This paper proposes the method of communication to be able to provide residents with information in a community planning most efficiently. In this study, the authors classified residents' type by use of PII (Personal Involvement Inventory) (Zaichkowsky, 1985) and examined the residents' response to the provided information. With the result of the experiment, the authors concluded that the tendencies of residents' effect to the provided information differed in the classified type of residents by use of PII, whether evaluation was included in provided information and the level of source expertise. Base on our findings, people should provide residents with information through the method proposed.
The Essex Design Guide is one of the best design guides in the UK. In 1973, the first edition of the guide was published. In 1997, the new edition was published. There are differences between the old guide and the new guide. The aim of this study is to clarify the reason why the differences occurred with analyzing the respective backgrounds. The old guide originated from a scheme for conservation areas defined by the Civic Amenities Act of 1967, and was influenced by the townscape theory. On the contrary, the new guide uses some new concepts of mixed uses, sustainability, permeability, legibility and so on, which were incubated under the aesthetic battle of architecture from the late of 1980's.
The purpose of this study is to reconsider the roles of health care facilities for the elderly including the standpoint of local characteristics of each facility. According to a nation-wide questionnaire survey for the facilities established before June 1998, 19 categories in five indices related to the characteristics of each facility were obtained. As the result of principal component analysis, two major principal components were extracted. The one is related with the length of stay of the elderly and the places transferred to and from the facility, while the other is related with the age of the facility after the operation. According to the further analysis using the component scores and cluster analysis, the samples were classified into four identical types, i.e. long-term staying type, newly built dementia caring type, short stay quick turnover type and supporting home care type.
The purpose of this research is to acquire new knowledge about environment for convalescence for the inpatients of ALS at the hospital The survey is mainly examined at two viewpoints. One is councilor survey about the living conditions of the inpatients ol ALS. Two is measure survey about the physical condition of the treatment environment for them. The results are the followings. 1) The bodies of inpatients of ALS are connected with medical machineries. So it is necessary to reconfigure living conditions of the inpatients considering inpatienf s body as a unit of self-help tool, aspirator and respiratory organ. The spacing between the beds needs to be expanded to allow enough space in the multi-patient room. 2) The care person is important for inpatients of ALS. So the nap and break space for the care person is necessary in case for long-term of hospitalization.
This study was conducted to identify how hearing-impaired individuals are affected by various barriers they encounter within the facilities for the hearing-impaired individuals in relation to their level of hearing loss, academic background, and work status. Differences in the time when the impairment occurred, level of hearing loss, academic backgrounds, and work experience had a great impact on the self-perceived effect of barriers within the facility. Furthermore, individuals with 90 db or less hearing loss and those with 90db or more hearing loss had different needs related to the improvement of various barriers.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the reference domains of demonstrative pronouns from reclining postures in the room. In everyday conversation in Japan, we use the three different demonstrative pronouns, "KORE", "SORE", and "ARE". The differences between the usage of these three pronouns indicate that the space surrounding a person can be divided into three reference domains. The experiments were carried out in a full-model experimental room. Subjects were located lying on one's back on the bed. Subjects were indicated the white ball (made of styrene foam), then how far they said "KORE" and "SORE". The results are summarized as below ; 1) The reference domain of "ARE" encloses the domain of "SORE", which encloses the domain of "KORE". 2) The reference domain of "KORE" is a hard domain which is not affected of a wall and a ceiling. 3) The reference domain of "SORE" is a soft domain which is affected of the surface of a ceiling. 4) The reference domain of "KORE" from reclining postures is a mental self domain.
In this paper, the pattern of the poetic image structure was classified. First of all, the idea 'Position of the code' was instituted. Next, the combination of 'Position of the code' and 'Poetry pattern of the image' was considered. And, the pattern of the combination was called 'Poetic form'. 12 "Poetic forms" were found existing from the poetic image structure investigation. 2 new forms found through! consideration and it was shown that at least 14 forms exist.
In order to enlighten the necessity of accessible environments for wheelchair users, we must establish the experiential learning program for wheelchair travels. In this study we organized as many settings with different physical conditions as possible in order to obtain psychological evaluation from subjects for these respective conditions. In the analysis, it specifies "the critical point of accesibility" for their successful locomotion. From this, we pointed out the new learning program that is most effective and demands the least number of trials. This is a program which provides an opportunity firstly for acquiring a hands-on experience by 'Independent Wheeling' that different physical conditions affect accessibility for wheelchair users, and secondly for experiencing characteristics in "Wheeling Support."
To pursue reasonable systems which avoid lacks of essential performance of construction, we organize the structure of building performance with two points of view: the subjects who require performance, and imperfect information. One subject, client can order his requirements to builders, but the other, the public can't. Hence, the clients and the builders have less incentive to achieve requirements of the public. In turn, information of building performance is imperfect, so that the clients or the public cannot discover defects. The degrees of imperfect information are two: asymmetric information between client and builder, and unforeseeable performance of all.
This paper aims to develop a forecastmodel to estimate the changing distributions of population and employees in a local city using cellular automata, and examine the capability of the model to simulate the future distributions under different land use policies. In order to provide a realistic simulation of the distributions, we introduce a stochastic transition rule and a critical parameter representing the relation of zoning and urban activity. Simulations using different sets of the parameter values are carried out and the likely impacts of the policies assumed in the model on the future distributions in the subject area, Toyohashi city, are explored.
Sustainability of historical environment in urban renewal is discussed through the analysis of the townscape in the city center of Kyoto. The field research made it clear that Machiya is still typical building type in urban center of Kyoto, and the relation between the visual recognition and the physical elements of townscape was analyzed to indicate the space condition that Machiyas and renewaled buildings are able to coexist. In order to sustain the historical environment of Kyoto Center, it is necessary to share the concept of this space condition as the local rule.
This paper clarified the reason why the building coverage ratio is high in Osaka City. The local building code enacted in 1909 had allowed the building coverage ratio with a high value. And Osaka adopted the building coverage ratio based on the building code of Japan enacted in 1919 in the large area with the high value, compared with other' big cities. On the other hand, in Osaka, there is much row house and each area of a site is also narrow. These reasons are overlaps intricately, and the building coverage ratio in Osaka City is high.
The aim of this study is to clarify the policy implementation process in historic preservation districts by a general questionnaire survey on municipal governments. The results of the survey are as follows: Indication of the future vision concerning the community development of the preservation districts is important in terms of realizing a smooth designation process. The diversity of preservation goals show that the municipalities are .aware of the above point, but implementation of related policies, especially those that are beyond the limits of cultural property protection, are apt to be left behind.
This report, as part 2 of our study, proposes an approximate equation to calculate the construction period of reinforced distribution facilities, such as shopping centers and warehouses having basement. 1) We derived this equation from multiple regression analysis by the total floor area, the basement floors and the ground floors of a building as the explanatory variable. 2) The character of this equation is rectilinear on the logarithmic coordinates. 3) We have confirmed the reliability of this equation by a statistical test, for example, Akaike's Information Criterion. Some equations and software to calculate construction period are made public and can be accessed on the internet, however, there is no report of testing the reliability of the results.
Unbalanced matching between housing size and household size can be partly resolved by promoting the exchange houses among households. To do so, condition for small households living in large houses to voluntarily move into smaller houses is key to analyze. The current study explores the condition and offers some recommendations for a better housing policy that may relieve the existing "mismatch". In order to relieve the mismatch on the viewpoint of the better use of the existing stock, it is suggested that promoting the elderly households to move from owned detached houses to condominiums would be beneficial. Moreover, it is also suggested that promoting the younger households with smaller household size to move from owned detached houses to rented apartment houses may prove effective to improve the mismatch situation.
This paper is continuation of the previous paper (Part 3). People in both, countries are aware that housing deteriorates with aging. Self-estimation of housing condition is higher in the U.S. than in Japan, where housing age is also a significant evaluation standard. In the U.S., only if the housing is to be rebuilt in the future, dweller's consciousness of its maintenance is low. However, in Japan it is low also among dwellers who intend to move. The Japanese who look positively to existing houses show high consciousness of housing maintenance. But Japanese with a merely temporary dwelling outlook lack such perspective. Thus, there is a clear relationship between the dweller' s intention and his/her housing maintenance consciousness. Japanese who live in a same house long-term tend to renovate their housing, while the ones planning to sell tend to refrain from renovating. In both countries, men do plenty of DIY tasks like carpentry or plastering. DIY and the consciousness of the education in housing maintenance skills at home is noticeably higher in the U.S. Most Japanese even deem it unnecessary.
A new survey of the house and documentary research into Oda archives forms the basis for analysis of the building story and for a reconstruction of the original roof structure. Oda house,which has belonged to the mid-Edo period,is firmly dated to 1753 and the survey reveals four different phases of the bulding through its extension of the primise. Noboribari-beam type,which is not observed in Kunimori house built just after 1768,may go back to the original house, even if it was reconstructed in a later phase.
A Study on flight form and the Use actual condition of the Gang! Arcade in the Modern Ages. In modernization, a passage function is secured in public land and there is an example by which it wag occupancy-ized in private land and the passage function was spoiled as Gangi. Because there was a policy by the side of administration which makes it a public passage as Gangi, it was fixed as Gangi'm spite of public land.
We think that the main shrine which was built by the Tokugawa Shogunate in Musashi- Mitake shrine moved another place, and then the new main shrine built in that place by the storong intention of Meiji Government. It is possible to say that to have moved the main shrine and to have built the new main shrine symbolize the historic feet itself that Yoshinobu Tokugawa returned sovereign power , and that the Emperor acceded and new Meiji Government was established at the Meiji Restoration.
While 'theater' is defined as a building exclusively used for performing arts, 'theatrical space' is defined as a place for various purposes, such as spectacle and theater activity. Compiling previous studies on the theatrical spaces in the Renaissance reveals that they have been discussed from various points of views, although architectural point of view is hardly found after 1980s. I clarify that the theatrical spaces in the Renaissance have unique characteristics which is different from theater buildings on the social roles and appearance. Thus, it is necessary for the further study to add the architectural point of view and the theatrical space may have to be reconsidered.based on the relationship among architect, confraternity and stage setting.
Our concern is to consider three types of landscape, one-point perspective type, frame type and overlap type that are drawn out from Stourhead Gardens. As a beginning, we show geometrical differences among three types. Then we make clear impressions of three types on depth and examine relations between their impressions and their geometrical forms. Furthermore to consider relations between impression and mode of visual perception, we refer to Merleau-Ponty's thought and make sure that visual perception has 'tactile perception' and 'objective perception'. We therefore conclude that 'tactile perception' acts on frame type, 'objective perception' acts on one-point perspective type and both act on overlap type.
In this paper, the nature of Mado (the window) is tried to be confirmed and to be re-defined especially in Mado native to Japan. Mado is neither free from the circulation in Hermeneutics. It must be re-defined according to new interpretation of today. It starts from finding out the incompleteness in ordinary definition under the review of dictionaries through all ages, and from confirming the changes of meanings. In order to fill up the gap, how Mado is lived is viewed from Mado itself and poems expressing the experiences concerning Mado. In conclusion, the substance oiMado native to Japan is explained. It is also explained that Mado both native to Japan and of foreign origin are mixed up in Japan without a feeling of wrongness.
The purpose of this paper is to consider and clarify the process of transformation of his early works from 1954 to 1982. This study traces the evolution of his architecture from a plain and static existence to a more open, dispersive style. This paper describes various architectural pieces designed by Gehry to reflect this apparent change from a fixed, closed composition to separate, independent structures, and finally toward a concentrated resolution. Danziger Studio and Residence, Loyola University Law School and Winton Guest House are among the examples used to illustrate Gehry's dynamic changes.
The aim of this paper is to study the structure of Louis I. Kahn's Psyche in his architectural creation. Firstly, I introduce Kahn's philosophy of architectural creation and the concept of Psyche. Secondly, I compare Kahn's PSYCHE with C.G.Jung's Psyche. As a result, Kahn's PSYCHE is composed of INA which consist of pure consciousness and WILL which is consciousness to characterize, and Jung's Psyche is composed consciousness and unconsciousness. INA and WILL relates to Jung's Archetype and Instinct in unconsciousness. Thereupon, if it is interpreted that INA would be the key to open Archetype and WILL would be the key to open Instinct in unconsciousness, Kahn's concept of PSYCHE is similar to Jung's concept of Psyche.
Through a study on the periodical transitions of the site plannings for the International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts in Paris 1925, the followings were made clear : 1) Louis bonnier made the principles and the solutions for problems of the site and the significances of this Exposition, and they gave a sense of unity to the site plan. 2) He gave orders to sites, scales, and forms of gallaries and independent pavilions for the site plan.
This paper discusses the attitudes and attempts of the Hong Kong colonial authority towards settlement improvements for the local population based on reports by Osbert Chadwick, a special investigator of the British Colonial Office. In the second half of the 19th Century, the colony of Hong Kong experienced persistent overpopulation coupled with an insanitary built-environment. In those times, the colonial authority tended to ignore the living conditions of the local population. However, the European population eventually became aware of the threat of fire and disease due to the conditions in local settlements, and the authority began to take measures for improving local settlements by directly and simply applying knowledge gained from past experience with housing and sanitary improvement projects for the British working class. However, these attempts proved to be less than functional due to the marked differences between the urban way of life of Britain and the local population of Hong Kong. In 1882, Osbert Chadwick proposed legislative measures that paved the way for a comprehensive improvement program amid strong objections from both Britain and local politicians. To ensure that a firmer development program could be implemented, Chadwick was later commissioned in 1902. The latter program enacted appropriate public health and building regulations for the entire local urban settlement, enhanced the power of sanitary inspectors, and implemented model housing projects on resumption of the lease of areas previously defined as insanitary.