Following China's Reform and Opening up from 1978, the number of agricultural labors decreased drastically after a steady rise in the number of laborers who moved into the cities. According to China's rapid urbanization and modernization, compared with the traditional farming life, the former life has changed a lot. Traditional residences have not fit to the modern life before villages' reorganization by the New rural polices that was declared by Chinese government since 2005. Accordingly, this paper aims to understand the current living situation before reorganization based on various conditions and spatial aspects, and tries to adress the key issues focusing on the uses. From the fieldwork on the targeted villages, this study shows that some of spatial features of the traditional houses, as well as residents' living habits have been preserved, however, according to the new way of living demands, the transformation of spaces functions and their uses have been evolving.
This study is aimed at understanding the management of common facilities and resident's evaluation based on the installation of the common facilities clarified by a previous paper. Results of this study are as follows: 1) Although many common facilities are installed in housing complexes, some common facilities such as a library have hindered management. 2) Aged halls were installed in all the housing complexes and many residents use it every day. The concern of a library for residents is high as many generations will use it.
In this study, for grasping the locational characteristics of welfare facilities for elderly people including accommodative function, area analysis was preceded by considering living environment. According to cluster analysis, Yokohama city as a field of case study was consisted into 16-type areas cluster, and 7-type district groups (Convenience district for limited generation, District with basic living amenities, District with full amenities, Convenience district in transportation, Inconvenience district in transportation, District without amenity, etc.). As considering distribution characteristics of facilities on these grouped districts, it was proved that there seems to be discrimination on choosing living environment by residents' economic and health condition or competence on activity of daily living. And as size of building related with site selecting which influence quality of living environment, it is an effectual method to be downscaled or utilize existing building.
This study aims to consider the issues on sustaining aquariums' publicness as cultural facilities by providing good services with stability. Actual conditions and its changes over the years on all aquariums in Japan were surveyed. Also, questionnaires on the operation, the maintenance and the facility utilizations were conducted from the viewpoint of social and educational aspects. As a result of factor analysis, the following points of aquariums' orientation have become clear; 1) entertainable attribute for attracting customers, 2) profitable attribute with stability and sustainability, 3) planning attribute for outside aquarium programs.
In order to obtain useful data for computer simulations of crowd flow in stations, we conducted surveys of upward crowds on stairs in real stations. We obtain detailed time series data of numbers, crowd flow coefficients, and walking speeds of people on stairs and confirm following 4 points quantitatively. 1. Crowd flow on stairs change from “unstable state” to “stable state” and “decreasing state”. 2. On narrow stairs, “unstable state” quickly disappears, and moves to “stable state”. 3. Crowd flow coefficients reach its peak and keep a stable value. 4. Walking speeds are almost constant during “stable state”.
The purpose of this paper is to show the way of the environmental improvement and the support scheme for the sustainable urban living of the elderly. We grasped the 9 types of the elderly in KITA Ward seeing from the stability of the life condition. These types were characterized by the following viewpoints, that is, the lack of human relations or chance of going out, the anxiety and the instability of local living. In addition, the serious instable living types were distributed in the areas where the large-scale housing complex was built. Thus, it is important to analyze the urban life condition in the every block and to consider the measures for each local subject.
For promotion of barrier free living environment, barrier free small-sized buildings is a problem. In Miyazaki City, The Welfare City Development Ordinance is enforced on April 1st in 2001. In Miyazaki City, The number of provided the access certificates is 1376 between April 1st 2001 to March 31st 2012. Among these, Private buildings and small-sized buildings are 41%, (570). As these buildings are used at the citizens' daily lives, it is concerned that barrier free is needed. To promote barrier free small-sized buildings, It is necessary to establish the organization for administrative guidance is required.
This paper identifies the applications of a corporate architectural design standard of an Indonesian company to three buildings in three places (three cases). Case 1 and Case 2 are heritage buildings located in two heritage neighborhoods, and Case 3 is a modern building in a new business neighborhood. This research applies three analyses including verifications of the building elements and the spatial configurations based on the corporate architectural design (CorpAD) standard manual as well as analysis of the way the company and the implementing architects applied the standard in response to the local characters of each place. The findings show that the applications conform to the aspects regulated in the standard manual. The cultural visions and the flexibility considerations are the most important aspects in the application of CorpAD standard elements in relation to the local characters of the places. The decisions made in applying the CorpAD standard indicate that the company and the implementing architects reduced the potential influences of the CorpAD standard on the local characters of places in the Cases 1 and 2 more effectively than that in Case 3.
The aim of this study is to clarify the methods of daylighting from skylight in exhibition rooms of the contemporary art museums as the methods of creating “heterogeneous” exhibition space to get rid of “homogeneous” exhibition space which has rectangular solid space with the lighting from whole ceiling, which has been the cliché as known as “WHITE CUBE” in modern museum. Firstly, the form of exhibition rooms, such as the shape of plan and ceiling are analyzed by the difference from rectangular solid. Secondly, the form of skylight, such as the position on the exhibition room is analyzed, and the type of exhibition rooms, the relation to the position of art works and type of art works are considered. Finally, four types of methods of daylighting are suggested by defining the “homogeneous form of space and illumination” as a typical method. Furthermore, the feature of the combination of daylighting from skylight in each contemporary art museums are clarified by these four types of methods.
The hatch of the International Space Station (ISS) has been designed based on the “NASA STANDARD”. This hatch has been designed for the transportation of equipment, and wasn't for the use of man. In case of using of civilian who aren't trained, the hatch of the ISS isn't secure enough to ensure their safety. We observed the emergency evacuation behavior of crowds flocking to the hatch, under microgravity conditions. This underwater experiment simulates microgravity conditions. This study also verified the validity of the appropriate positions of handrails used to evacuate. The underwater experiments where the 3 handrails were positioned in the direction of the exit, allowed for the shortest evacuation times. It was proven that the specific alignment of the handrails decreased the speed of the crowd, which allowed for all participants to exit in an orderly manner. We can conclude that an efficient and controlled evacuation of a crowd is a result of the handrails and their strategic positioning.
The following information was revealed about the reconstruction of main halls. 1. The main reasons for reconstruction of former main halls were deterioration, natural disasters, upgrading of functions and war. 2. The structure of the main hall was wooden in 80%. The use of non-wooden structures peaked in the sixties, but wooden structures have increased again since the eighties nationwide. 3. Reconstruction of main halls could be categorized into those attributable to deterioration, disaster, upgrading functions and no reconstruction. 4. Passing down over many generations and placing importance on tradition will be a guideline for reconstructing the main hall.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the spatial structure of the symbol grave and the burial grave in villages with the double grave system. This paper is composed of three main chapters. 1) Analyzing the location of the symbol grave and the relationship between its location and distance was clarified. 2) Analyzing the location of the burial grave in a village and the relationship between its location and spatial axis was clarified. 3) Analyzing the location of the burial grave and the symbol grave, and the space model of villages with the double grave system was clarified.
Kyoto city center doesn't have enough spaces for benches in public spaces. Most roads are narrow without sidewalks. For elderly people, considering which place is preferable for space for bench on their pedestrian routes is important. In this study, we made it clear their tendency which kind of space for bench is preferred when they walk around by analyzing 1065 data obtained through interview (by corresponding and clustering analysis). Then, from the aspect of place preferring by elderly people, not of operation and maintenance, we extracted 11 places where benches could be placed and be sit much by them.
Many elderly people were killed by Tsunami during Great East Japan Earthquake in Akahama, Otsuchi town, Iwate prefecture. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evacuation behaviors by interviews with residents in Akahama which is along the rias Coast and clarify how the built environment influence on the evacuation behaviors of the elderly. It is found that 1) geographical features such as nearness of a rising ground, sloping road to the sea and a narrow plain land are good for evacuation, 2) the town's background such as past tsunami, seawall construction and elementary school which has never been damaged in a few hundred years influence on evacuation behaviors and 3) family network and local community led to an influence on a turning point of an evacuation behavior, but there were younger people who tried to help the elderly and damaged or killed.
The purpose of this study is to develop a method for obtaining refined population aggregate units using the information of the adjacent units in the national census. We compared two methods by estimating the aggregate population of 500m unit grids with that of 1km unit grids, as well as by estimating that of 250m unit grids with that of 500m unit grids. The results show that the explanatory power was highest in estimation using the Neumann neighborhood and that the coefficient of determination was above 0.8. The results also suggest that the method should be selected according the density.
This paper aims to discuss authenticity on the conserving modern architecture in Ivrea, Italy. The municipality of the city has been working for conservation projects since the middle of 1990s. We analyzed the creation process, the law on the guideline, and contents of the guideline. As the result we understand that the creation process and backgrounds of the guideline, and how the guideline controls the conservation design of the modern architecture. Finally authenticity on the guideline and its creation process is seen for the purpose of maintaining the memory of the people of the city.
Over the past decades many Japanese contractors have tried to extend their business area into the overseas construction market, mainly as a result of a reduction in their domestic construction market. However in terms of risk, overseas construction projects are likely to face a number of unpredictable problems, many of which occur as a result of differences in contract cultures and construction environments between Japan and other countries. One key issue facing overseas construction projects in particular, is that of sub-contracting and control, and the way in which many southeast Asian, Australian and African countries operate a unique subcontracting method known as a nominated sub-contracting (NSC). This paper introduces the NSC contracting system and it is associated problems through a comparison between Singapore's standard construction contract forms, such as SIA and REDAS, and international contract forms, such as FIDIC and JCT. We also attempt to clarify the unilateralism of the NSC contract by a detailed analysis of the NSC clauses of each of the Singapore standard contract forms for nomination, contact, payment and termination respectively. Lastly, we will discuss the asymmetrical relationship among project participants, taken from a unilateral contract.
In the past, several researchers regarded such eight pillared gates with Munamochi-bashira structure as a part of the family of Zenshu-yo (traditional Zen-style architecture) four pillared gates. Their similarities include the gabled roof and the Munamochi-bashira located on the gable side wall. However, we have found several eight pillared gates in Yamanashi, which have the Munamochi-bashira inside the structure, not on the wall. Moreover, we also concludes that Munamochi-bashira inside the structure of eight pillared gates are adopted for the actual structural strength rather than the architectural style, after examining the construction of such eight pillared gates we have found.
The architect, Tetsuro Yoshida(1894-1956), was working as an employee of the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications, but he also designed many buildings, requested by individuals. By analyzing his original drawings, the following conclusion was drawn .: 1. Yoshida was engaged in all designing activities for the first 10 years working for the Ministry, but after he was 35 years, he was sketching schematic design and checking the drawings only. 2. For his works individually ordered, Yoshida drafted most of the drawings by himself, until about 40 years old. (except for almost of drawings of Beppu Public Hall and some of Mr. Baba's Residence in Ushigome) After he became 50 years old, he was sketching schematic design only , and his people at the Ministry was in charge of working design.
The purpose of this study is to clarify relation between Japanese typical architectural manual books "Kiwarisho" and Japanese architectural drawings "Tatejiwari", in order to solve the use and the role of manual books. Materials for study are documents preserved by the Hayashi family who were the carpenters in Daitoku-ji temple. In the documents, there are four good drawings and manual books. They show partly us how the Hayashi family used "Kiwarisho" and "Tatejiwari". They are drawings and manual books of the shrine of the Kyoto style, the shrine of the Kamigamo style, the two-storied gate, and the three-storied Pagoda.
This paper examines chronological development of company housing of Nikke, the Japan Wool Textile Co., Ltd. The Kakogawa Mill started its operation in 1889. In the earliest years, its company housing was located in the mill site and a new housing community was constructed around the mill with the expansion of the mill. In 1919, the Innami Mill was developed across the river from the Kakogawa Mill and a new larger worker housing community was planned. It was described as “a Garden City” in a newspaper. A part of the plan was realized, but not completed.
This paper examines land selection process for new factory and development of worker's settlement by Nippon Steel Co.Ltd. in the 1930's from 3 scales, region, city and settlements. It was first time for Nippon Steel to construction of factory at a place near big cities. That location was a general tendency of at that time. Japanese government and Hyogo Prefecture restricted development by Nippon Steel aiming at realization of ideal city planning. The plan of urban development of Hyogo prefecture and Nippon Steel were differed greatly. Nippon Steel acquired the company residence sites as a factory, and constructed company houses.
The Emperor Taisho is known for having visited all prefectures except Okinawa on his Crown Prince days. The Emperor visited San-in region about one month from May 10 on Meiji 40. This was the first official Emperor “gyokei” for region visiting. And it is supposed that the way visiting regions of Emperor has changed significantly after this. In this study, I examined historical records about the accommodation of the Emperor in Shimane Prefecture. As a results, actual usage of various accommodation, visit facilities, lunch places, and rest area, etc. has been revealed. And, it became clear that the facilities of the attendant person are also formulated and classified.
This thesis is aimed to elucidate Karel Teige's architectural philosophy from mid 1930's to 1940's. At first, this thesis is dealing with the time when Teige participated in surrealism movement and revealing Teige's attitude against Stalinism. Then, this thesis is trying to reveal his architecture philosophy, expressing distinct criticism of the architecture of socialist realism of the Soviet in late 1930s. Finally, this thesis is dealing with Teige's last architectural article "předmluva o architektuře a přírodě" in 1947, and trying to elucidate the possibility of his new architectural theory, mediating between surrealism and the real landscape.
This paper discusses the development of ribbon window in the Walter Gropius's early housing estates. In his first housing estate Dessau-Törten (1926-1928) Gropius adopted the ribbon window as a motif of façade based on his original construction principle. But these steel windows were criticized after the construction because of high window breast etc. In his second housing estate Dammerstock in Karlsruhe (1929) Gropius developed his type of row house, where he still used ribbon windows but tried to create more comfortable rooms by reducing the height of window breast. Since then he used ribbon windows also for medium-rise apartment buildings.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relation between the industrial development of Mito works of Hitachi, Ltd. and official city plan of Katsuta during WWII. Uchida Yoshikazu, professor of Tokyo Imperial University, the most authority figure of architecture, planned company housing and Town plan of Hitachi, Ltd. His plan was followed the theory of the neighborhood unit. Katsuta official city plan was draw up street plan but it was followed an existing road improvement plan. Since then, additional street plan was instituted beyond the land readjustment area and surround all over the Mito works. Katsuta land readjustment plan was followed the theory of the neighborhood unit, too. Consequently, the industrial development of Mito works and Katsuta official city plan was closely related. But the neighborhood unit plan was not realization and normal land readjustment was practiced.
This study aims to clarify the diachronic channels of the transformation on the fringes of 12 Japanese castle domains with focusing 5 ages among the term which is from Modernization to present age. As the method of the first step to achieve this aim, following three viewpoints are applied to all the 60 moats of the 5 ages of each 12 fringes. (1):the maintained situation and configuration situation of the ruins on the each bank of all moats (2):the main form-type on the each bank of all moats (3):the combination of form-types on both banks of all moats. And as the second step, having unified the analysis result by three viewpoints above, 17 sorts of forms in the 60 moats are clarified. Finally, the 12 fringes are arranged using 17 sorts of these forms and 4 models of the diachronic channels about the transformation on the fringes of 12 Japanese castle domains are came to clarify as the conclusion.