In case of dry double floorings, it is different from measured and predicted values. We measured for height of floor, rubber form and hardness, the method of supporting edge of floor, an opening space, effect of absorption material, the method of construction, and the area of floor. We proved that these factors influenced to heavy weight floor impact sound. Then, we improved the edge of joists and rubber and purposed the dry double floorings that was able to construct by the level of business and confirmed it was able to maintain performance equal to that of naked slabs.
This study focuses on subjects situation as it influences their perception threshold of horizontal vibration. As a comparison of the past experimental results, the subjects consciousness of vibration has the most influence on the perception threshold, and that depends on the methods of evaluating the. perception threshold. In the case where the subjects are expecting the vibration, they can perceive smaller acceleration vibrations. However, in the case where the subjects are not expecting the vibration and are relaxed by television etc., the perception threshold becomes higher. The individual differences of perception threshold vary more widely than the differences depending on the subjects situation. It is necessary to reflect the scatter of perception threshold to the assessment of habitability in a daily environment based on this result.
This research focused on the psychological effects of lighting components in nighttime shopping streets on various usages. First, Interview investigation was conducted, and next, simulated images by which the luminance of the lighting elements were assumed to be variable were evaluated. As results of the experiment, conditions minimum needed for streets, such as safety and sense of security, were demanded also for each of three usages; shopping street, returning-home way, and residential street. However, neither the demand of lighting arrangement nor the demand of lighting element were necessarily corresponding. Psychological effects of the lighting elements such as light leaks from the inside of shops and signboard lights etc. were investigated and one example of the method of planning the lighting environment which corresponded to the usage of the street was shown.
This is a study, with the. cubic radiation meter, on blocking-performance of foamed-plastic insulation window panel against heat rays of the sun. In mid-August, at the living room of a wooden house in northern Kobe, we compared and considered about 3 conditions, of insulation panel, the 1st: full open, the 2nd: half open, the 3rd: 1/10 open. It's made clear that the panel had a high blocking-performance against the scattered and direct sun-raysradiation in the room. Especially at the high temperature time zone in the afternoon, it showed a remarkable performance. About the heat-rays-permeability-ratio, it showed the same tendency.
Utilizing the AMeDAS weather data a mathematical model to estimate atmospheric temperature variation of Kinki district is proposed for the purpose of designing thermal performance of buildings and urban area. In the process of the model building temperature record is divided into a deterministic and a stochastic component, further the deterministic component is decomposed into year average, yearly and diurnal periodic subcomponents. In this study the modeling of deterministic component is proposed. The model is built based on multiple regression approach with the predictors ; latitude, height, solar radiation and land use of a weather station. The model was validated on the basis of air-conditioning load.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate and confirm the effect of fluctuating air movement under slightly warm environment in summertime. At the first three experiments conducted in summer from 1995 to 1997 were reported and discussed respectively. The experimental results showed that the fluctuating air movement was cooler and more comfortable than the constant one under the same SET value. The effect of the fluctuating air movement was explained by using Kuno's two-dimensional thermal sensation model. It was assumed that pleasantness had after-effect for a short time even in an usual uncomfortable zone under exposition to the fluctuating-air movement. As a conclusion, it is possible to apply the fluctuating air movement to personal air-conditioning under the slightly warm environment in summertime.
Results of wind tunnel experiments on the influence of road width and thermal stratification on the concentration field in urban street canyons are presented. 1) Concentration distribution changes greatly with the line-source position. The differences due to the source position become larger with increasing road width. 2) Air pollutants released on the windward side in the street canyon are likely to stagnate while those released on the leeward side are likely to be discharged outside the street canyon. 3) The increase in average concentration within the street canyon in stable stratification conditions becomes large with increasing road width. 4) The airiness factor--A_<ST>: (QO_<ST> (rate of ventilation)) / (L(width of the street canyon) x・U_H(wind speed at building height, H)) decreases from 0.2 (L/H = 0.5) to 0.1 (L/H = 2) and remains almost constant (A_<ST> = 0.1) at L/H = 2 to 6 under neutral stratification conditions. 5) Concentrations estimated using a newly proposed street canyon model agree with the results from wind tunnel experiments, except in extremely strong stable stratification and in wide roads (L/H = 6).
This study aims at clarifying the relationships between the eye fixation behaviors and psychological evaluation for an image when the subjects look at the color slide of a river landscape. This paper describes the image features that are derived from textural analysis and edge detection analysis based on gray-tone spatial dependencies as a factor of attractiveness. The authors examined these image features comparing with the eye fixation behaviors and psychological evaluation for 12 slides of domestic and foreign river landscapes. These results indicate the relationships among the image features, eye movement and psychological evaluation.
In order to design a living environment that meets the dwellers' various demands, grasping the nuances in each individuals' qualitative evaluation is important. The words used in the questionnaire for evaluation of the living environment should accurately reflect the subjects' viewpoints and the states of mind. In this study, a questionnaire about living environmental evaluation was given to housewives living in multiple dwelling houses, the answers were obtained by both the Free-answer and the Word-choice method. From the results of this survey, the appropriate words for the evaluation of living environment were confirmed, the basic knowledge for choosing the appropriate words in the Word-choice method was obtained.
In order to obtain in-situ evaluation of real daily living environment, it is necessary to treat plural environmental factors synthetically and to get both the non-specific evaluation (i.e. the universal comfort/discomfort) and the specific evaluation (i.e. the thermal comfort, the auditory, and the like) for each factor. In this study, twenty-nine male students were exposed to the combined twenty-five conditions of noise (46.8, 59.2,73.1,80.0,95.4LAeq) and operative temperature (27,30,33,36,39℃). The subjects reported their feelings for each combined condition using linear unipolar scales. Results show thermal conditions affect both of noisy/quiet sensations and auditory comfort/discomfort significantly. It is obvious that the combined effect of temperature and noise contribute to the universal comfort and discomfort sensation. Equi-comfort and equi-discomfort charts are proposed to quantitatively evaluate the combined effects of the thermal and noise environment in this experiment.
In this study, we try to propose the system selecting the combination of building materials to reduce environmental loads (CO_2 exhaust, costs and waste) with using GA(genetic algorithms). The estimation of a wooden house in this system is smaller than one in general. And some houses which have similar value are made from different materials each other. So we can get the better answer and find one that we haven't got empirically yet and we can show the usefulness of this system.
In this study, we developed the method of applying LCA approach to the downtown areas of large cities. This method enables comparisons of environmental load between the case of natural renewal, in which the urban structures is merely left as is, and the case of planned renewal, in which various approaches are used to give directionality and consistency for a project. For the analysis, we selected four quantities as indices for the environmental aspects - material usage, energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and solid waste discharge. Utilizing this method, we tried to analyze the life cycle environmental aspects of the western district of Nakanoshima in downtown Osaka. Through this analysis, we found that the load relating of building accounts for a large proportion of the total emission in the district covered by our analysis.
The purpose of this study is to find the possibilities of future living style from the living activities in Imported Houses and to get some hints about the planning of public room composition in housing. This paper clarifies the living activities from the specialization of function in their public rooms. The conclusions are as follows: 1.The specialization of function corresponding to three public rooms isn't observed, but only two different uses of "semi- formal" and "informal" are observed. 2.Three public rooms have a variety of both public and private living activities, and have the correlation between both activities. 3.In the "circulation plan" where three public rooms link together, a middle room becomes a spare room. It performs its role as a buffer space between living room and family room. Thus one of the features of Imported Houses is "circulation living" where living activities have flexibility among public rooms.
Modern detached urban residences embody principles that respect Facing south too much. The principle of the samurai ;houses and detached urban residences in.and after the Meiji era differed very much from todays houses. Obviously the principle must have changed some time after the Meiji era. The problem was what caused this change and what was the historical background for it. In the present study, we focus our discussion on this point. Modern thoughts on house planning have been influenced strongly by modernism, following the Western style Meiji era was the major cause the change of principle. One of the criticisms made in the Taisho era, for example, was that old conventional houses were built givivg too much of consideration to the guests, Consequently, living rooms for the family were neglected. One of the criticisms points out that the best position in the house was occupied by guest rooms and the living rooms were pushed away to the north side. However, we found that more than a half of the houses investigated had living rooms on the southern side of the houses indicating that the criticism mentioned above is incorrect.
Group living for people with dementia is getting popular in Japan and is institutionalized in public welfare care system for the elderly since 1997. In spring 1997, the new style group living in spatial meanings was open in Miyagi Prefecture. The home "Komorebi-no-ie" illuminate some solutions for better therapeutical environment for people with dementia. It includes 9 private rooms for residents and various common spaces in purpose and in scale. It can be said that this groups living is the first one in the world which embodied the ideal and results of the studies that had been done. And also we can see in the details and designs Japanese-like taste and technique. The aim of the paper is to clarify the utilization of common space in group livings and the effect on the life of each resident. This focus is not set up without this group living where is rich in space, especially in common spaces. The survey was carried out totally 9 days divided into three period. Behavior maps were drawn every 10 minutes from morning to night. Major results are shown as follows: (1) Common spaces plays an important role for their daily activities, because that most of the residents stay there for considerable period during daytime even they have private room. (2) The way of using the space is different from resident to resident. It can be said that the spatial characteristic enable to include various lives in it. (3) In often cases, common space are used to be alone or just feel another person without having a direct contact like as conversation. (4) Group living is not the place only to live together or to share the time and space. The most important point is to facilitate self-support life and enable the various way of life, and it will be possible not only from good care but also good spatial environment.
This paper aims to clarify the influence of alteration of care environment on the residents daily living. To make clear this point, the survey was repeated several times, from 1994 to 1997, in one nursing home with private rooms. The results of analysis are summarized as follows. 1) By the alteration of care environment going with the change of room allotment, each resident was obliged to reorganize his/her daily living fundamentally. 2) Each resident compares his/her present daily living with his/her past one, not with others. 3) Especially semi-private zone was used differently before and after the alteration.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual characteristics in concert halls. We prepare for the investigating form on halls to evaluate the relationship with the orchestra, audiences, and the general impression of seats' environment and so on at various seats in typical planning halls. And we make calculation of four parameters and the physical quantities that express the visual space at seats, like the rate of the stage that is disappeared by front persons, handrails and so on interrupting the view of a orchestra. Then we make the correlation analysis between psychological evaluations and four parameters and that physical quantities. As a result, we lead to the more comprehensive guideline for the design and evaluation by visual characteristics in concert halls.
Since Eastman's pioneering study, quite a few efforts have been made to clarify design problem-solving behavior. This study also takes advantage of Protocol Analysis method and its background data as many of those previous efforts did, and examines spatial design activities as a kind of problem-solving that accompanies drawing processes. The paper pays special attention to Eckersley's verbalization model and, by specifying its effectiveness and ineffectiviness in describing designers' verbalization during architectural design processes, proposes an improve- ment of the model to describe architectural design activities in -quasi?- real world.
What is most important at present is how to repair and rehabilitate many of the buildings constructed in the Mass-Housing Period, especially the multi-family buildings. We carried out this research with the purpose of gaining a perspective on the business of rehabilitation of the housing stock in Japan. Parti mainly showed the contents of reha- bilitation works of multi-family dwellings. Part2 led to the following results by means of the case studies and analyses on the rehabilitation works in 5 countries; Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, and the U.S. 1. Analyses on the financial conditions led to the concern between contents and costs for rehabilitation works, and the supporting methods for financing. 2. Analyses on the systematic conditions explained who had made the decisions and what decisions had been done in the processes of rehabilitation.
This study investigated the historical changes of the Japanese flat glass until the beginning of the Showa era, which could control see-through and diffuse the sunbeams. It indicated as follows: (1) the manufacture change effected thickness and the length of figured glass. (2) Because of the crude imported glass, the frosted glass and glue-chip made in Japan were continuously consumed. (3) About thin figured glass, the blown process was formulated in Meiji and Taisho era. The casting process produced the 3mm thick one since 1919. Moreover from 1932 Japanese factory continuously produced the 2mm thick one.
This paper aims to grasp the framing systems in Japanese traditional timber houses. According to the transfer routes of roof load, diversities of directions and the number of supporting members are defined. Ranking the arrangement of transfer routes whether in the core structure or in the outer structure hierarchically, various reasons of the more or less of supporting members are clarified as compared with the. displacement through the framework. Analyzing the composition of transfer routes for each house, it's revealed that the characteristics of framing systems are determined by two factors ; one is the potential of spatial expansion between core and outer structure, the other is the complication of framing formation such as piles of beams, girders and posts.
45 primary school children took part in the experiment, which asked them to create a child center with a model kit. Compared with the former house experiment, the results were as follows: 1) Child's experience and a building size influenced their strategies and the degree to which children develop spatial skills. 2) Restricted use of a building strengthened the tendency to understand rooms separately. 3) In early developmental stage, children understood the high use building by interior element such as furniture and they understood the low use one by separated rooms. 4) Children could hardly grasp a layout of a large building, such as a child center, by wall. 5) When children used a building partially, they had the tendency to pay more attention to the difference of story.
A mathematical model on the optimal number of urban facilities is concerned in this paper. The model is to minimize the sum of two types of cost: 1) facilities construction and operation cost and 2) transportation cost from residences to the facilities. The model is formulated under two assumptions: i) the population density is uniform all over the city; ii) each territory of the facility is mutually congruent. One of the main results is as follows : If the construction and running cost of a facility is linear function of the number of allocated users, the optimal number of the facilities is proportional to two-thirds power of the population of the city times the cube root of the area of the city. By this result, we can rationally compare the numbers of facilities of cities whose population and area vary. In this paper, the numbers of wards in the ordinance-designated cities in Japan are empirically examined. Moreover, our study clarifies that the average, cost per capita is the decreasing function of the population density of city. According to this result, we can argue how the consolidation of two cities effects on the average cost per capita.
In this paper, from the viewpoint of the life-style of high-school students in mountain area, we analyzed next two matters. One is actual condition of their dwelling environment, the other is evaluation of living environment. The main contents of this paper are as follows. 1) We confimed the difference of evaluation of dwelling environment between boys and girls. 2) The intention of permanent dwelling influence the evaluation of natural environment and human communication. 3) The index of active life is useful to judge the evaluation of natural environment and human communication.
This study aims at analyzing the change in land use and presenting problems in the urbanization control area. The investigated area consists of three sections, 350ha land in Inage-Ward, Chiba-City. All the land in these sections is measured by each unit, then totaled and analyzed according to the use. The real state widely differs; the first section shows a remarkable sprawl phenomenon with varied land use, the second section indicates much development with public facilities,while the third section hardly shows any change.
This is a research study about the location of special places for rituals in villages in Ulsan, Korea. Upon resarching 289 villages in Ulsan, Korea, we have found that 88percent of these villages have two or more special sites for rituals. The primary category types for rituals can be characterized as "Dangmok" and "Jedang". We have found a total of six types of places for rituals. The most popular ritual sites in Ulsan, Korea are either those exhibiting only a "Dangmok" style, or, those exhibiting both a "Dangmok" style and a "Jedang" style. There are no places for rituals in some villages, such as Won village and in some commercial villages. These villages were unquie cases from long ago. In cases where places for rituals have disappeared altogether incommuni ties - we have found that the cause was a lack of understanging about the historical significance of these ritual sites.
This study aims to examine the basic establishments for autonomous promotion of rural areas. In this report, we arranged the composition of area, the disposition of basic establishments and the type realization of cores to examine the principle of disposition of the basic establishments in areas composed of the cores. As a result, they were divided broadly into three categories, and we made known the planning of the basic establishments in rural areas.
Purposes of the study are to arrange the content of the post war reconstruction plan,specifying in KABUKI-CHO and, through the investigation and analysis on the course of the district development the present space composition in the region, to examine the influence which the post war reconstruction plan has given to'the district development, and finally to achieve a total review of it. Special stress are put as follows: 1. Aimed at construction of amusement quarter 2. Multi-examined plan 3. Mainly executed by private organizations 4. Gained total support from the administration of that time.
For supporting design of arcades which improve the amenity in urban area, typical examples of modern arcades in West Japan after the world war II were arranged historically and analyzed systematically. In consequence, these examples were classified into four groups in chronological order, the period of invention (silver awning and silver arcade), the period of fashion (the arcade of the "Gassyou" type), the period of expansion (the arcade of the louver type), the period of maturity (the arcade of the dome type). The social conditions which had changed the role and design of modern arcades were investigated.
In this study, we extracted a space constitution element using continuous notation, "CONTINUOUS RECORD" as a method to capture human visual information change in street space. As a result of this research, concerning human visual information change according to movement, it became clear that in a small spatial formation change outstanding objects have a priority of notation. From the comparison of pedestrian's actions and notations, it became clear that in the sections of changing spatial formation, human needed time to grasp the space and to extract objects which represented space.
The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to classify the grass-land of Aso region with AHP. As the criteria of evaluation, "the importance of landscape" and "the difficulty to maintain grass-land" are taken into consideration. In order to verify the feasibility and efficiency of this approach, an experimental classification of gras-land in Aso region is attempted. The case-study confirmed that the method is effective and practical. Furthermore, with the method, a practical application is expected to carry out based on the cooperation with local municipalities.
Hong Kong was returned to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997. Development Plans in Hong Kong are based on Town Planning Ordinance and are made by Planning Department. Development Plans consist of Territorial Development Strategy (TDS), Sub-regional Development Strategies (RDSs), Outline Zoning Plans (OZPs), Outline Development Plans (ODPs) and Layout Plans (LPs). Planning Standards & Guidelines contributes to make TDS, RDSs, OZPs, ODPs, & LPs and consists of 11 documents. Land use control is focused to usage of land or building through application of development permission and upper limit of floor area ratio through density zoning.
This article aims to analyze the effects of the workshop process "Photolanguage" for making city-image. We had already analyzed valuation scores in the former paper. In this time, we have tried to analyze the keywords that indicate the reason of the valuation in the process of workshop. As a result, it is revealed that the effects of Photolanguage are to connect the photographs presentation to group discussion, to diversify the valuation vocabularies, and to balance the valuation scores and points of view.
In this paper, span, the number of spans, the number of stories and floor loads are considered as design conditions and multiple regression method is carried out by using any possible combination of the above stated design conditions to study estimate method of structural cost which can be applied in wide range. EXCEL is used for easier expression of estimate method from mass calculation. By using EXCEL, comparison of structural style as stated below can be done easily and structural styles can be easily selected. Structure calculation is automatically designed by computer and section calculation is based on the Building Standards Act or various structural design standards at Architectural Institute of Japan.
Besides a lot of reports about CAD data exchange between participants in a building engineering process, there are few papers on CAD data management of the many various drawings made by different participants in a project. Drawings often have some relationships with each other, e.g. reference, therefore you must appropriately control the relationships between them to check the assembly consistency with superimposing heterogeneous drawings. The authors have developed an integrated system at the practical level, which provides the control of the relationships between drawings. The system is composed of CAD clients and a database server connected to a LAN.
Recently in GC(General Contractor), procurement systems of component and labor for building construction have wide range of variations. The site-procurement means purchases of building components and contracting with sub-contractors in a site. On the other hand, the procurement for multi-sites is managed by a special division in GC aiming for scale merit and efficiency. This paper tries to classify various procurement systems into several basic patterns. First, this paper examines the similarity and difference between typical two types of procurement system. Then, it is shown that the classification of basic patterns of procurement systems is available by using the important two factors of the procurement for multi-sites. Finally procurement system in a construction project is defined and exemplified by the combination of proposed basic patterns.
This Study,aims to understand diversification of activity and organisational structure in UK housing associations (HA) since Housing Act 1988. Housing Act 1988 has much influenced on HA in terms of finance and regulation. Since the Act took effect, activities and organisational structure of HA have changed. Activity has ranged from traditional housing provision and management to being management agent for other landlords. In addition, new types of activity have been undertaken by HA such as foyer project to provide accommodation and training for young people. The influence of the Act 1988 has enhanced HA to take group structure that sets up subsidiary for accommodating diversified activities.
In the Osaka magistrate office architectural control of temples, we have studied applications and pointed out following. 1. "Shikorohisashi" was classified "Shikoro" and "Hisashi", the former was 9-shaku and the latter 1-ken. 2. There are little applications whose scale of beam was over 3-ken. 3. The minimum scale of Hisashi, Shikoro and Geya was all 3-shaku, and the maximum of each 1.5-ken, 1.5-ken and 2-ken. 4. In changing the scale, most applications, whose scale of beam was within 5.5-ken, was presented. 5. It is confirmed no differences in usage of Hisashi, Shikoro and Geya, but the maximum scale was noticed.
Kii Tokugawa household Palace was a typical exa m p 1 e of feudal lords'palaces situated inEdo. This is a study on the composition of the palace and its' formality. Theresultsareasfollows. 1) This palace had characteristic due to the condition of it's site and it's political situation. 2) This palace had similar formality and scale to Edo castle (Honmaru, Nishinomaru) except public zone.
This paper will analyze archive documents (which also contains plans of. farmhouses) from Iwakura village (old administrative district). Such documents were application forms for permission to build up. These are the following results of analyzes: 1. The physical format of applications forms started to change in the Bunka-em and became standardized in the Tempo-era. 2. The content format changed in the Bunka-era and became the standardized model onwards. 3. After Bunsei 5 (1822), all application forms also have description of letate-kenbun report (inspection report of completion) from the Kyoto Daikansho (regional office of administrative official).
When Dohan was the daikanjin of Zentsuji-temple in Sanuki in the middle 13th century, its role was only the chief of the kanjin priests. But in the late 13th century, the Shinkei's period, it became the more important position to manage not only the building activities but also their domain. In the early 14th century, the Sodo's period, the post bacame only for the building activities, but after the Donin's period in the middle 14th century, the role came back to the Shinkei's period. After the Yuban's period. the Donin's next, the role was absorbed by the manager of Tanioin-temple.
This paper shows the relationship between the notion of "culture" and architecture in Japan between the 1930s and the 1950s, delving into a history of the building-type called bunka-kaikan (literally, cultural complex). The situation surrounding this building-type radically changed after the war; from the tool for cultural propaganda to the one for the enlightenment, from the facilities of "Japanese culture" to "international culture," whose meaning was actually vague. No architects thought such change might be important architecturally, nor reconsidered the notion itself. They simply regarded the building-type as given and tried to find its design possibilities in its multi-function character.
Adomo criticizes Heidegger's thought of "rootedness" in The Jargon of Authenticity. The purpose of this paper is to define the concepts of "rootedness" and "urbanity" that are important to consider the design of 20th century architecture, by considering Adomo's criticism. According to Heidegger, "rootedness" is to ground variable "history" on constant "nature". But Adomo insists that both "nature" and "history" always change and Heidegger's "rootedness" isn't truth. He calls such changeability "urbanity". We may, therefore, conclude that "rootedness" and "hometown" are ideal to look for incessantly.