While vestibule pressurization smoke control systems are now popularly used in Japan, it cannot be said that a rational method for determining the required rates of air supply has been well established. This paper proposes a practical design method of vestibule pressurization smoke control systems. This method comprehensively covers the fire scenarios corresponding to every stage of evacuation, namely, fire room evacuation, fire floor evacuation and whole building evacuation, and the air supply rates are determined to meet all the criteria for assuring the safety at these stages. The calculation procedure consists of a set of simple formulas for pressure and opening flow rates developed based on the average pressure difference concept so can be followed only by the use of a hand calculator.
The experiments were carried out to confirm how the evaluation on an exterior color of building was influenced from the colors of the foreground buildings. Main results are as follows. 1. Comparison acts on the evaluation of attractiveness, and assimilation acts on the evaluation of harmony and the necessity of the restriction oppositely. 2. As for conspicuous building, it is not easy to harmonize with the surroundings and the necessity of the restriction is also high. 3. The building stands out well, is not harmonized easily by the color difference with the foreground buildings large, and the necessity of the restriction rises further.
As part of the International Daylight Measurement Programme (IDMP) proposed by CIE, the authors have been observing daylight illuminance and solar radiation very closely in Chofu city, Tokyo since December 1992.The authors sought a correlation between daylight illuminance and solar radiation, using data collected every minute for five years between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997 among the data from the above-mentioned observation. It was discovered that the luminous efficacy of the total component was 127lm/W, that of the diffuse component 145lm/W and that of the direct component 102lm/W. On the assumption that the direct illuminance was known and in accordance with the Bouguer formula, the authors formulated the diffuse illuminance with a polynomial expression based on the solar altitude (sinh).
The two models have been offered in the author's previous papers. One is the method for identifying parameter of the water transfer properties in the soil, another is the model to predict the evapotranspiration from the lawn surface, taken into consideration of the influence on the characteristics of evaporation from bare soil. This work is performed to verify whether the models for test pieces are applicable to the real natural covering fields or not. By using the models for the playground of bare soil and the neighboring grassland, the volumetric water content of the soil and the surface temperature, the latent heat and the sensible heat of both the playground and the grassland are estimated. The computed results well simulated observed ones. Considering the accuracy of the observed data, the models are fairly satisfactory in the cases of the real natural covering fields.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference of preferred air temperature in summer. The experiments were combined in climate chamber where we could regulate air temperature inside. The subjects who were 29 healthy women regulated air temperature for 120 minutes. The results were as follows; Preferred air temperatures were from 23.6℃ to 30.8℃. The average of the preferred air temperature was 27.0℃, and standard deviation of that was 2.0℃. At the preferred air temperature, the mean skin temperature ranged from 31.8℃ to 35.0℃. There were differences from person to person in skin temperature and the heat loss.
We made a series of subjective experiment for understanding the relationships between various cooling strategies such as cross ventilation, the use of small fans, the use of air conditioners, various behavioral patterns such as the choices of cooler paths approaching to the building in question, the change of clothes, and thermal sensations. The votes and behaviors of the subjects were recorded by video cameras so that the subjects were not forced to answer simplified single-scaled questionnaires and their behavioral patterns, which should be found in actual thermal environment, are not distorted. It was found that most of the subjects in a naturally-ventilated room were very sensitive to the fluctuation of the air current in the given thermal environment and at the same time very active in having coolness. It does not necessarily require lower temperature provided that the subjects reach the room walking in from the cooler outdoor environment. In the case of the set point temperature of 25℃, the subjects wearing ties felt cool and comfortable, though the subjects wearing no ties felt cold and uncomfortable. In other words, it is possible that wearing no ties enables the subjects to feel cool enough and comfortable with higher set-point temperature.
Video camera calibrations and field experiments have been performed to develop a new method of measuring air change rates using a video imagingjtechnique. Thecalibration of video camera usedifor broadcasting showed good correlation between image signals and luminous reflectance of achromatic color chips. This was achieved by appropriately adjusting the pedestal level of video camera so that the image signals were made equal to zero for the black level of the picture. The 8 mm video camera caused non-linearity at low luminous reflectance due to the narrow dynamic ranges. In the field tests, air change rates in the test house were measured from the decay curves of video image signals obtained by the step down method assuming perfect mixing of tracer particles inside the spaces. The smoke candles were used as tracers, and the mean diameter of the smoke particles ranged from 0.77 μm to 1.06 μm. When adjusting camera f-stops and illuminance for the experimental conditions, it was verified that the digital video method could measure air change rates with virtually the same precision as derived from the decay curves of smoke particle concentrations using an aerosol monitor.
The purpose of this study is to standardize measuring strategy for HCHO concentration which can apply to field investigation at various residences in Japan. In this paper, several methods were used for measuring in one room simultaneously and validated by comparison with active DNPH method. For field investigation, the detector tube is appropriate to measure HCHO concentration. Passive DNPH method is useful for determination of population exposure. We suggest that using active DNPH method with monitoring by the detector tubes, measurement should be carried out 3hours after ventilation and closing openings in occupied residences, and one night after in newly-built residences.
The design of a cogeneration system must deal with relationships between power and heat demands and the many decision factors that appear during the design process. In addition, the amount of energy demand is only an estimated value, and in actual system operation, it is impossible to avoid dispersion from given conditions. It is therefore becoming increasingly important that design evaluation add robust characteristics as an evaluation index. This research uses a simulation model to examine how operation for energy demand that deviates from given conditions can effect system evaluation when system COP is used as an index of evaluation.
Breathing walls were installed on opposite sides of a scale mock-up model of a housing structure that was situated in an artificial climate test room. We analyzed properties of transfer of heat and moisture for the inflow/outflow air due to wind pressure across the breathing wall. A time lag of the heat transfer is several minutes at a wind velocity of 3m/s and 8m/s, which effects on heat flux across inner/outer surface and heat recovery amount. No continuous situations of internal condensation occur, even at the maximum pressure differential, which corresponds to the wind velocity of 8m/s.
Energy and carbon emission intensities are derived from 1995 input-output table in Japan. Intensities of building materials such as gravel, concrete, plywood, steel and tiles are analyzed in detail. Consequently, the percentages of carbon intensities from the direct energy input and the cargo transportation of those building materials are known. Also the percentages of CO_2 emission from the building industry and the civil engineering industry are calculated, which decreased to 9.5% and 9.7% of all CO_2 emission in Japan compared with 12.1% and 11% in 1990.
This study is based on the OECD survey on sustainable building policy in July 1999. 45 energy policies and 54 energy-related policies from 16 countries and EU are analyzed in detail. Building sector is responsible for one third of total energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. This study highlights advanced policy examples and tries to identify significant measures and main barriers for energy efficiency and CO_2 reduction policy in the building sector. Finally, some comments and proposals on Japanese relevant policy are described, so as to overcome Japanese difficult situation where the CO_2 emission is growing rapidly in spite of severe Kyoto target.
With the expanding sizes of housing estates, greater importance will be attached to maximizing sunshine on the open space around housing blocks. The objective of this study is the standardization of effective planning conditions based on the number of sunshine hours, sunshine, and shadow on the play lot in relation to the housing or apartment block arrangement and tree layout. Based on the whole-day sun shadow diagrams in summer and winter of about 150 play lots in the Tama New Town Housing Estate, the changes in winter sunshine on the play lots are divided into eight patterns. A suitable block arrangement allowed sunshine to fall on the children play lots (slit effect). With regard to the relation between the use of play lots, sunshine and shadow, sunshine has been largely requested mainly for infants who require constant attention.
This paper aims to study the history and the present situation of elemetary schools in the US, focusing on school built after 1940's, open plan school, and contemporary suburban school. The study was based on the review of related literatures and the field researches done in various schools, different in size, age, type, education and system. Research methods used were interviews to staff, tour the building, observing and mapping of class activities. The findings are as follows. 1) Community involvement to school planning and management is important for supporting school for a long periods. 2) Successful open plan schools, old but unchanged or new type, are supported for its flexibility for individual learning, breaking down the size of spaces for privacy, experienced staff, and communication with community. 3) Successful schools are supported for downsizing for close relationship between staff and students, individual curriculum for student's interest. 4) Cluster plan is popular in contemporary suburban school for easy grouping students and flexiblity in learning unit.
Large Commercial theaters are often tried to rebuild as complex facilities to increase their business profit. I chose five of these theaters and compared them with simple theaters, in order to evaluate their spatial composition. I analyzed the composition of their mixed use, surveyed their sites, and studied both contextual and programmatic relationship to the neighborhoods around them. I also conducted interviews with their managers. The conclusion is that complex theaters have much more potential for profit than simple theaters.
This paper aims at considering to reform 'spaces of each grade' by analyzing formations of furniture arrangement and style of learning and living activities. In this study the following subjects were surveyed on 'spaces of each grade' of 5 public primary schools. 1)Measuring of furniture arrangement there, 2)observing class' activities all day, 3)mapping of pupils' learning and living activities. Finally, through those survey, these conclusions indicated. 1)There are some various of furniture arrangement and style of learning and living activities in 'spaces of each grade', and these can be classified some types. 2)It's clear that furniture arrangement and learning activities affect each other. 3)The meaning of the space in which no furniture are arranged can be found by researching formations of pupils' activities there.
The main objective of this paper is to examine how the level of public nursery provision as part of the child-rearing environment in urban areas will have influence on women's behavior towards childbearing and labor participation. We also examined the relation of mutual causality between women's fertility behavior and labor participation, which had hot been demonstrated clearly in past studies. The method of covariance structure analysis is employed in this paper. In order to analyze three causal models, which are based on previous theories and empirical analysis, we use the 1995/96 data of all Japanese cities. Our empirical results can be summarized as follows: First, we have found that the expansion of the level of public nursery provision in urban areas is one of the desirable social policies, which make possible for women to pursue careers and raise families simultaneously. Second, it was clarified that the higher is women's labor participation in urban areas, the more promoted is fertility behavior.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how to use the wheelchair in elderly residential facilities. For this objective, different types of elderly residential facilities were surveyed by means of observation and deep interview. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1. The moving speed of the wheelchair that elderly persons operate is about 20-30% of that the persons who are not elderly operate. 2. In the facilities, as for the wheelchair that the elderfy operates modular type wheelchair is, good 3. The moving distance is shortened, and the environment which reduces mental burdens is necessary of the wheekhair user of the elderly.
This study considers the effect of ceiling height on impressions of volume and behavior in small spaces(1.8-3.6 sq. m.). Subjects in four experiments compared a room in which ceiling height was varied, to a fixed reference room. In 2 experiments, single subjects experienced the rooms in three prescribed postures then answered a questionnaire concerning spatial impressions. In 2 other experiments, a number of pair(1 female/1 male) groups, experienced the rooms freely, followed by a questionnaire; modes of behavior were observed in one experiment. Questionnaires solicited data on 'positive' or 'negative' pressure, comfort, and intimacy.
In order to have the high recognition without being affected by the generic-flooring for vision-impaired pedestrians in public space, the construction of tactile indicators was discussed. The sensory test by 12 vision-impaired persons was carried out. The result shows that setting up the intermediate-flooring between tactile indicator and generic-flooring improve the recognition. And a higher contrast between generic and intermediate flooring or tactile indicators and intermediate-flooring shows higher improvement of recognition. When contrast is 2.7 or higher, recognition improvement effect is evident at 5cm of intermediate-flooring and this effect increase with the proportions of width.
The purpose of this study is to find out distinctive features of the exterior design preference of houses when it is compared between urban dwellers and rural dwellers. The items of this survey are as follows; the preference of the exterior form, the preference of the interior elements, the preference of the name of housing-space, the preference of the annual events. The result of analysis is as follows. 1) 4 typical patterns are extracted as follows; I type (The type of the preference of western style and contemporary life style), II type (The type of the preference of Japanese style (and traditional life style), III type (The type of the preference of Japanese style and western style and traditional life style), IV type The type of the preference of anti-Japanese style and anti-western style and anti-contemporary life style) 2) The factor to provide for the type of the exterior design preference of houses is a difference between the age group and the residence area. 3) There are a lot of I types and are even a lot of one's forties in the urban. The age that I type is rivaled to II type is in one's fifties from one's forties.
This paper contains the subject about SC (shopping center) opened in 1973 and 1993. The purpose is to grasp characteristics of the combination between tenants in the SC, the location arid the access condition. Firstly, the study made clear the combination between tenants by the Quantification Theory IV. Secondly, it substantiated the assumption that the SC had hierarchy structure made of key-tenant, sub-key-tenant and tenants by the three dimensional cross tables and the schematizing. In concluding, the tenants that have strong relation to the others are 4 in 1973 and 7 in 1993. The SC has changed from the goods selling to the including service trades.
This study is aimed to make clear the spatial conditions supporting common space management by residents at the detached housing areas. The intention to self-management of common space is supported by using, daily spontaneous cleaning and the intention to owning common space jointly by residents. These 4 factors including the intention to self-management are influenced by the spatial composition, the ownership and the burden of management costs.
The central area of Furukawa-cho in Gifu Prefecture is notable for its unique townscape mainly consisted of newly built vernacular houses which inherit from regional traditional architectural style and are still increasing. In this study we analyze the process of formation of the present townscape in Furukawa. We also aim to acquire the knowledge needed for future planning in this area. Based on photographs, field survey and hearing, analysis was made from two points of view; architectural style and townscape. Issues; of our analysis are such as transition of styles, process of creation of the new type of "Machiya" (or townhouse), change in the proportion of each style, obstructions to the harmony of townscape. We also clarified the importance of the role of architects who coordinates the design process of new type of houses which contribute to the area's townscape.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the actual situation and problems about special permits regarding the Lot-frontage requirement of the Building Standard Law issued by local administrative agencies, by examining historical and legal backgrounds and also by conducting empirical studies. Our results show that: 1) the special permits have been used in order to provide relief measures to illegitimate lots and alleys which were accumulated in. densely built-up urban areas; 2) in granting the permits, it is required to consider additional conditions after studying the possible impact of the relief measures on the neighborhood
Place des Consuls in Alexandria has been transformed along the three chronological phases, that is, the first (1834-1883), the second (1884-1951) and the third (1952-1997). In each executed square in 1855, 1917 and 1997 respectively, the relationships between the open space and the surrounding buildings are analyzed in terms of 1) proportion, 2) 'urban ties' by open spaces and 3) function. Although the original square with the strict proportion of D/H=3 and the 'urban ties' by the galleries inside the commercial/residential buildings was based on the land regulations in 1834; it has been facilitated to the dissolution by the bylaws in 1891 and the laws in 1952.
Authors surveyed architectural offices in Fukuoka prefecture to define the business condition and also the district characters from a macro point, by analysing the facter of office per population and the difference between the main and side business and the registrant and licenced engineer, the formationa of capital. The result are as followed: there is a clear difference of distribution between the 1st and 2nd licensed office, the later at urban area, althought the small private office is principal. And at the point of side business, the 1st has a tendency to belong to larger firm, instead of 2nd to smaller.
Many unscrupulous real estate agents pressured small landowners into selling their plots, to consolidate and sell them on at a huge profit, in many areas in center of Tokyo when it was in bubble economy. Nishitomohisa-cho in Shinjuku-ku is one of the typical area of those, where many plots are left as car parking or empty houses. We studied the actual condition of land-ownership relations of this area, and showed the method which led to make a residents consensus of redevelopment.
This paper discusses applicable framework to organize regulation systems in which the "Performance-based" approach is applied. Through comparing analysis among examples of four countries, the following frameworks are identified and regarded to be also useful for international harmonization ; The essential feature of "Performance-based" regulation systems could be understood as the structure for organizing "Objectives", "Requirements" and "Solutions" independently and establish relationships among them. "Requirements" may consist of "Function" and "Performance", though current state-of-the-arts of related technology may restrict the use of "Performance" to specify "Requirement". However, "Performance standards" may use reasonably as "Deemed-to-satisfy Solutions".
The previously reported papers proposed new systematical methods based on "Construction Process Chart" which can express many planning items and their mutual relationships, and have the capability of enabling supervisor in the front line to formulate plans efficiently, and regarding many planning items comprehensively. Concerning the application of construction process chart methods, this paper focuced on safety planning and assessment on construction works, and proposed some improvements in construction process chart methods. Then, the author cleared the necessary arrangements for safety planning, and pointed out required items to take safety measures. Moreover, the author developed essential algorithms of practical safety planning procedure, and carried out a casestudy to substantiate the effectiveness of the improved methods.
By developing an analytical framework for the behavior of applicants for public housing, the present paper examines its rent system, which is believed to be a benefit-reflecting system. The results show that applicants for public housing consider the probability of winning a rental unit fairly optimistically. Compared to the superannuation effects, applicants are found to make less of size effects than that in the actual rent system, suggesting that the present rent system can be improved by increasing the weights for superannuation effects in order to yield a more balanced applicants to the whole public houses.
In Yamashiro province, Machifure(the official notice of the kyoto ryomachibugyosho)establish the people who build up must to pass the inspection of completion by Kyoto ryomachibugyosho(office of magistrate) or Kyotodaikansho (regional office of administrative official)or Jito(lord of manner). This study aims to clarify the enforcement about inspection of completion by the kyoto ryomachibugyosho in the Edo period. This paper will analyze archive documents in yamashiro province. These are the following results of analyzes: 1)The number of official who enforce the inspection of completion were about 22〜23, so that workmen of the part of village were about 30. 2)The method of the inspection of completion was almost not changed from meiwa-era to bunnsei tempo-era. In bunsei-era, there is the example to avoid the inspection of completion.
This paper reinterprets the restoration of Nikko Toshogu supervised by Ohe Shintaro between 1907 and 1915 not as an unusual example but as a representative of an aporia in restoring historical buildings. Ohe repainted the Japanese lacquer and colorful finish asserting that Nikko was a valuable "specimen" to represent the style of the early 17th century and such character be restored; artistic value comes first. This caused hostile criticism; his opponents insisted on protecting "historical values" and avoiding imprudent repair. Both sides have some logic and defects; no best way exists in architectural restoration. Ohe's restoration aroused such dilenmma.
This research studies the changes of the hot spring inn through the architecture of Shima hot spring Sekizenkan of Gunma Pref. As a result, the following became with obvious. (1)Honkan is the hot spring inn of the Gunma Pref. most ancient times where the construction period traces back until 1800. (2)Besides the era comes down^the architecture of Sekizenkan changed with yugoya → yuyado → ryokan. (3)A hot spring inn is reacting with the movement of the society and.be changing with the era.
In order to prepare the theory of architecture for environment, this paper considers the aesthetic judgment which lies in the conscibuness of the harmony of understanding and imagination. As the rehabilitation of sensibility, which is distinguished from five senses, is a matter of great importance, we have to investigate the immanent universality instead of the transcendental universality.
In this paper, in order to understand and analysis the differentiate and similarity features of composition of architectural space, a method of describe the composition of architectural space by using Diagrammatic Reasoning and a distinction methods of the similarity of composition of architectural space are proposed. As a application, the proposed methods are introduced to our recently developed supporting system which is based on Case-Based Reasoning for design thinking processing to enhance retrieve of similarity of the space status for the design case.
The objective of this paper is to propose a formalized mechanism of incremental interpretation ofa natural language discourse about the organization of architectural or urban spaces. The mechanism consists of two formal semantics, i.e., model-based semantics and dynamic semantics. The dynamic, semantics updates the models of a discourse in order to render a new proposition true as well as to keep the consistency of an already given discourse and the new proposition. This paper demonstrates that the proposed mechanism, together with a shape grammar, incrementally interprets spatial descriptions and constructs a planning layout with respect to the descriptions.