In this research, we measured the impact force characteristics exerted on the floor by aged walking on flat floors, slopes and stairways and discuss the characteristics of aged walking in comparison to adults. As a result, we clarified that (1) although there are individual differences in the walking impact waveform when aged walk on flat floors.overall the impact time 1.8 times longer than adults and indicates a trapezoidal impact waveform, (2) the locus of the knees when aged walk on stairways is discontinuous and instability in the walking was verified and (3) the impact force characteristics of aged when walking on slopes differs greatly from foot sole contact time characteristics when walking on flat floors and shifts in the center of gravity wave unstable.
The 65-Node Thermoregulation-Model was developed, based on Stolwijk model. The model has 16 body parts. Each body part consists of core, muscle, fat and skin. In addition, the model has a central blood compartment. Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients were derived from the thermal manikin experiments. Under steady state condition, mean skin temperature; skin wet tedness and SET^* agreed well with those by 2 node-model. This model can predict fairly well for. skin temperature distribution under thermal neutrality. Under transient condition, trends of mean skin temperature and evaporative heat loss were similar to the subject experiment by Stolwijk.
We experimented on the preferred air temperature in winter with climate chamber where we could regulate air temperature inside. The subjects who were 29 healthy women regulated air temperature for 120 minutes. The physiological and psychological responses were compared with winter and summer. The results were as follows; The mean preferred air temperature was 27±2℃ (SD) in summer and winter. The differences of preferred air temperature from person to person was large. The mean skin temperature was 34.0±0.7℃ (SD). Thermal sensation in Winter was warmer than that in Summer.
The main objective of the present work is an investigation of the accuracy and the reliability of numerical predictions on ceiling jets induced by fire plumes for the practical application in fire-safety planning. Phenomena of ceiling jets are studied numerically using the standard k-ε model of turbulence. Computed results are compared with basic experimental data. Of particular interest is the dependency of (a) the computational mesh system, (b) the incompressible or compressible flow assumptions, and (c) initial values of k and ε at the inflow on the ceiling jet solutions. The entrainment rate computed for ceiling jets is compared with computed results for vertical plumes, fulfilling the continuity in the flow rate near the point of transition.
The purpose of this report is to develop a scheme for optimal placement of outdoor condensing unit. With this purpose, we examine the relationship between rise in suction temperature and the placement of outdoor condensing unit in multi-level installations. In particular influence of exhaust duct is examined. A model experiment is performed for outdoor condensing. In addition, an equation for predicting rise in suction temperature for outdoor unit having an outside-air inflow rate R_m (ratio of outside-air inflow volume to air volume of the outdoor unit) is used to clarify the relationship between the rise in suction temperature of outdoor unit and equipment setup conditions. Based on these results, factors that will determine setup conditions considering the rise in suction temperature of outdoor unit are found and a method for suppressing rise in suction temperature is evaluated.
Results of wind tunnel experiments on the influence of roadside building height on the flow and concentration fields in urban street canyons are presented. 1) A cavity eddy was always formed in the street canyon when the leeward building height was equal to or larger than the windward building; the concentration in the street canyon was low. 2) Cavity eddies were not formed when the windward building was higher than the leeward; the concentration .was rather high in the street canyon. 3) Reverse flow occurred in the street canyon bottom regardless of cavity eddy existence; the concentration at the windward side was always higher than at the leeward. 4) The concentration distribution normalized by the average canyon concentration was somewhat similar for various canyon configurations (varying width of street or roadside building height) and the atmospheric stability. 5) It was possible to roughly estimate the concentration distribution by using the airiness factor and the average concentration distribution pattern normalized by the average canyon concentration.
Field-measurements of indoor formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were conducted in newly developed apartment houses in Japan. We found the time courses of HCHO concentrations did not follow theoretical curves described from the present steady-state mass balance model in air-tight houses with less than 0.2/h of air-change rate. Then, we introduced a concept of equilibrium concentration into the model and evaluated. The predicted time courses of HCHO concentration calculated from the proposed model showed good agreement to experimental values even when air-cleaners were operated in the air-tight houses.
In summer daytime, air temperature under the large green canopy is lower than its surroundings. We call this space "Cool Spot". Some sets of meteorological elements were measured in and around urban parks in Osaka in August 1992 to clear thermal effects of green canopy. The correlation between the cool spot effect and the length of green canopies, wind speed, the ground surface temperature and eddy diffusivity were examined. Finally a simple model was proposed to predict the cool spot effect.
The evaluation of the visual impressions of architectural spaces is often carried out with various simulation systems. In this paper a newly developed VR system (MOON) and some other simulation systems are compared for their practicability as a medium for evaluating architectural spaces. The evaluation by semantic differential method results essentially in little difference in bases for evaluation between those in real and simulated spaces. And it suggests that the resultant values are likely to have hierarchical relations rather than linear ones to the distance between the place where subjects made evaluation and the main object to see in the space.
The purpose of this study is to show ways of divided living styles of households with the young and the old in preserved village in Cheju island, Korea and to show problems and prospects of separate condition of residence in Korea. According to the results of this investigation the divided households have modern furniture and utility. Different generations have enough scope to maintain private daily lives. The point of problem is due to lack of social infrastructure and social circumstances particularly for young people.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavioral characteristics of people with severe upper limb disabilities who manage cooking with their feet. The former paper reported the results of two case studies in Japan, and this paper analyze two case studies in Sweden and try to compare the condition of housing arrangements and the behavioral characteristics in Japan with in Sweden.
Recently, there has been a growing tendency to pursue the development of more comfortable environment for the elderly in the facilities. It differs from the living conditions in the past, where spaces for a group rather than an individual were emphasized. This paper is an attempt to suggest the planning of the architectural environment in the residential facilities for the elderly. The method observes the living conditions of the elderly and their space usage, in a different space conditions of 6 facilities in Japan and Korea. The results are abstracted as follows; 1) The stay in the bed room was seen a lot in concentrate living unit and the stay in the common space was seen a lot in divided living unit, in the each facility that space composition differs. 2) The induction of care staff and common space of establishing it the difference was seen to the stay by the one. 3) The characterastic of the operation of each facility was seen to the time distribution of the care schedule.
The objectives of this study are to find the characteristics of user's areas of a public performing arts center and predict the future trend in the suburbs of a large city .The questioning was conducted on below three points; the properties of people coming to the performing arts enter the time that takes to come there, tendency to use halls in the vicinity of the city. Based on the questionnaire we find the relation between the user's profile and the actual conditions of there use. As a result, 1) that are over 55 years old. and 70% of whole subjects drive to the hall. 2) It take 30 to 40 minutes to come to the hall for 60% of whole subjects. 3) In the two most frequent users, housewives are likely to come to the halls in the center of a large city, contrary office worker have the various tendency on picking halls to go.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual characteristics in opera houses. We prepare to investigate the form of opera houses to evaluate the relationship with various factors (especially the sets, actors and audiences) and the general impression of the seat environment and so on at various seats in typically planned opera houses. Also we make calculations of four parameters and the physical quantities that express the visual space at seats, like the proportion of the screen, which are expressed in the vertical screen of the view of the actors and the sets, that is concealed by audience members seated in front, handrails and so on interrupting the view of the screen. Then we make a correlation analysis between psychological evaluations and the four parameters and the physical quantities. As a result, we lead to the a comprehensive guideline for the design and evaluation of visual characteristics in opera houses.
Questionnaire survey was made for the disabled in the lower-extremities inquiring their fear for escape in building fire. Through this survey the followings are clarified. 1. The degree of fear for building fire depends on their mobility. 2. The majority of those who have no mobility always feel uneasy about their escape in building fire. 3. Most of them feel uneasy about escape from over the third floor and from under the second basement floor. 4. They appreciate balcony, outdoor slope, fire safety elevator, slide, and area of rescue assistance as helpful means of escape.
The purpose of this study is to suggest an analysis method for interpreting the characteristics of architectural space by applying the theory of graphs and networks. In this paper we have further examined and improved the method suggested before in the analysis of underground street structure .In order to validate the method, the characteristics of large-scale housing estate have been considered, as a first step, to analyze the framework of the trafic networks in housing estate. As a result, the cluster analysis and the principal component analysis using the indexes of graphs and networks obtained from each of seven housing estates has made it possible to ascertain and classify the characteristics of housing estates.
In this study, we measure "Sight-Depth" in the tearooms from two kinds of viewpoints of the host and. the main guest to the architectural components which block person's view like wall, Toko, partition and so on, analyze the shape of Sight-Depth-Graph and consider the space perception in detail. In this research, they tend to compose pecking order between the host and the main guest to represent their human relations. As a result of comparison with Sight-Depth-Graph on the architectural plans at the tea party from the 15th century, strong effects of the design intention of each designer have been confirmed.
This paper aims to clarify the actual state and the spatial characteristics of street performances in Osaka. Some results show as follows. 1. Street performances can be classified under four main contents: play, creation, feat, and dance. 2. A flow of people, the closing time of shops, the brightness, and the distance between other performances have relation to the distribution .of street performances. 3. The shapes of those spaces can be classified into 4 groups: the linear street, the street composed of a variety of elements, the small-scale space on which people can pause, and the monotonous open space. And the spatial preference varies greatly depending on the type of performance.
In this paper, the image of the appearance for Chinese and Japanese traditional architectures was investigated by the Chinese and the Japanese. Research method was become 4 type image tests. These tests are a) test for the member and the element, b) test for the rating scale, c) test for ranking of the appearance, d) test for judging of the appearance. According to the results were clarified; 1) The influence factors for the image about the Chinese and the Japanese were considered. And those were found the characters. 2) The evaluation process of the appearance both the Chinese and the Japanese was similarly.
This study aims to describe the historical development process and organizational structure of Community Design Centers in the United States: As Community Development Corporations (CDC) have enhanced their roles as affordable housing provider since 1980s, the role of Community Design Centers, providing architectural and planning technical assistance to CDC, has enlarged and this led to HUD's assistance programs for Community Design Centers in 1990s. Community Design Centers play important roles, such as Promoting to provide affordable housings, Facilitating the public, private, non-profit sector partnership, Capacity Building and Empowerment of the communities, Improvement of the public policy and community development programs.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how it should construct a townscape in the residential area in Sapporo. We have investigated aspects of a form of a house by the residents and actual conditions of the townscape in 18 typical areas in Sapporo city. We have obtained the following results from this analysis: 1. Recently, the number of the houses which have a triangle roof and the houses which have a triangle roof combined with a flat roof is increasing. 2. Many people usually reconstruct their houses with the formal change after they used them over 10 years. 3. The residents who live in the residential area whose townscape is organized give it a high evaluation. 4. The residents have the tendency to prefer a simple-shaped house and the house with a triangle roof. 5. The elderly people have the tendency to prefer a simple-shaped house, while the younger people have the tendency to prefer a complicated-shaped house.
Discussed in the following paper is the method of the town planning to succeed "the context of the community". We selected the representative 46 environmental resources scattered in the community, and analyzed their familiarity, recognition, and character by radar chart of eight axes. To conclude, the environmental resources are estimated by various factors and they have the different spheres of influence. We suggest how to exploit and improve the environmental resources on the basis of every character and the fundamental method of town planning with "the context of the community".
The network method of construction planning and scheduling is introduced, which is being long-continued. The network method decomposes construction work for the activity, and gives the activity sequence. However, the conventional network method is not suitable for the expression of the parallel activity which can start the succession activity in point of time when the precedence activity is un- end. This report showed the formula of network expression which uses connecting ratio in the activity sequence for the circle type network, its time calculation, and its applications. In the network method, a proposed method not only can express the conventional activity sequence, but enables expression of parallel activity.
The purpose of this paper is to statistically analyze locality in physical types and dwellers characteristics of condominium buildings in Tokyo metropolitan region, by using the 1993 Housing Survey of Japan. Main conclusions are as follows; 1) Typical physical types of condominium buildings in Tokyo central wards are high-rise buildings which contain under 50 apartment units, those of eastern wards are high-rise building of more than 50 units and estates constituted by them, and in western wards is low and mid-rise building under 50 units. 2) Early supply of condominiums in 1960s are separated into high-rise or small buildings in Tokyo wards and large-scale estates constituted by mid-rise buildings in suburbs. Large high-rise building has gradually increased and diversity of building types have been under way since 1970. 3) Most condominium buildings contains many rental dwellers and its average ratio is 30 to 40 % in Tokyo wards, regardless of building age. On the other hand, the average ratio in suburbs has decreased from around 20 % in case of older buildings constructed before 1970 to about 10-15 % after 1980. 4) Most older buildings contains many elderly owner households whose ratio is over 20% of total owner units. Single and elderly households are very common in Tokyo wards, regardless of building age, and young families who purchased used units are also common in suburban condominium buildings.
The purpose of this study is to examine a better management system of condominiums. This study clarifies a condition of supply and an initial establishment of management in Chukyo Metropolitan Area, and examine the effects of the Japan High-rise Condominiums Association (JHCA) and the Condominiums Management Companies Association (CMCA). The following findings are obtained through this study. The ratio of the CMCA condominiums to all condominiums is 41.6 %, and also it of the CMCA is 58.3 %. The. main market area of the JHCA and the CMCA are in Nagoya City. The condominiums are supplied by the small developers, and they are managed by the small management company. The physical conditions of the JHCA condominiums are higher, but the difference of floor space is lager. The management room or the meeting room increase in recent years. An initial establishment of management on the JHCA and the CMCA are different from others.
This paper discusses the formula, which can conveniently calculate the Life Cycle Costs (LCC) based on the conditions of the maintenance in office buildings. To decide renewal or reconstruction for aged office buildings, building owners can refer to this formula to compare two options in terms of LCC and choose the one with the lower annual LCC for a renovation of their assets. This formula can calculate running costs within LCC in order to evaluate building maintenance conditions and include renewal costs as one of factors in LCC calculation.
This is a study on the "oneshitatetokoro" and "onkarihariokitokoro" that built for the making panel paintings of Nishinomaru Palace in Tenpo eras and Honmaru Palace in Koka eras, Edo Castle. The results are as follows. 1. The "oneshitatetokoro" and "onkarihariokitokoro" was built in Kano Seisen'in house, Kobikicho. 2. If the painting space was tight, Seisen'in could have new building by public cost. New one was built in open space of his house (including the street). 3. When reconstruction about Tenpo eras, two "oneshitatetokoro" and one "onkarihariokitokoro" were used. And Koka eras, four "oneshitatetokoro" were used.
This is a report of studies in search of the original L-shaped chumon-style of the Sakakibara Family Farmhouse based on dismantlement surveys. 1. The existence pf a now lost L-shaped entrance (zashiki chumon) attached to the reception room in the Sakakibara Family Farmhouse from the 17^<th> century was clarified. 2. Comparative studies were made on similar National Cultural Property farmhouses, to verify the period of origin of the chumon-style. 3. In this research, the style of chumon surveyed included the L-shaped entrance (zashiki chumon), in addition to the stable chumon. Analyses were also made on the style's relation to warrior's houses.
I studied The architectural control of building of temple and shrines at The Hagi Clan, and pointed out following facts; 1. At The Hagi Clan, The architectural control of building and shrines was established at the Kyouhou period. 2. With regard to the scale of building, "three beam" The structural control could not be looked, but was controled by the area of building.
We ascertain the history and the staffs of the architectural section of Hokkaido Imperial University between 1918 and 1940, and tried defining it as a part of the official architectural organizations. There was an aspect of the control by the Education Ministry, that only the men who had had some experience in the architectural section of the Education Ministry were appointed to the engineers or the assistant engineers in the period from 1918 to 1921. With the enactment of 'Law of University' and 'Law of Higher School' in 19.18, however, we can say that, the improvements of the facilities and the cultivation of the architects along with the progress of higher education enabled the architectural section of the University to employ its staffs and design it's facilities independently.
The aim of this study is to locate the publishing activities of an architectural publisher Kouseisya-syobou between 1929-1931 in the framework of the history of modern architecture in Japan. The publisher put out publications in three categories: books, periodicals, and serial visual books. And, with an international view, publications as a whole had an integral and organic character to introduce, diffuse and develop ideas and achievements of the modernist architecture. Especially new ideas such as "Kousei" and "Kouchiku" were advocated through the publications of the publisher. Above distinctive style and features of the publishing activities were realized by close connection with the leading figures in the Japanese modern movement in architecture. Therefore publications from Kouseisya-syobou formed a platform and played an important role in the development of Japanese Modern Architecture around 1930.
In this paper, we analyzed the description form and the KIWARI of ZHENG LOU・ZUAN JIAO LOU・JIAN LOU which belong to the "HUN HE TYPE" in the "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE". As a result, in the "HUN HE TYPE" plane measurements are not only decided by the module "SAN", but also used without the KIWARI, which differs from plane measurements which are decided by the module "SAlf in the "DOU-KOU TYPE", no KIWARI in the "MIAN KUO-JIN SHEN TYPE". It is a mixture of the "DOU-KOU TYPE" and "MIAN KUO-JIN SHEN TYPE", "DOU-KOU", "MIAN KUO" and "JIN SHEN" are the modules, the KIWARI is found throughout from the frame to every part. Every volume is independent and complete, and both its description form and the KIWARI are extremely systematic.
This paper is the second part of the study on analysis of polychromatic religious architecture in Tuscany during the late medieval period. The aim of the study is to clarify the pattern and background of polychromy appearing on building elevations by classifying polychromy according to elevation and color, material and the pattern. As a result, the paper revealed the tendency of the patterns of polychromy on the building elevation for obtaining visual effects, and the patterns of the polychromy vary according to the locality in Tuscany.
Church of L'Escale-Dieu abbey is recognised to be one of the oldest and the most representative cistercian churches. In a synthetic perspective based upon the previous literatures concerning the proportion of mediaeval architecture, the historical metrology and the mediaeval number symbolism, the author attempted to establish a structure of measurement and proportion of cistercian church plan of L'Escale-Dieu from the author's own measurement on the site. After 3 feet of a local historical unit of measurment was taken from the width of the nave pier, a proportion system by KoBman's GroBe MaBeinheit could be verified having a logical relationship with a definite structural element. And a structure of the proportion generated from the total use of the equilateral triangles as the elementary figure could be also testified, which kept a certain logical consistency with the system of the GroBe MaBeinheit. An attempt was made to bring together presumed theoretical and practical meanings of the equilateral triangle and number symbolism of this church plan.
Messene was an ancient Greek city which was built by Epaminondas in 369 B.C. The authors surveyed a Hellenistic tomb called Grave Monument III on its Stadion area in 1998 and 1999. This monument had a unique roof in concave conical form and unusually located on main street in the city wall. This field research gave numerical and visual information for the studies of reconstruction and architectural technique. In this paper, the authors describe its architectural remains as were excavated, and show briefly the results of the study.
The reform of architectural education in the 19th century originated in architect's rivalry against engineers in the profession of architecture. The predecessor of the present Milan Polytechnic, Istituto tecnico superiore di Milano, was founded as a school of engineer after the unity of Italy, and then was added a special school for "architetto civile" which gives both scientific and artistic culture. This school was the mirror of medievalist C. Boito's radical principle of architectural education. But it just caused the conflict between Istituto tecnico superiore and existing Academy of Art regardless of a dominance of engineer in the profession of architecture.
This study aims.to clarify Mart Stem's view and parameters for Modern Architecture. As the result below mentioned four points become clear. 1. By advocating a notion called "Bauen", Stam attempted to redefine the conception of Architecture. 2. Stam recognized gestalts of nature as the model for new architecture. 3. Therefore Stam set up new image of architecture that guarantees the potentialities for the prospects. 4. This image, given spacial versatility, was built to divide constructional elements of building into two parts: immovable and movable elements.