the Arch-2’ pattern and the Arch-2(wall) pattern. Through the comparison, two lineages of these categories were distinguished, along with an additional group where the relationships among the elements were not clear but where the overall architectural configuration was similar. One lineage consisted of churches with 12 bays and ceilings, where all arch heights were the same, the horizontal sections of the supports were round, the supports and the arches were discrete, each corner bay had two transverse arches and the corner bays were covered with cross vaults or domical vaults (Aα-type; Fig. 10, upper). The other lineage came from the churches with 9 bays and ceilings, where north-south arches were higher than the other arches, where the horizontal section of the supports were quadrangular, where the supports and the arches were continuous, and where each corner bay had one transverse arch while the corner bays were covered with barrel vaults (Gδ-type; Fig. 10 bottom). The former lineage changed over time, decreasing the number of bays and ceilings, changing the horizontal section of the supports from round to quadrangular and eliminating the use of transverse arches, while the latter lineage changed by quadrangular horizontal sections with circular ones, decreasing the number of transverse arches from one to two and increasing the number of bays (Fig. 9). The planning pattern of these churches therefore tends to converge over time: previous sub-types (as shown in Fig. 1) overlooked such chronological changes, as they do not focus on three-dimensional characteristics of the structures and mixed architectural configurations (Fig. 9).
In short, this paper shows the chronological transformation of the cross-in-square churches and their distinct lineages in terms of the interior architectural configuration, which previous studies simply grouped as cross-in-square and regarded as largely unchanging because of their focus on the architectural plan alone.
The discovery of Horatio Greenough, the “pioneer of functionalism,” and the reevaluation of his architectural ideas in the mid-1930’s would subsequently affect the architectural debates in the U.S. in the field of historiography. The history of history, as it is called, of national identification in architecture is traced here, through extensive research on the references to him in narratives by the classicist camp towards the first establishment of coherent images of the classic tradition of American architecture both in theory and in practice in 1947, with the investigation into the prehistory when the two they considered contradicted each other.
This paper aims to clarify the spatial composition of the standard cabinets as the “equipment” by Le Corbusier (1887-1965), in order to discuss the revolution of the notion of interior “decor” in the 20th century. At first, we pick up the discourse concerning the standard cabinets in the architectural projects for private houses, and classify them as the methodology of interior setting of a building (Chapter 2). Next, we extract the case examples of the studies of the cabinets from all Le Corbusier's private house projects, and clarify the secular change of the realization methods of the cabinets (Chapter 3). Finally, we discuss the reasons and the implications of such a transition about the spatial composition of houses (Chapter 4). Le Corbusier has already proposed a prototype of interior life space in the occation of the construction of the pavilion L'Esprit Nouveau in 1925. At that time, he mentioned three methods of setting the standard cabinets: to incorporate (“incorporer”) into the wall - cabinet (in) -, to put (“appuyer”) on the wall - cabinet (app) -, and to separate (“disposer”) from the wall － cabinet (dis) -. However, although he replaced the stylized furniture with a standardized mass production cabinets, he could not realize from the biginning all three types of the cabinets : cabinet (in), cabinet (app), and cabinet (dis). In the private house projects from the 1920s to the 1930s, cabinet (app) was often applied due to the restrictions on site conditions and the requests of daily life from the owners. This is methodologically the same as the setting of the conventional decorative arts. Houever, what Le Corbusier aimed was the cabinet (dis) as partition separaterd frome the wall to escape from the trational furniture as the decorative arts. It was greatly affected by the opportunities of the mass-produced housing researches after the First World War and of constructions at the remote locations. That is, it was necessary for the architect to detach the cabinets from the immovable wall surface in order to automatically set up them without controlling all construction processes on the spot far from the architect. It was also partly effective to answer the details of various requests of the owners. Such a cabinet (dis) has been continuously studied after the Second World War, and finally, it was not only independent from the wall, but also it was itself being studied as movable cabinets. On the other hand, the cabinet integrated with the wall, which could not be realized in the 1920s, was examined by houses with vault roofs. Unlike houses with pillars and floors as structural framework, Le Corbusier examined the cabinet incorporated into the wall, due to the large number of walls supporting the vault roof. Such a cabinet (in) was pursued further in India under the tropical climatic conditions, for the necessity of ventilation not obstructed by furniture. The realization of the standard cabinets by Le Corbusier does not develop linearly, but expands to the both poles while continuing to the methodology of the decorative arts. Although this result seemingly contradicts, whether movable cabinet or incorporated cabinet, it can be thought that Le Corbusier's studies of the standard cabinet was the research of a new "wall".
We previously discussed the framework of the image of towns which promote themselves as Koedo/Shokyoto (little Edo/Kyoto) through an analysis of the words on sightseeing brochures published by local governments or tourist offices. The former studies focused on the contents of their historical value, we found 132 Value groups which represents hierarchical meaning network of their value. In this report, we focus on the structure of Value groups which was not considered in the previous reports, to clarify hierarchical structure of each town's historical value (Table1, Fig. 1, 2 and 3). Firstly, structure of all Value groups were examined individually from following four aspects of the distribution of Value objects, component elements of Value groups; Form of layer, No. of 2nd level connection, Level of subdivision and Focused connection. Combination of No. of 2nd level connection and Level of subdivision was considered, two contrasting forms of structure were found; one has a large number of subdivision mainly on the upper layer, the other has a large number of subdivision mainly on the lower layer. In these structure, primal Value objects which start the tree structure have different characteristics as follow; one of the former structure's Value object is richness of meaning, one of the latter structure's Value object is integration of meaning (Fig. 4, 5, 6 and 7). Secondly, according to the placement of Value objects' History which directly related to Edo/Kyoto, Historical character of Value groups was grouped into following four categories; Diverted-history main, Diverted-general, General-diverted, General-history main (Fig. 8, 9 and 10). Diverted-history main was related to less subdivided structure, and Diverted-general was related to much subdivided structure. Finally, in order to capture the whole hierarchical structure of each town, the set of Value groups in each sightseeing brochure was considered (Fig. 11, 12, 13 and 14). As for Integrate type towns which contain one value group, Koedo towns tend to have the structure with Focused connection, and Shokyoto towns tend to have the structure mainly subdivided on the lower layer. Dispersed type towns which contain several value groups were divided into following two types based on the comparison of their structural complexity; Master-servant type and Parallel type. The latter was divided further into Parallel-equal type and Parallel-different type. As for Master-servant type, Koedo towns tend to place much emphasis on the Value groups directly related to Edo. As for Parallel type, Koedo towns were more related to Parallel-different type, Shokyoto towns were more related to Parallel-equal type. These results suggest distinctive hierarchical structure of the image of Koedo and Shokyoto: Koedo makes sparcity and density of meaning in the value network, to emphasize the elements which directly connected to image of Edo. Shokyoto towns less make density difference of that, to express consistent image of towns as miniaturized Kyoto.
The square determines architectural form beyond differences in region, era, scale, and function. For example, symmetry and centrality within square were frequently used as an autonomous form to mediate the overall construction and composition. Former studies, such as Munari (1960), Isozaki (1997) and Evans (2000) have reported that square plan could easily be found in a lot of contemporary architectures in several diverse schemes. Although, types and internal standards have not yet been organized.
The purpose of this research was to clarify typological structure and existence of regularity in contemporary architecture made of square plan. Research started with gathering all square planned works, published in major architectural media in Japan, and analyzing 416 works using Cluster Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Prior to the multivariate analysis, 1 - 0 matrix was created from the data on the presence (=1) or absence (=0) of compositional elements.
Results could be summarized in the following statements, 1. Architectural geometry is defined as the three stratums: compositional geometry, projective geometry and signified geometry, which require analysis in consideration of size. 2. Explication of linkage structure between the compositional elements by using Cluster Analysis and Correlation Analysis. 3. Examining the typological structure by using MCA and Cluster Analysis. 4. Discovery of latent structures which define types; a. symmetry and asymmetry of the compositional elements. b. unity and plurality of the compositional elements. 5. Explication of character of the morphological structure in consideration of size by using CCA.
The study investigates conservation challenges of the rock-hewn churches of Tigray, Ethiopia, with focus on traditional remedial techniques and current conservation challenges of the churches. A case study in the rock-hewn church Wukro Cherkos is conducted to identifying traditional remedial techniques, investigating current condition and impacts of recent conservation interventions and reactions of the clergies and local community. The result shows that, the traditional conservation techniques were poorly understood, inadequately analyzed but massive interventions were causing more damage and water leakage is the major source of deterioration. Thus, an intensive research and documentation of traditional conservation systems is recommended to realize a comprehensive conservation mechanism.
This study describes the influence of home economics teachers’ housing education skills on their confidence and the methods and content of their classes. The main findings were as follows. (1) Confident teachers use a greater variety of methods in their classes than teachers who lack confidence. Confident teachers acquire their skills with these methods from their own wide and deep learning. (2) Teachers who are highly skilled in their classroom methods devise teaching materials, and create effective ways for students to learn through experience. (3) Teachers who are highly skilled in their content selection are no more effective than teachers skilled in teaching method, but confident teachers from the skilled in class content group are equivalent or better than those from the skilled in teaching method group. (4) A confident teacher includes content such as region, safety, health, etc. in addition to basic knowledge, but teachers who lack confidence draw on fewer teaching methods in class, and class content is more limited. (5) Teachers who are highly skilled in class content teaching have a higher implementation level of lesson class content than confident teachers. Teachers with high content skills carry out a wide range of activities to cover content in class. Basic knowledge of housing and housing environments is implemented, and deep learning, welfare housing environment and global environment problems are also typically covered. (6) The teachers highly skilled in teaching methods are not as effective as teachers highly skilled in class content, but their abilities exceed confident teachers. Teachers highly skilled in teaching methods are often also skilled in class content selection. (7) Teachers’ confidence derives from the number of units studied at university, and the number of opportunities they have had to join workshops after becoming teachers. (8) In some cases there was a mismatch between housing educational skills and confidence, as follows: (a) Teachers with high housing education skills and no confidence had attended workshops after becoming a teacher. Their educational skills were high as a result of the training, but they still lacked confidence because of the limited number of relevant units studied at university. (b) Teachers with low housing education skills and confidence were confident because they had been exposed to many units at university. However, they appeared to believe that housing education is not very important, and because of this they had participated minimally in relevant workshops once they had qualified and their housing educational skills were low.