The aims of this paper are to confirm the social background through the development of the French management system of private apartment houses, to examine the arrangement of its various components and the management tasks performed by each component, and to clarify the role played by the Gardian(ne)s in the overall system. The results are as follows: (1) Historically, the French metropolitan area has a complicated social environment, and this system involving Gardien(ne)s has evolved gradually in response to the need to adapt the prevalent conditions. (2) The implementation of rules, general meetings, and a manager—the“Syndic”—were provided as a legal framework to avoid trouble between Gardien(ne)s, tenants, and owners. (3) Decision making is performed by the owners, who are amateurs with regard to management, as well as the Syndic who serves as a specialist, and day-to-day business execution is delegated to a third party: the Syndic and his/her workers, one of whom is the Gardien(ne). As a result, the management load of the owners and residents is reduced. (4) The role of building maintenance for the owners, the Gardien(ne)s are also expected to help in the residents' self-supporting lifestyle.
The purpose of this study is to identify the change of 3K-type (3 bedrooms and a kitchen) plans of condominium. Fifty-six condominium units originally built 51 years ago which were renovated over time were investigated. The present plans of the units were drawn and they were classified based on the relationship and function between each of the rooms. Some specific tendencies in the change in their function are found from the comparison between the original plan and the renovated plan.
In Japan, children generally sleep with their parents, especially with their mothers. The aim of this study is to make clear the mother's consciousness that stems from the habit of sleeping. I applied two methods of psychology, advanced repertory grid technique and sand play therapy, to my study. As a result, it becomes clear that a mother makes much of her relation with her children and wants to bring up them equally. Her ideal is for all the members of the family to sleep in the same room, but she thinks it practical to sleep without her husband because of the differences of his life. It also becomes the question of where the family members sleep comes before such factors as room or bedding, so consequently sleeping on the futon in a Japanese-style room is chosen.
The study covers the architecture of Kyoto blind and dumb school of the Meiji era, Method of the study was by analyzing, the archives of the Kyoto Prefectural School for the Visually Impaired, the newspapers issued in Kyoto, the documents of Kyoto Prefectural Library and Archives and the letters exchanged by the Kyoto prefecture or the Kyoto city and the Kyoto blind and dumb school. These materials were carefully checked to find related areas. The results from the analysis showed the following 4 aspects. 1. It converted the architectural characteristics of Kan-in and the Kyomei palaces to the Kyoto blind and dumb school. 2. For students living far away from the school, dormitories were built to create and control balance between vocational educational programs. 3. Basic plans and ideas were taken from form of the Bangumi schools and “Explanation of school design chart and design outline”(1895). 4. Deaf-mute and blind students were taught in different classrooms but they shared bathrooms and used the same dining hall.
This paper is a study on Work-unit types of advanced schools in Sweden. The results of this study are as follows. 1) A Work-unit is composed of 11 kinds of rooms and 2 kinds of partitions, clearly separated from the whole of a school building by the partition such as doors. For considering that there is only a few furniture in common spaces, a Work-unit can be located as the most important space for learning. 2) A lot of cases have “architectural outside spaces” related to units and entrances. This means a new external space in the site filled with natural environment. In the other words, a school building is located as an element that invents an external space with the feature. 3)“Architectural outside spaces” are planned with many “attractors”, for example, benches, equipments, and play ground. 4) Common spaces are very important for higher grade students than lower. On the other side, outside environment is useful and important for lower grade students.
This paper aims to make clear conditions of a comfortable workplace for the staff in nursing home. The method utilized was a questionare survey with the photograph language ; four different types staffs took photographs related “scenes which feels worth doing” and “places to be relieved at” and wrote about the reason. The results are as follows:1) scenes which feels worth doing; Many staffs felt worth doing related with the elderly. Some staffs evaluated care that they performed. 2) places to be relieved at; The place apart from the work place or the place and time to be alone are important as its conditions. Tatami, carpet and sofa etc. are suggested as the physical conditions because staffs can sit down. The space where nature is felt is desirable. 3) differences of different types of staffs; Staffs who cared directly felt worth doing related with the elderly. When staffs have own desk, they recognized it as the place where one can be oneself. On the other hand, staffs who cared directly and have not so much experience in the nursing home had little use of various spaces and a lot of used unit space for the elderly.
In this study, in order to grasp the usage of citizen spaces by people staying there and the space evaluation, the citizen spaces were classified by types and both observational research and questionnaire survey were conducted. As a result, the features of each space are described. Based on these features, design conditions of citizen spaces, which can be helpful for planning, are formulated. (1) In the evaluation of staying spaces, good citizen as a whole are "non-adjacent and one side type" and "non-adjacent and middle type", in which the office space and the citizen space are divided. (2) The citizen spaces which can be easily used to provide information are "non-adjacent and passage type" and "adjacent and one side type." (3) Convenient and easy to use citizen spaces are "adjacent and one side type" and "adjacent and middle type", in which the office space and the citizen space are adjacent. (4) The citizen space that the citizens use for a long time relatively freely is "Non-adjacent and end type".
The subject of this research is the examples of public culture facilities including theaters, halls and foyer that value public openness. This research shows points that are not research objects so far, (1)the research and analysis of stayers' activities and spatial utilization of inner open-space including common space and foyer in facilities except for performance time, (2)spatial assessment of inner open-space including common space and foyer in facilities except for performance time. As a conclusion, this research will show basic important references of inner open-space planning including common space and foyer that value public openness.
The authors are investigating physiological effect of waterscape in Chinese residential quarters. In this report we investigated an EEG by a comparison between waterscape and non-waterscape images. Results showed: α-EEG of 85% testees have activated in waterscape images compared to non-waterscape ones. Images of [Fountain pond equipped with landscape facilities] and [Pond with green islet] had higher α-EEG than others, and were shown significant difference to more than half of non-waterscape ones. It was also noticed that α-EEG of testees could be enhanced according to area increase of landscape facilities or water in these images.
The purpose of this article is to clarify relationship between inhabitants' relations and attributions of building such as scale, location and so on, in urban largescale condominiums. For this purpose, we carried out interviews and questionnaires to inhabitants of condominiums. By interviews, opportunities to get to know other inhabitants were divided into four groups; spatial proximity, existence of mediator, participating to the governance and participating to events and circles. By cluster analyses from a viewpoint of the number of close friends and acquaintances, condominiums were divided into four groups. We found that attributions of buildings were different in each groups.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the main entrance in refurbished traditional timber houses of Japan dealing with the spatial similarity and the interrelationship between the main entrance and the adjacent rooms. Firstly, five types of shapes are classified analyzing the arrangement of the main entrance area and the adjacent rooms. Secondly, the expression of beams of each space is categorized according to the configuration between the ceiling height and the frameworks. Thirdly, the spatial similarity is disclosed due to finishing of interior fixtures. In conclusion, several types of the characteristics of the main entrance are pointed out.
The objectives of this research is to demonstrate that street stall operations that are conducted in street spaces of structure unique to Bangkok, Thailand and forms part of the informal sector, supports the livelihood of many urban migrants, and is closely related and integral to daily life, particularly eating habits and dwelling types, of urban dwellers in the city. The results of the on-site survey conducted in Sukhumvit Area reveal that street stalls located along Soi of dead-end streets basically are required for daily life particularly for maintenance of unique eating habits. To maintain the lifestyle unique to Thais, it is necessary and important to maintain street spaces of unique structure for street stall operation by not placing uniform restrictions as premises for excluding the street stalls in the informal sector but in accordance with site-oriented and flexible guidelines.
This paper traces the making of the resort landscape via the example of KARUIZAWA. KARUIZAWA comprised the residential land along Nakasendo, the fields behind the residential land and the grassland behind the fields at the beginning of the Meiji era. The plantation development by the Japanese entrepreneur and the cottage development by the Western missionary began at the same time from the middle part of the Meiji era. Since these two different developments have mixed, the characteristic resort landscape of KARUIZAWA consisting of trees and cottages was formed.
I plotted all the Shinto shrines found in the Yasu river drainage area on a large scale topographic map and tried to find out a functional meaning on the location of each shrine. Historical elements of the area were also taken into consideration. The 374 Shinto shrines studied were classified into 8 categories ; type of mountain summit, type of mountain foot, type of water head, type of river bank, type of breach, type of port, type of irrigation reservoir, type of paddy in narrow.
We clarified that Central City Regions which residents recognized for Municipality they lives in Hokkaido. Their Recognition lead their area of daily life, we call it, "Regional Local Community".When we compare Regional Local Community to Area of Municipalities which already Merged, the following became clear. 1) Merger of Municipalities ratio is high in the Regional Local Community. 2) Participation of Central City Region to Merger of Municipalities ratio is low. 3) Merger of Municipalities ratio is low in small scale Regional Local Community. 4) Merger of Municipalities lato is low in Municipality which far from the Central City Region.3) and 4) are problems due to a characteristic of Hokkaido. Than the above, It is necessary to consider the Central City Regions on Wide-Area Administration, and the combination that accepted the situation.
The aim of this study is to clarify the consciousness structure of the garden of home is maintaining managed and the difference of the consciousness of opened person and closed person. The focus of research is quantifying consciousness, merit (the enchantment of Open Garden), and demerit (fear and resistant of Open Garden) by analyzing residents consciousness. An investigation method is a questionnaire to the resident. In analysis of resident's consciousness, factor analysis and covariance structural analysis were performed using the result of resident's consciousness survey. The analysis results showed that the consciousness structure of the garden of home is maintaining managed and the difference of consciousness that opens or closes garden of home.
This paper studied on the development of a retirement community, named D community in Beijing, China which is currently the biggest built commercial housing development planned for the elderly in China. The purpose of the study aims at analyzing the development and characteristics of supporting system for the elderly in a commercial housing community. Field investigation, interviews and questionnaire form distribution were carried out. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The support suppliers are multiform in which the developer and its subordinate service companies play the leading role, 2) More comprehensive services are required, although most of elderly residents are satisfied with houses, facilities and environment, 3) Collaboration among different suppliers should be strengthened in order to integrate support resources.
The objective of this study is to identify the formal and structural characteristics of a traditional house type the high ridge-house “Rumah Bubungan Tinggi (RBT)” in South Kalimantan, Indonesia and the process of conserving it as cultural heritage. The RBT is a traditional style of Banjarese house, which has changed in response to the development of social groupings. RBT in urban areas are clearly different from those in rural areas, and reflect differences of local environment, lifestyle and industry. We investigated a total of 13 RBTs (4 RBTs in 1 urban area and 9 RBTs in 2 rural areas). We introduce the general principles of RBT design, then analyze the floor plan, side elevation, and construction techniques. We present an evaluation of the RBT of South Kalimantan as cultural heritage and a framework for understanding the relationship between the houses of the three areas investigated.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the characteristic of population flow and to propose the strategy of the land use inducement in the city abolished that the Area Division. First, we investigated the population trend and the land use trend in Toyo city planning area. And, we analyzed the relation between the population flow and the land use trend, it was clarified the characteristic of population flow in the city abolished that the Area Division. Finally, it was proposed the land use control on suburbs in the city abolished that the Area Division and the concrete strategy of the land use inducement in Toyo city planning area.
According to connotation and framework of sustainable development in urban economy — resource — environment, this study proposes a novel system dynamics model to deal with an issue of economy development in Chongqing of China restricted by depletion of resource and degradation of environment, by means of fundamental theory and methodology of system dynamics. Eight subsystems are involved in the model, which denote population, GDP, technology in production, labor input, capital input, renewable resource, nonrenewable resource and environment. To compare different policies with regard to their potential economy-resource-environment impacts, alternative scenarios are used by adjusting the parameters within the model and changing the specification of some variables. The results are elucidated as follows: the current economy — resource — environment system of Chongqing is not sustainable; the substitution rate of technology for resource is low and environment pollution becomes serious as a function of increasing output; a way to realize sustainable development of Chongqing is to optimize its economic development mode.
This paper is on the distribution and occupancy rate situation of the welfare facilities for the elderly in Beijing. First of all, we arranged the welfare ordinance for the elderly. The data on system, standard, location and maintenance of welfare facilities are summarized. Furthermore, we collected the information on the distribution of welfare facilities and their corresponding occupancy rate and abundance rate. The analysis of the data clearly illustrated the influence of government policy on the distribution of welfare facilities. The existing problem of this distribution is also discussed. Based on above-mentioned results, we arranged the relation between the distribution and absolute amount of welfare facilities (number of beds), living distribution of the elderly, and then, we clarified the variance of those. In the future, we will investigate actual conditions of these welfare facilities for the elderly.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the employment of mentally-disabled persons for building cleaning work and the characteristics of building maintenance companies from the managing viewpoint. The factors which distinguishes companies are the recent financial performance of the building cleaning business, the consciousness concerning to the future prospect of the own company as well as the whole building cleaning business, and the corporate posture faces the quality improvement of the building cleaning service. By the questionnaire survey to the building maintenance companies, these factors were grasped as the characteristics of companies with the relationship to the employment of mentally-disabled persons.
In Okinawa, new wooden house construction starts is very small compared with in the whole Japan. So, wooden house builders in Okinawa have many difficulties, like shortage of lumbers or carpenters. But, from the 1990s, pre-cut lumber shipped from southern Kyushu area have got used in Okinawa. With this new building method, some companies which have no experience of wooden construction moved onto wooden house construction. Most of them build small numbers of wooden houses, and do another business on the other hand. And wooden house building system is influenced by limited distribution channel as well as environmental factor.
In general, the dimensional relation between the rafter placement and the bracket complex is well known as Rokushigake. However, there are a few non-Rokushigake that need to be examined further. This paper evaluates some problems that are connected to the positions of the rafter placement, gagyou and the bracket complex, especially are located on the corner pillars among the non-Rokushigake architecture. As a result, it became clear and can be classified, basically there are three ways, such as: to adjust the rafter placement to the centre on both sides of the gagyou, to adjust the bracket complex system, and without adjusting them to set the rafter in order or disorder.
This study aims to explain the relation between the local fire prevention act and diffusion of mud-walled town houses in Nagano Prefecture. The act being put into operation in 1888 just after the great fire in Matsumoto city and lasted until 1890, referred to those of Tokyo in 1881 and Toyama in 1887, however contains its own elements. For example, it targeted only new buildings. In Matsumoto, one of the targeted cities among six, it is identified that mud-walled town houses were built after the local act in the burned district where few mud-walled houses existed before the fire.
This paper aims to study on a community model called Godin's Familistère of collective housing for laborers in the 19th century. Utopian socialists in the first half of the 19th century proposed different solutions to reform their chaotic capitalist society, as they criticized the maladies of the Industrial Revolution. Fourier designed a community model called Phalanstère, in which production, consumption, and residence coexisted as a cooperative society, and his disciples tried in vain to make it real. Only Familistère, which was constructed in Guise, France from 1858 by the successful entrepreneur Godin, was considered a successful example of the idealistic residential community. However, Familistère was not simply a realization of Fourier's plans, but an original experiment by Godin. Familistère had many kinds of common facilities that were useful for a convenient life, which was the equivalent of having wealth. Moreover, Familistère was a community of production, distribution, consumption, education, leisure, and residence, all of which were connected to work sites. The community also featured a cooperative society of consumption, medical services by the cooperative system, and space for schools and leisure.
The purpose of this research is to clarify characteristics of sustainability of architectural design from the point of view of those impressions and preference. Firstly, we selected 34 sample from 220 samples appeared in architecture related publications as sustainable building, and conducted the questionnaire survey on impressions from the external of those buildings. Secondly, by factor analysis using the result of above questionnaire, it was revealed that there were following four factors, “Historical factor”, “Robust factor”, “Design factor”, “Quality of life factor” as impressions of sustainable building. In addition, we clarified what kinds of sustainable building were preferable by multiple linear regression analysis. Thirdly, we clarified the relation between physical components and the factors described above in analyzing those correlations.
In this paper, we investigate the ideological background of Christopher Alexander's theory of design by examining his research papers on cognitive psychology by the 1960s. First, we briefly show the outline of his research history in the 1960s and examine the experiments and outcomes of the research in the papers. After the examination, we show the commonly-observed features in the papers, namely, influences from Jerome S. Bruner and Gestalt psychology. It is clear that he tried to explain how we recognize “good” forms based on the gestalt account of perception, and it seems reasonable to suppose that Alexander followed the framework of Bruner's “three modes of representation” to construct his research programs.
This study aims at showing how local smaller castle towns tried to transform their urban space into modernized one early in the Meiji era. In the construction projects of urban facilities which would meet new needs, local people had to carry out all processes by themselves because new-born Meiji Restoration Government did not have enough resources to cover such projects all over Japan. In this stone bridge construction case, local people including the village people outskirts the central city used their social network, technology, financial power inherited from pre-modern society.
The Japanese Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties was promulgated on May 30, 1950, and became effective on August 29, 1950, during the occupation period after the World War II. Although the Law has been the basis for the protection of cultural properties in Japan since then, little information that explains the drafting of the Law has been left, and even the basic historical materials, the actual bills of the Law, have been unfound. This paper reveals where the ten bills written in Japanese and the eight bills translated in English for the GHQ/SCAP have been kept, and clarifies the characteristic and transition of the bills by comparing each bill specifically.
This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of seismic damage of historical wooden properties based on the survey of the earth wall. In this study, a main pavilion of Hotoji temple in Kyoto, that was build toward the end of 16th century. This large wooden building has suffered an intense earthquake under construction. Through newly proposed surface pealing technique of earth wall, We have found some clear evidence of several repairs of damages after strong earthquakes. Pattern of the cracks and the repair materials suggests the intensity and main direction of quakes as well as the era of the restoration. Original earth walls left in this main pavilion has made clear that this wooden building has experienced at least four devastating earthquakes.
In this study,we treated the history of earthquake damage of the east pagoda in the Yakushi-ji temple, built about 1300 years ago.We estimated the peak ground acceleration at the Yakushi-ji temple of historical earthquakes which have damaged this building, and compare this result with old documents about earthquake damage of this building. The east pagoda has damaged several times not only by crustal earthquakes with short source distance, but also by inter-plate earthquakes with long source distance, and especially Shin-hashira, which is pillar built in the center of this pagoda, was damaged frequently. We examined about the damage by Ansei Nara earthquake (1854) and the restoration by reading the diary written by secretary of the Yakushi-ji temple.At this earthquake,Shin-hashira as well as the upper story of this pagoda inclined due to the lack of maintenance.
The purpose of this study is building the architecture and the basic motion of a frame element generation system which generates the whole frame element appropriately in timber framework construction house by constituents of a house repeat an adjustment to the mismatching between the local frame elements based on an idea that the consistency between all the frame elements in the house which has been ended design completely is maintained. Specifically, agents that are constituents that extracted from timber framework construction house and implemented functions perceiving surrounding environment, exchanging information with the touched agent, recording those information and generating constituents from the information and the generation rule are put in the site space which is virtual space. The system is a multi agent system that all the frame elements of a house are determined by the agents cooperate and repeat generations and adjustments.