Such visual apparatuses for presentation as a slide projector, an overhead projector (OHP) and so on, tend to be frequently used in the lectures and the conferences. In this case, however, we often see unsuitable projected pictures which it is difficult to recognize the details of. The cause of this problem is that the room is not designed for usage of visual apparatuses. The survey on the visual environment in the room was carried out to clarify the actual state and the problem in the use of visual apparatuses.
Research as to the conventional indoor wall heat transfer coefficient is restricted to the local or wall average heat transfer coefficient, and such research programs on the measurement of the heat transfer coefficient for indoor wall joints are very few. The purpose of this study is to develop the measurement method for heat transfer coefficient distribution on a wall surface, using a radiant energy thermometer in order to clarify the heat transfer coefficient characteristics on the wall joints using the measuring method thus developed. The measurement method is characterized in that the surface temperature on the wall of a neoprene model structure attached to an aluminum thermostatic water tank is measured with a radiant energy thermometer in order to find the convective heat flux density according to the difference between the front and rear surface temperatures on that wall of the neoprene model structure and heat conductance. In this report, careful consideration was give to the method for measuring the heat transfer coetficient with a radiant energy thermometer, and heat transfer coefficient characteristics for a joint (ceilling height 2m) of two equal temperature walls, ceilling and floor surface.
The authors work out the method that surface condensation of wall is measured by using Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), and experiments concerned are conducted on plates of aluminum, glass and iron. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The most optimum radiant intensity ratio for estimation of weight of condensation liquid water was selected. (2) The 3 correspondence models between MSS data and indices of shape of condensation beads were made. (3) It becomes clarified that the thickness of condensation beads is important index in the correspondence models.
This paper referred to the existence of the variety modes and the 'chaos' in building ventilation system, and provides the some instances of such varieties and the chaos in both the natural and forced ventilation systems. The numerical calculations were executed by the Newton-method for the network models of a few ventilation systems, and three to seven modes of the variety and the chaos maps were obtained as the natural result of the non-linear system. The Chaos maps were illustrated as the 600×400 dots color diagrams. The patterns of the ventilation chaos have different features in each domain divided by the straight lines which depend on the ventilation directions of main openings. The new evaluation index of the occurrence frequencies of each modes based on the chaos map is proposed in place of the relative assessment by the kinetic 'work' of the ventilation system suggested by ourselves.
In this paper, the relationship between ventilation efficiency and air outlets/return-intake systems are analyzed by experimental study with full-scale model and also by numerical simulation based on computational fluid dynamics(CFD). 1. In the case of heating system, air exchange indices calculated from age of air in the occupied zone are different largely according to the configuration of the inlet-outlet systems. In case of ceiling outlet/ceiling return-intake, air exchange indices are approximately 0.3; which is relatively low value compared with the other cases. 2. In the case of cooling system, increase of supply air rate from the floor-outlets/ceiling return-intake makes air exchange indices large value. But the indices decrease in the case of wall return-intake. 3.In case of ceiling outlet/ceiling intake system, when the difference of the supply air and room air temperature is higher, the value of indices have a tendency to decrease. On the other hand, the value of indices increase in the case of floor outlet/ceiling inlet system.
In order to examine the validity of mixing layer theory for predicting the airflow rate through a single opening subjected to external wind flow, wind tunnel test was conducted. The existence of expanding mixing layer were confirmed and the accuracy of equation to calculate the airflow rate from the velocity and concentration distribution at the leeward of an opening were investigated. Finally, the simple equation to decide the position of the outer edge of mixing layer and the equation to calculate the air flow rate were presented.
For the correct prediction of volatile organic compounds indoors, firstly, an experimental study was carried out in an environmental stainless-steel chamber to determine the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emission rates of three types of kerosene combustion heaters. The results show that the initial emission rate, which means the emission rate at about 21% indoor oxygen, varied according to the various types of appliances. The emission rates for fan heater models were varied and very large, comparing with conventional radiant and convective models. The adaptation of initial emission rates into mass balance models could not express the variation of the concentration exactly. The changes of the emission rate of NMHC with oxygen depletion was more higher than our estimation. It was needed for exact predictions to clarify the emission characteristics of appliances as well as initial emission rates with oxygen depletion.
In this study, organic compounds in cleanroom air and on silicon (Si) wafer surface were investigated by using gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure ionization MS (TD-APIMS). The adsorption mechanisms of organic compounds on Si wafer surface were considered. We prepared two different types of Si wafers; one was with hydrogen terminate and another one was with native oxygen. These wafers were exposed in the organic gases exposure system under a control of moisture, organic gases concentration and exposure time. The results of this study are as follows; (1) ethylene, the non polar substance, was detected with higher concentrations from Si wafer with hydrogen terminate than that with native oxygen, (2) dioctyl phthalate, the polar substance, was detected with higher concentrations from Si wafer with native oxygen than that with hydrogen terminate, and (3) moisture had influences on the adsorption on Si wafer.
To make it easy to decide the width of membership function when fuzzy control is worked, the authors predicted the heating load in an all-purpose room by using possibility presumption model and made fuzzy inference by using the heating load. The following results are clarified. (1) The authors could adjust easily the width of a membership function by fuzzy inference using predictable heating load. (2) On the basis of the result predicted by fuzzy inference, authors instructed managers to operate floor heating. Then the comfortable temperature for tenant and useful fuzzy control are clarified in this study.
To avoid solar heat gain from windows, it is desirable that energy in the visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can be permitted to pass while as much as possible of any remaining solar radiation is blocked. Because blinds heated by sunlight can radiate heat into a room, blinds should basically have a highly reflective outside surface and an inside surface of low emissivity. In order to evaluate solar heat gain through windows with some blinds, I developed an experimental apparatus. Measurements made with this apparatus showed that solar heat gain from glazing with the new type of blind installed was nearly the same as solar heat gain from glazing with a conventional ivory white one. The transparency of the new type of blind was fairy good. The new type of blind transmitted 180 % of the short wave radiation compared with by the ivory white one, but only 60 % of the long wave radiation transmitted by the ivory white blind. The totals of short and long wave radiation transmitted were about the same for both blinds. Measured SC of a conventional ivory white venetian blind is 0.49 and measured SC of the Selective Transparent blind RB is 0.52.
In this paper, the authors studied an arrangement of the fixtures in the woman lavatory from a viewpoint of use frequency. Then, the authors constructed the fixture selection model in the woman lavatory under the condition of combination use and simultaneous use of the fixtures. The considerable factors were basis on structure conditions, dynamic conditions and the purposes of use for the fixtures. Objective lavatory was one type, and the process of the fixture selection was introduced by the theorem using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process. Also, the authors compared predicted results and measured results, and confirmed efficacy of the proposed model.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the diversity of ordinary people's image about townscape, using new method named Caption Evaluation Method. Field researches were carried out as case studies, and terms for evaluating townscape were obtained. The result of analyzing these classified data are as followings. 1) Non-physical factor, e.g. social, human and non-visual factor, should be considered for townscape design. 2) Classified items are divided into 2 types. One is examining item and the other is targeting item which consists of items scored by deducting points and items scored by adding points.
The objective of this study is to clarify the combined effects of operative temperature, illuminance and light source on the human physiological and psychological responses. The following results were obtained: 1) Skin temperature was affected with air temperature and was not affected with illuminance and light source. 2) When operative temperature was 25℃ or 28℃ and light source was incandescent lamp, thermal sensation was affected with air temperature and illuminance. 3) When operative temperature was 25℃ or 28℃, thermal sensation was affected with air temperature and light source. 4) When operative temperature was 25℃ or 28℃, comfortable sensation was affected with air temperature and illuminance. 5) When operative temperature was 25℃ or 28℃ and illuminance was 10001x, comfortable sensation was affected with air temperature and light source
This paper's point is as follows: 1. As a concept for low environment impact in a house, we propose a residential system which take in an ecosystem to be able to self-support. And at the same time, We define a concept of the "Low environment impact rate". 2. To take in an ecosystem to a residential system, it needs "production function" and "decomposition function". So we manufactured an experimental house with these functions. 3. The result of the simple estimation of this residential system, especially quantity of carbon dioxide is estimated to reduce more than 70 percent. In relation to this paper, an experimental house is to be completed in September, 1998.
Annual thermal demands for heating and cooling on built-up and redevelopment districts scattered on leading cities in Kyushu are estimated based on floor area of building use, further, some suitable districts for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) are picked up. Possible area in and around the cities for utilization of unused energy are selected by concerned with its heat demands characteristics and unused energy distribution, further the quantity of usable energy sources are calculated on the possible area. The feasibility of using unused energy in the suitable districts are discussed and its effects of energy saving and anti-pollution are made clear comparing DHC system including unused energy sources with unit air conditioning system.
This study intends to propose A PLANNING METHOD OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT from analysis of the viewpoint of interaction of two planning methods for an area of living space of interior and exterior factors. THESE TWO PLANNING METHODS are, namely planning of taste, and planning of intersociality by constructing method of sphere of space, and sphere of consciousness around openings. THE NUMBER OF LAYERS for each sphere of space around openings, THE PATTERN OF CONSTRUCTION for space form, and THE UNIT SPACE OF LIVING are derived from a concept of the element of living space for connection of 'interior space'-'openings'-'exterior space of housing. In this paper, analyzed the formation and means on sphere of space based on the combination of each sphere of space around openings.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of grandchild's memories of grandparents in a multi-generational house. We corrected 184 memories from 13 persons who had been grown up in an extended family in Tokyo metropolitan area, and their house plans and found that many people remember activities with grandparents in the context of being taught by grandparents, given some goods and worked together with in a grandparents' room. It is shown that a person who has many memories had been taken cared by their grandparents in the garden and the kitchen. Finally, we have derived the characteristics of activities and spaces with several goods special to grandchildren.
In the present study, undertaken in Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture, we have investigated the change of the housing plan from samurai houses to urban independent residences, from the Meiji to Showa eras (before world war II). We aimed to clarify the succession and the modification of the "front facing principle", the primary factor underlying the modification, and the time of the modification. Conclusions; (1) The principle of samurai houses in the Kanazawa feudal clan differed depending on the position in the hierarchy of the samurai society. Large houses of the middle class take so called "front facing principle" with "zashiki" rooms facing the front entrance of the land. Small houses of the lower class, on the other hand, take so called "back facing principle" with "zashiki" rooms facing the backside of the land. (2) Little is succeded from There is little advantage in the "front facing principle in the planning of large urban independent residences built in and after the Meiji Era. The "front facing principle" has changed into the "back facing principle" with "zashiki" rooms facing the backside of the land during the era of Meiji and Taisho. That is south facing zashiki for the houses with north entrance and north facing zashiki for the houses with south entrance. Despite these changes of "zashiki" rooms in location, the frontedness and openness of the houses are well conserved.
This study caught hold of the most suitable living conditions of private room in nursing home. The survey depends on recording layout of property in private room and time study on two nursing homes. The result are abstracted as follows; 1) The elderly's style of living is affected by forms and equipments of room, the condition of mind and body, life style of elderly, the principles of care and management. 2) Private room need to be planed with changeable and various space to suit many kinds of mind and body of tenant and their teterioration. 3) Buffer space between private room and common space is used variously to care and communication between tenants.
A questionnaire survey of 238 historical museums together with 21 in-depth interviews with museum curators were conducted to predict secular changes in the number of visitors per annum and to develop planning guidelines. A dominant visitor-change pattern was decline, and the average number of visitors per annum after ten years since opening was about 58 peercent of the first- to third-year average. A few factors among those explaining increase in visitors were controllable in architectural programming: special exhibition area, building expansion or renovation, exhibition area ratio and transportation.
A hypothesis that there would be appropriate figures for the exhibition wall arrangement in art museums was tested through questionnaire surveys conducted at 21 exhibition rooms in 10 art museums. Factor analysis showed that visitors' estimation to exhibition rooms was explained by 8 factors. Quantification I and multiple regression analysis showed that the main factors were the plainness of exhibition route and the visitors' satisfaction with exhibition rooms, and specific figures which improve the 2 factors respectively were indicated. Planning will be improved if appropriate reference is made to these key variables and factors.
The aim of this research is making clear the recent controversial points and future direction of children and youth facilities for outodoor activities and showing the architectural planning guide analyzed through questionnaire surveys conducted at 308 facilities. Following aspects were pointed out from this research. 1. Multiple regression analyses conducted at 226 facilities showed various kinds of activity programs and attendant function facilities have strong relation with length of stay and total number of stays per year. 2.Surveys of the fields of activities showed the required activity area and activity spots for the effective outdoor education accoroding to the surrounding environments. 3.Acceptance of Family and individual uses was required by the administrator through questionnaire surveys. So, facilities planning need to make reference to this point.
In this study, living life and problems after relocation are taken into consideration, the 108 households living in the day living and housing service center for the elderly in the depopulated area being interviewed. The items of consideration consist of solution to causes of relocation and relationship their previous living areas and housing after relocation. Firstly, three problems; anxiety in emergency, deterioration of family relationship, loss of residence among 5 causes of relocation are solved by relocation. But, difficulty of house work being noticed, the self-supporting households among low ADL (Activities of Daily Living) households seem to feel difficulty. And residential condition being noticed, there are households that feel inconvenience of the size and the number of private rooms in these facilities. Some households like this can be often seen under the condition of households of self-cooking and absence of owner occupied house. Secondly, it proved that, today, about 40% of all households visit their previous living areas and housing at the pace of more then once a month, and live having the relationship of their previous living areas and housing. The reasons why they visit their previous living areas and housing are for activities of communication and maintenance. And after leaving these facilities, there are only 42.6% that will return to housing, but many of them wish to move into welfare facilities for the elderly or hospitals.
This paper studied on three kind of facilities, namely the Community Center, the Community House (Community-school) established together in public elementary or junior high school, implicated as the lifelong learning facilities, and the school facilities opened to the community (open-school). The lifelong learning facilities and the school-community facilities complex have been studied parallel, however, this paper dealt with both the above in the same category and analyzed the evaluation structure by users, facility management and functional assignment of each facilities. And the planning of integrated lifelong learning facilities is main object of this study.
This study is mainly considered in the points that follow, through a questionnaire survey to residents who have chances of housing improvement and repair work by themselves, so-called do-it-yourself. 1.The percentage of residents who, have each experiences of 34 kinds of hosing improvement and repair work by themselves. 2.The differences of the percentage by the property of residents, the generation, the housing type, the year of the completion, and others. 3.The property of residents who have great motivation for housing improvement and repair work by themselves. 4.The suggestion for building system design with housing improvement and repair work by residents.
The purpose of this paper is to make it clear the producing conditions of the siding board oddments at construction site in a detached house, and to find out the requirement for reduction system of those oddments. I made minutely surveys about the oddments from the viewpoint of construction procedure. Main conclusions are the followings: 1. The volume of oddment is affected not only those from virgin board but the way of reusing board. 2. The diversion of boards are influenced by the producing condition rather than the relation of board's size between putting and keeping. The plural diversions from a keeping board are not so efficient for the reduction of oddments. 3. Planning for the construction procedure and diversion of boards is necessary to prevent the available boards from throwing out, and is affective in reducing oddments.
The purpose of this study is to propose the basic factors of available information from "intermediate and mountainous areas", where local governments have broadcasted programs. The factors consist of four pieces of information ; community, environmental, industrial and governmental information. With the factors, which are blended correctly they can propagandize to "city areas". The principal contents to be made obvious are as follows. 1. The tendencies of communication with other areas using "CATV" and "CS" as infrastructures are increasing nationally. But the way of broadcasting and receiving the TV programs are so different. 2. The differences of the information from outside, the community relations in intermediate and mountainous areas and the investor relations to city areas are great ; especially environmental information, governmental information and industrial information as "basic factors of information".
The rural area in Malaysia, it has also consisted 3 main ethnic groups as Ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indian. They has gradually divided on their settlement each of small ethnic group. And, there are various type of houses which have determined by resident's ethnicity. On the Malay house, these are high floor houses and the plan don't have any axis. The spatial using are reflected resident's ethnicity like a prayer's activities. Chinese houses have strong axis from front to rear of house unit, and the house floor level are flat as same as ground level. And, each of architectural production system has divided except the building material's supply which has dominated Chinese traders. The process of housing, there are religious and ritual way of house ornament and these are still effected each of residents. However, on the housing estate which has designed by modern architectural style, and such a style don't have any reflection of ethnicity. It is required for the future housing which should consider about the ethnic culture into the modern housing.
This paper deals with the control of spaces by the regulations in a safeguarded sector in France. Based on four categories of buildings classified in the Safeguarded and Development Plan, other spaces to be preserved or not are decided. On a parcel facing street, it is obliged to construct a building in a way that it abuts the buildings on both sides in order to restore traditional landscape. Exterior aspects are regulated in detail for existed buildings aiming at conserving its original historical style. And for new buildings it is implied that such buildings should be constructed in accordance with volume, shape and color of near by surrounding buildings.
Through the case study in Himejima, we analyzed the change of land use, inhabitants' types, and the inhabitants' opinion on the present environment, between 1968, a year of most heavy air pollution, and 1997. We found the decrease of industrial land use and increase of parking space and residential buildings. New comers who began to live there after 1975 mostly came to live because they got rather reasonably costed residence, but they have much complaint against the surrounding environment. It became clear the main source of pollution is from heavy traffic more than factory.
This paper aims to clarify the park occupation by homelesses and the mechanisms in Toyama park Tokyo, through the study of their lifestyles. The results are the fallowings 1) The homelesses in Toyama Park could be divided into six groups according to thier attribution, dwelling, employment and diet lifestyles 2) Their reason for occupating the park come from mental and phisical, space and social conditions 3) The park mechanisms of occupation differ according to their lifestyles but the sufficient water supply, free housing expenses and weakness in enforcement are common conditions among all homelesses.
The aim of this study is 'Law on special measures concerning promotion of improvement of commercial zone', which was enacted in 1991. This law is a commercial policy included broad vision of Town Planning, and the purpose of this law forward on the whole equipment with public facilities and commercial facilities. We try to make clear the actual condition of this facilities, in particular, aim at 'the fundamental facilities of commerce', which established for customers and inhabitants in applying area, so make to sample and analyze for advantage-disadvantage in those. Moreover, we try a questionnaire survey for users(customers and inhabitants), and analyze the effects on their life actions and consciousness. As a result, we find out several Information from this study. 1)to invite large-scale commercial facilities in no relation to the size of city population. 2)to offer a place for forming a community. 3)to improve an image and appeal at a local community. In the last section we give how the law should be after this.
The purpose of this study is an attempt to understand the urban transition from the view point of the property ownership system. This report analyzes the cadaster as it was in 1930's, comparing to the one in 1912. The aim here is to clarify the divisions of real estate in Tokyo and, by studying the impact of various property ownership systems, present guidelines for future urban development strategies. The discovery is that the former feudal lords still had huge land holding early in the Showa Era, yet there was no concept of urban structure or city planning, thereby creating a congested city form.
The purposes of this study are to seek methods to apply the reverse mortgage system to an aging population, to suggest the system as an economic choice for enriching the lives of elderly people. To accomplish the objective of this study, circumstances surrounding the system were analyzed. First, interviews with welfare public corporations in Tokyo were conducted. Second, the direct finance system funded by the welfare public corporation and the mediation finance system funded by the private financial institution were analyzed from simulation. Finally, the prospective finance system for the reverse mortgage system was examined.
This paper is a basic study which examines an affordable rental flat housing in the Indonesian large cities, by both macro level and micro level; that is housing needs and market analysis, and this is living style transformation of low-income inhabitants. First, in this, we clear the characteristics of low cost rental flats market through the examination about the house-ownership brands, typology of rental house, the subsidy and its affordability, and so on. Second, we make sure of the problems of rental flat housing with the continuity on the traditional living style of inhabitants who intend to own houses through the survey for the inhabitants of rental flats on kampung redevelopment. Base on these circumstances, we suggest that, when rental housing is implement targeting low-income people in the Indonesian large city planning, it is necessary to make a appropriate planning of business and living space, not simply of living, and, at same time, to design space and use in consideration of the continuity with traditional kampung lifestyle.
The SHIMODERA-NITTO improved dwellings were built by the slum clearance program before World War II. The aim of this study is to analyze the management and occupation of the common space of the dwellings. From the study followings are summarized. The common exterior space is occupated by extensions of private commodities. The ways of occupation are decided by the dwellers' consciousness and by the type and story of the dwellings. The levels of the occupation of the common space are divided into five, and the ways of use are discussed.
In this paper, we analysed statistically the curvature and height of eaves camber in Japanese monumental shrines and temples by the "Formula of eaves camber for CAD" we originally developed. The results shows as follows; 1) The design of eaves camber doesn't differ among any scale of architectures without "Zushi & Kuden ". 2) "Wayo style" architecture has a gentler curvature and a lower height in eaves camber than "Karayo style" architecture. 3) The curvature of eaves camber changed remarkably after the late Heian era in the "Wayo style", and became gradually higher after the late Muromachi era in the "Karayo style". 4) The design of eaves camber differs among single-, two-, and three-story architecture.
Former research investigated a historical link between the two Art Nouveau buildings, the Matsumoto Residence and the Konoike-Gumi Main Office. The research paper will also make clear the role of the architect, Kosaburo Kubota and the craftsman, Unraku Aihara, who both employed Art Nouveau. This research treats the extensive examples of such Art Nouveau in buildings which are known through the works of Sumitomo Temporary Design Office usually known as the Sumitomo School. Finally, this paper attempts to define the historical meaning of Art Nouveau in Japan. In particular, the works of the Sumitomo School contain unique features characterized by the simplicity of both their curves and edges as well as the use of natural timber finishes which seemingly derived from traditional Japanese sources. These characteristics can be said to have paved the way for a departure from historical style in the subsequent period of modern architecture in Japan.
The Kaitakushi. or Colonization Commission (1869-1882) built many of the model factories since 1871 in order to exploit the natural resources in Hokkaido. The Sapporo Factory of Industrial Bureau was one of those important factories during that period, and included wood processing mills, smiths, iron manufacture shop, and casting shops etc. In this paper its planning of location, layout and relations between the buildings and the product system have been clarified.
Elementary schools in Kyoto city suffered serious damage on account of Tyhoon Muroto, but eighty schools were rebuilt of reinforced-concrete. The typhoon gave the architectural structure change from a wooden to reinforced-concrete. The buildings of schools was done under the school-district system. The financial resources of school reconstruction was from a low-interest loan by the government. The design of schools was in charge of the building and repairs section of Kyoto Municipal Office. The traits of design of school facade in Kyoto city lay in the use of tile.
In this paper, first, by investigating into each history of design of three kinds of pillars in Buddhist caves at Ellora (India), we see that pillars with lotus-medallion represent the boundaries and that pillars with vase-and-foliage elaborate the front of auspicious space, and that pillars with cushion-like-motif represent "architectural construction" for noble personages like Buddha image. Then, by examining about the relation between design and arrangement of pillars, we may conclude, for example, that Cave 2 is evaluated as a kind of monolithic temple and that main hall of Cave 5 is not only for monks but for royal patrons.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the total phenomenon of the reutilization of the ruins of the Roman amphitheatre in Lucca, Italy, for housing in terms of the process of the urban history and its context. In this thesis, the specific characteristics of the ruins of the Roman amphitheatre in Lucca are analysed according to three points : I) the position of the amphitheatre in the Roman city and its primary features. II) the formation process of the "amphitheatre block" in the medieval era. III) the multiple functions of the reutilized ruins of the Roman amphitheatre through the development of the borgo di S. Frediano in the medieval city.
The comparison of traditional architectures between countries makes the characteristics be more objectively. This paper is a synthesis of the image of the appearances for Japanese/Korean and Japanese/Taiwanese traditional architectures through the their subjects' cognitive structure. The images for all architectures in this research were mainly in modesty-order, strictness-hardness, and looseness-softness. The members which strongly influenced on the image are roof and column/wall with various layouts, shapes and colors. The common image in those architectures is modesty and order, representing harmony of nature. Japanese subjectives are represented as to be stricter and harder than Korean or Taiwanese. On the other hand, Korean or Taiwanese as to be looser and softer than Japanese, which was considered as related with the idea of their high level at that period.