The purpose of this study was to clarify the actual situation about cooperation among occupation that wrestles with house adaptation for elderly-people with four cooperations around Tokyo.The results are 1,The motivation of participation to organization of among occupation is social situation. 2,An effect by cooperation among occupation is left in peace each other. However there is problems that whole care cannot be seen etc. 3,As for the information for the physical situation of elderly people, there are lots of cases passed to designers / Construction contractors / of welfare house environment coordinators from home helpers or care managercontractors, welfare living environment Coordinators in many cases. 4,The information of physical situation and past cases of elderly people is important.
This study aims to grasp the life style of elderly people living in housing estate in Tama Newtown, Tokyo, and classify the Life Style of Elderly people, and consider their Living Environment. The results obtained through reserch including interviews of dwellers are as follows; 1)Elderly in Tama Newtown, their life style is greatly controlled by the nursing level, but it is not limited that the elderly who is serious nursing level is not active. 2)The Life style of elderly people is classified into 4 types by their nursing level and their aspect of going out. And there are common feature in the way of living aspects. 3)When we think the living environment for elderly people, it is useful to consider their life style.
The purpose of this paper is to study the residents' attributes in Qilou houses and residents' evaluation on the residential environment of Qilou districts by questionaire survey. The results obtained are as follows: (1) residents' awareness pattern of enviroment evaluation have relations with resitents' personal attributes such as the type of Qilou district, the tenure type of Qilou house, the age, the living area, etc. (2) many inhabitants are satisfied with the convenience of Qilou district such as shop, school, bank, post office, hospital, public traffic, etc. (3) many inhabitants have negative evaluation to their old houses for the lack of hygiene facilities, poor living space and noise of the traffic.
An experimental research was conducted to study student's acceptance of environmental transformation and their behavior toward it in the classroom, by means of observation of the student's behavior and a questionnaire of free description form. Students of an elementary school and a junior high school experienced an experimental classroom of which ceiling height was set to 2.4m, 2.7m or 3.0m. As a result, it was confirmed that the students' reactions are different according to the ceiling height, the school age, and the date. Students not only reacted to the ceiling but also showed the reaction toward the objects lowered by lowing of the ceiling.
The Full Service School has been giving many kinds of services on the learning and life for solving many problems of schools and families. The after school is one of the most important services for learning support and the after school consists of the static and dynamic activities. This study aims to clarify the method of planning which should think of the existing and new school building by the analysis on arrangement of rooms where are used for the after school. The results are as follow. 1) The eight schools are divided into two types by the rooms where are used and the number of students who attend. 2) There is the relation between the cooperation of the school and the number of students who attend. 3) The type I uses many schoolrooms for the support on the 54 to 107 students. The type II uses the learning room of service organization and schoolrooms for the support on the 14 to 40 students. 4) These are used for the static activity on the classroom, special subject room, cafeteria of school and learning room of service organization. 5)The dynamic activity uses the large rooms such as gym and cafeteria.
This research describes the conception of four spatial dimension, applies it to architectural composition and examines the qualities of shaping architectural spaces. Spatial experiments in virtual environment in the forrn of virtual gallery are conducted to find the characteristics of 4D spatial composition. Experiments in wayfinding, spatial image perception, and spatial conception are conducted by comparing 3D and 4D gallery. The result of the experiments shows the differences between the two spaces, and the characteristics of those spaces are analyzed in terms of search and navigation, orientation and path, spatial impression. In conclusion, this research widens possibilities of 4D spatial composition to improve spatial design and qualities in virtual environments.
The aim of this paper is to propose the grasping method of the pattern and level of the agglomeration of land use using remote-sensing data. Using "CN Index" developed by Kobayashi et al. we propose a new Index, "Distance Index", which can clarify the level of the agglomeration of land use of a large regional area. DI Index is a potential value calculated based on distribution of CN index. In the paper firstly we abstracted the pattern of land use by classification from their land-surface situation using remote-sensing data of West Aichi. Secondly we measured the DI Index. Then we checked the land use pattern of West Aichi using DI Index and considered the feature. As a result by using DI Index the level of the agglomeration of land use could be classified comparatively clearly and especially the shape of the edge of agglomeration could be figured.
This study aims at indicating a paradigm for a support system for Residential Sustainability in a community that has various problems in terms of the elderly's living. Intermediary supports providing the elderly-driven services with people who need them. In this research, KitaKyushu City where population has been reducing and aging is chosen as a study target field, which has begun to introduce the inclusive support system in a community level comparatively earlier than other municipalities. The results are as follows; (1) Role and concrete contents of three supports in the middle support which connects the three elements, (2) Spreading of contents of support and changes of contents of the participant's acquisition. (3) Present problems a intermediary has and what a intermediary should do in the future.
The aim of this study is to propose floor area ratio system by structures and to show how it works on future fire-spreading risk. To this end, a behavior model of building-clients was constructed. In this model, a utility of each building was represented by two indexes, namely benefit index and cost index. The former was represented by the total amount of floor area. The latter was represented by the annual cost of building and its lot. The parameters of the model were coordinated by building database at two different observation times. Based on the simulation by the above model, changes of an index of fire-spreading risk were estimated. As a result, when the ratio of fireproof building was enlarged 3 times as much as wooden buildings, future index of fire-spreading risk was reduce more than 4 times of the case without the system. These results show the good effectiveness of this system.
The aim of this paper is to examine how sky exposure rate regulation influences building layout in urban areas through a simple model, where buildings and sites are assumed to be boxes and rectangles, respectively. We derive analytical expressions for two types of building sky exposure rates. According to the regulation, the rate computed for the proposed building layout has to be greater than the regulated rate determined by the site shape and the road space. Therefore, these expressions are useful to give better information about building regulation to decision makers. We also demonstrate that the sky exposure rate regulation leads to higher buildings, building rotation and setbacks. These results are consistent with real-world phenomena in Japan.
Recently in Japan, many workshops for community improvement have been held at an active pace. The main feature of these workshops is that their contents are specialized. For this reason, both communication and understanding among participants in such workshops are difficult to achieve and therefore require much time and effort. In particular, at workshops for the discussion of the future image of a town, it is very important that participants understand and share the future image. To address this issue, we developed a VR (virtual reality) system for sharing a future image and proposed a practical use method for workshops. Furthermore, we verified the effectiveness of this system at actual workshops. As a result, we clarified that VR is useful in the three areas of stimulating communication, speeding up the decision-making process, and converting ideas.
This research aims at studying the LDK (living/dining room and kitchen) space configuration of group homes by the type based on the questionnaire survey, field survey and interviews for managers and nursing staff of 121 group homes for the elderly people with dementia in Chiba prefecture to understand the current status and how it should be in the future. In this paper, the group homes investigated were categorized into "L+D+K," "LD+K," "L+DK," and "LDK" depending on the LDK space configuration and further classified by the building act for analysis. Typical comparison and review of the group homes for such items as degree of satisfaction of the floor area or building or place where the aged people gather was made to clarify the characteristics of each type.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title 'Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 1999. In the period of the Spanish urbanism in America, one of the most interesting creations was the Colony of Nuevo Santander, constructed 250 years ago. The formation of this group of spanish colonial cities was made at the same time, in the period (1749-1776), in the same area (Nuevo Santander of Mexico, now Tamaulipas region) in the same territorial net and designed all by the same person (Jose de Escandon) and with similar plan. But in that time all theses cities were planed under the influence of 250 years before of Spanish urban experience in America. This paper analyze Urban Model by Jose de Escandon. The design of the cities of D. Jose Escandon was based on the same grid model with square Plazas with dimensions that move between 124 varas and 224 varas. The form and distributition of the block depends on the dimension of the Plaza. This paper discusses mainly the differences between the Escandon's model and the model by Indias Laws.
In compliance with upward trend of women who take architecture or housing as their career, women students has accounted for around 20 percent of the total students who choose architecture or housing studies as their major at university in recent years. As the equality of the sexes at works has not been fully realized yet, it is mostly women that take cares of household affairs and children. This study is intended to investigate: 1) the effect of gender equal participation policy at actual work places; 2) requirements for continuing to have a job, with a view thus to promote further discussion about required supports.
This study examines the roles of local property management organization at Letchworth Garden City in the UK. Its objective is to learn essence of the management system of living environment by local property management organization that may be applicable to Japan. In this regard, the study is carried out to clarify residents' evaluation on living environment and the property management organization at the housing area via the case study at Letchworth Garden City. The study found that the residents tended to positively evaluate the activities of the organization for maintaining landscape and living environment. It implies that establishment of the management system is important for Japan, in which the management organization has a right to control the use of lands in the area in order to make the area more beautiful, valuable and democratic.
In this paper, the building maintenance costs for the local government office buildings are analyzed and the cleaning costs especially is clarified. Annual cleaning cost is the same amount of about 40〜60 % of annual energy costs. Next, the actual situation of cleaning management is defined based on the analysis of labor-man hour date of the past cleaning works. With regard to the overall ordered floor area to the cleaning contractors in a year, the ordered floor area for the regular cleaning work is a little. With the labor-man hours for the cleaning works, the regular cleaning works of one on two times in a year exceed the daily cleaning works for some government buildings. With the rooms such as, "Passage and Elevator hall", "Rest room", and "Entry hall", labor-man hours spent for the cleaning works occupies more than half of those of the overall number of daily cleaning work. With the rooms and articles such as, "Office room" and "Lighting equipment", labor -rnan hours spent for the cleaning works occupies more than half of those of the overall number of regular cleaning works. Consequently, in order to reduce cleaning costs, it may be required to focus on the management of these labor-man hours.
Yakushi-do of Buraku-ji is located in Ohtoyo-cho in Kochi Prefecture. The main hall of the Buddhist temple was rebuilt in the 1^<st> year of the Ninpyo Era and underwent major repairs during the Tensho Era. This study reviews repairs that were undertaken in the 43^<rd> year of the Meiji Era according to the Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Act and reports and documents compiled by Dr. Minoru Ohka. Restoration efforts under the guidance of Dr. Shunichi Amanuma focused on restoration of the external appearance and attempted to restore the original style of the structure. However, this study shows that the restoration efforts included structural reinforcement the roof truss in the attic but efforts were taken to maintain the original Ninpyo Era appearance of the building exterior.
During Edo-Era there were two kinds of governer, Jodai and Machibugyo in Shonai-Han. Jodai governed soldiers and Machibugyo governed citizen. Jodai and Machibugyo were sent to Sakata and Machibugyo was sent to Tsuruoka. Through the examination of historical materials, following results were ascertained; 1)Official residence of Jodai was composed of ceremony rooms, lord's rooms and dwelling of Jodai. 2)Official residence of Machibugyo was composed of ceremony rooms and dwelling of Machibugyo.
As a result of my consideration of the architectural control on the vassals' residence in the Hagi Clan after the middle of the 18^<th> century. I observed the following: 1 It followed the outlines which had been established at about the middle of the 18^<th> century, and, not greatly changed, was "specified", or adapted, to each respective case through the specific interpretation of the outlines. 2 In the Hagi Clan, through the frequent opinion exchanges between "metsuke-gata", or administrators of the construction business, and the high ranking officials of the Clan over the interpretation of the outlines of the architectural control, it was gradually "specified" to each case.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the housing idea for commons envisioned by the Housing Loan Corporation through drawings of the wooden standard houses, which published 6 times from 1951 to 1975. Through the examination of the plans of the houses, it is clarified that the housing idea was modified according to the change of Japanese life style. Notably the Corporation intended the improvement of Japanese houses for commons by presenting advanced idea in 60s, when some Japanese embraced the advanced idea while the other persisted in the traditional idea.
It is thought that a residence built in the whole country in early period of Meiji, by the Meiji government is followed as a house of a salary dweller of our beginning of a country to a city type house of the back, but it is not almost clarified the actual situation. By this report, I measured remains of an ancient structure of a residence assumed that it was built in early period of Meiji who stayed in Tochigi-shi, Tochigi and investigated it and examined a scale, a resident, removing and reconstruction by documents and clarified that it was a building of a former residence built in the Meiji early days. In addition, I clarified one end of the actual situation of a residence in the Meiji early days when it had been hardly clarified by analyzing plan constitution of the remains of an ancient structure.
The wooden bracket system Chusinho(柱心包) is the typical characteristic of the Asian wooden architecture, and it has developed with individuality in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese architecture since the 12^<th> century. The ultimate goal of this study is to point out the common features and distinctions of the system among the three countries, and as the basis for the study, this paper focuses on the combinations and components of Chusinhou in Korean and Japanese architecture and finds out the followings. First of all, the combination of the Korean and the Japanese wooden bracket system, Masu(斗) and Hijiki(肘木), is basically the same. Secondly, Odaruki(尾垂木) and Nokisirin(軒支輪)are the additional elements that can be found only in the Japanese Chusinhou. Finally, while the decorations are mainly on Hijiki in the Korean Chusinhou, Japanese Chusinhou pursue its design not on Hijiki itself but on the entire combination of eaves.
"YING ZAO FA SHI" (1103 A. D.) and "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE"(1734 A. D.) are two important books on Chinese classical architecture. To compare them, this paper makes a study on the types and the description method of bracket complex called "Dou ke" in "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE". "YING ZAO FA SHI" gives general rules and kiwari for design and computation of bracket complex called "Pu zuo", "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE" describes eleven types of "Dou ke" and carefully specifies the "kiwari" of each type, the sequence of assembling it and its calculated actual dimensions according to the eleven grades of "Dou kou". It can be clear that utilitarian nature is an outstanding characteristic of "Dou ke" in "GONG CHENG ZUO FA ZE LIE".
Prasat Suor Prat, "Towers of the Rope Dancers", are now popularly considered to be built in the end of 12^<th> century, under the direction of King Jayavarman VII. This widespread understanding is, however, just based on several hypotheses, which had been formulated under drastic changes of general opinions about chronology of Khmer monuments, especially the "Bayon Period", among French scholars in the second half of the 1920s. This paper traces briefly the history of knowledge on Prasat Suor Prat, in order to clarify some fundamental problems inherent in previous Khmer studies.
This paper discusses about some features in the positions of stage building and cavea of twenty-three Greek and Hellenistic theaters constructed in Greece through a geometrical analysis. As a result, the following four points are drawn out; (1) the positions of stage building and cavea are related each other by a circle or a regular polygon inscribed in an another circle, (2) of the circle described above are there two patterns, one equals to a orchestra and the other corresponds to a circle of which diameter is taken between the lowest steps of cavea, (3) after an introduction of a permanent proscenium, it happened in most theaters that one side of a regular polygon coincides with a position of front of the proscenium, (4) around Athens there are a few theaters with particularities, in which a position of front of a proscenium coincides with one side of a regular polygon inscribed in a circle while keeping a circular orchestra space.
Two theaters for comedies built in the parish of San Cassiano, Venice in 1581 are studied in this paper by researching the manuscripts kept in the Archivio di Stato di Venezia. They are commonly known as one of the oldest theaters in Europe. However, because of lack of buildings and visual materials, it is still difficult to clarify their forms and the functions. In addition, the documents like the records of the Council of Ten do not give us sufficient information. In this study, the nobles who owned these theaters and actors are pointed out, then their purposes of the play and their roles as constructor are examined through the manuscripts to reveal the theatrical context of the late 16th century Venice
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of the structure of Steven Holl's methodology in creating his works by means of analyzing his words. The analysis is described in four chapters as follows: in chapter 2, the structure of Holl's words which means his concept "phenomenal architecture" is explicated with a dichotomous schema. In chapter 3, as suggested by the structure of a schema which explicates the phenomenological reduction, Holl's "physics" and "metaphysics" are explicated schematically, and it is shown that the shift to "metaphysics" from "physics" in Holl is nothing but the phenomenological transcendental shift. In chapter 4, it is clarified that Holl's "idea" is discovered in the shifting process of the phenomenological reduction called "metaphysics", and it is also acknowledged that the "idea" constitutes a counterpart of the "design" which is located in the transcendent-ontical phase. In chapter 5, as based on the considerations in the previous chapters, and also as suggested by Tomoya Masuda's ontological schema, as well as Masuda's words that describe the schema, the whole structure of Holl's methodology is explicated with two schemata.
In this study, we aim to clarify the spatial characterization of film, which is influenced from not only film set but also casting role and a story. In this paper as the first step of the study, we focus on famous sixteen Charles Chaplin's films. To consider the locales of the films, we extract it and set criteria of background locale. Next we analyze the ratio of and the temporal transition of locale description, more over considered the attribute of the casting role. At the result, the character of the street symbolically expressed the feature of the background locales; Slum, Country, City-outside, City-inside and Special. We broke the temporal transition down into three patterns; Stay-type, Wandering-type and Pass-type, and clarified the contrast between main locales of each film by analysis of the locale organization.
Yoshinari KOUCHI, who was born in Hiroshima on June 13 in 1913, graduated from Yokohama engineering college in 1935. He studied under Junpei NAKAMURA, who was the famous architect and educator. After his graduation, he worked under Mumoru YAMADA, who was one of the most famous rationalistic architects in Modern Japan, and he went to Manchuria for working as an architect at architecture section in Ministry of Communications Financial Bureau. Since July in 1939, he had designed buildings as an engineer at architecture section in General Bureau of Post Affairs, Manchoukuo. After the Second World War, he returned to Japan and made a great contribution to reconstruction of Hiroshima City by designing many buildings at AKATUKI architecture design institute. In 1951, he established KOUCHI YOSHINARI architecture design institute. He was not only an energetic architect based in Hiroshima but also the person who was active in various fields of the academic studies and the building administration.
The Museumplein in Amsterdam is indicated one of a potential contact points to load the Amsterdam brand. This place was born by the movement to gain the impressive cityscape as a European Modern Capital in the late ninetieth century. After the discussion on the meaning and the design for more than one century, this place was opened as the Museumplein at the end of the twentieth century. The center of the discussion was sifted from elite and bourgeois to civilized masses after the Second World War. The Constant's New Babylon become popular in the 1960s and his antipathy toward both avant-garde art and functional architecture which he regarded as elitist attempt to rob play and creativity from "the mass" had gained attention. The character as a cultural center in the city was intensified in the 1970s to 1980s. The possibilities of cycling and rambling and the cultural function of the free manifestation were required. The newspapers heated up the discussion. The final landscape design of the Museumplein was evaluated because of the "Emptiness", the "Neutrality" and the preservation of the developed character by the early second half of the 20th century. This place, the Museumplein, gains the centrality and is not any more the back yards of the cultural institutes. No institute can be a zenith there. The new national cultural public space is require to equally accept the various level of the urban elements and activities and return them to the the city again.
Using historical documents and maps, this research clarifies the characteristics of construction for the city of Suwon Hwasung. King Jeong-jo, the 22th king of the Joseon dynasty, created the military city of Suwon Hwasung when he took control of military and economic power at the end of 18th century. Suwon Hwasung was intended to outdo the city of Namhan Mountain Fortress, which was built by bureaucrats. Jeong-jo chose the location of Suwon Hwasung city to gain military control, but also used it to promote economic activity. This urban policy is the most notable characteristic of Suwon Hwasung and it ensured a stable life for the people.