This study aims to apply our simulation system to the evacuation in case of impassable escape route. We model rerouting behavior of evacuee on the evacuation simulation system when the escape route is in trouble. The results are as follows. The evacuation simulation system enables to visualize and analysis the evacuation situation in case of impassable escape route. It takes 7 percent longer time to evacuate on the one-way escape than the two-way escape. It takes 47 percent longer time to evacuate in case of the trouble on the one escape route than the two-way escape. Therefore it is clarified that the evacuation time depends on rerouting behavior to a great extent.
Questionnaire survey was made to designers who have experienced building conversion. Interview was also made to experts in building codes as a supplementary survey. The results are as follows. 1. Some provisions obstruct building conversion such as smoke exhaustion, floor load, daylighting, etc. 2. The degree of obstruction differs according to related provisions and building use. 3. The building standard law of Japan does not adapt building conversion. It should be completely remade for its promotion.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of housing layout and measures for crime prevention on the residents' fear of crime in two detached housing areas with SEM (structural equation modeling). The major findings are as follows; (1) Residents' trust on security measures such as CCTVs and security guards decreases their fear of crime (burglary and car-related crime) and gives their credit to the security of the area. And (2) housing layout with commons or cul-de-sacs decreases fear of crime, which suggests that it acts as a buffer between public and private space. However, (3) no significant difference is observed in residents' reaction to strangers, strange cars and litter between areas with such layout and those with traditional grid layout.
The purpose of this paper is to study the community based facilities (CBFs) in the Yahatahigashi ward of Kitakyushu City, and analyze processes of function, scale and layout. The conclusions of this paper are as followings: 1. Even though all CBFs have different names and originations, they have functions that satisfy the requirements of twenty article of the Social Education Law. 2. The process of the CBFs in the Yahatahigashi ward result in the conclusion of the ward center facility (2000 square meter in size) and the local facilities (700 square meter in size) in each elementary school district. 3. The CBFs create the connection between the citizen hall that has 2000 seat in ward, and the city center facility (lifelong learning promotion division).
Both a multiple use and a family use of public libraries have increased recently. The former means that many adults use not only books but also magazines and AV materials, and the latter means that many children use libraries with their family. A series of studies shows that the method of zoning an open shelf floor with a popular library area is more reasonable and effective for those uses. In this method, an open shelf floor is divided into two zones in public libraries. One is an “active zone,” which consists of a popular library area with a children's area, a newspaper and magazines' area, and an AV materials' area. The other is a “quiet zone,” which consists of other adults' book area with a reference area. The results of this research are as follows: in most of general 7 public libraries, there is a principle that adults' books are arranged in order of the class and division of NDC. But the parts of <5.technology & engineering> books are not placed in the order and placed near a children's area or a newspaper and magazines' area. Many people use those books on technology and engineering more than other books. Therefore it can be said that some of those books is the core of a popular library.
The aim of this study is to clarify characteristics of refurbished traditional Japanese timber houses, focusing on compositions of frameworks in main rooms after refurbishing. Firstly, shapes of main rooms are analyzed according to three levels of composition; wall, horizontal ceiling and the adjoining relationship to sub-structure, and partitions in main rooms are analyzed too. Secondly, characteristics of frameworks are analyzed with regard to shapes of timber and arrangements of beams. In conclusion, several types of expression in framework arrangement in main rooms are pointed out, and their characteristics are clarified such as the contrast between framework and shape of main room.
The purpose of this study is to establish the calculation method of the waiting time for usage in railway station toilet with the latest measurement data. At first, with the data which we investigated newly and the questionnaire, we estimated the number of transfer passengers in the stations. In consideration of the number of transfer passengers whom we estimated and the ratio of the male and female, we calculated the rate of toilet use. Next, users' behavior research in the toilets including the dressing table was carried out in the railway stations.Comparing with the setup values of the existing method and new investigated data, we decided the new setup values on the accumulation frequency distribution of occupancy time in the usage rate of the male and female washbowl, the average of occupancy time in the female washbowl and the data of the dressing table.
In this paper, it should be pointed out that the variations of a house, and the configurations of “public space” layout play a decisive role in the quality of the residents' daily life. This study focuses on the house designed for the resettled residents emphasizing on “public space”, aiming to improve characteristic design guide. Firstly, a thorough investigation on house layout and construction has been made to compare the living environment of the resettled from the aspects of bothe before and after their resettlement. And then, it focuses on the configurations of “public space” which is divided into some types, and make them cleared up. At last, based on the investigation and analysis mentioned the intrinsic relation above, between the configurations of “public space” and the life style shows the causes what account for the changes.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 1999. This paper discusses the characteristics of the Spanish colonial cities established in Cuba focusing on Cienfuegos as a typical urban model. This study has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps corresponding to colonial Spanish period and field survey. As cartographic database, the maps of Cienfuegos city from AGI(The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), Museo Naval (Naval Museum of Spain) and Historical Museum of Cienfuegos. Through the analysis of maps is possible to follow the urban process of the Cienfuegos city, from 20 years before of the foundation (1820) until the present. We clarified the original model and transformation of Cienfuegos based on the analysis of block size, block division, and plot subdivision.
This study aims to track the new appearance, the disappearance, and the change of almost all of the tenants in South Kanto area using the real data for the period from 1995 to 2005 every five years. Quantitative methodology for this study is to combine digital town map with Yellow Page using GIS or our developed programs. Those data used in this study include name, location, and floor information etc. for each tenant. We are able to know what kinds of businesses appear or disappear concentrically for some area, or whether the floor occupied by those tenants influences the tendency of the movement of them, according to these time series analyses. Features for this study are to provide detailed spatial information and database for three-dimensional based usage using existing database merchandised for other purposes. In this study, dataset including three-dimensional information for each change of commercial tenants are analyzed and detected.
Recently in Japan, streetscapes have been changing by repeated deregulation and redevelopment. Through the experiments using VR system, we research the desirable building forms and facades in Nihonbashi. Firstly we investigate the changes of impression in three streetscapes whose buildings forms and height are different. Secondly, we investigate the difference of impression of facades in the cases they are seen in streetscapes or seen individually. Thirdly analyzing the correlation of physical components and unique facades, we clarify the relation between attractiveness of streetscape and building forms and facades. Way of design to create lively, emotional and unique streetscape in Nihonbashi is suggested.
Recently, townscape administration has increased its significance taking establishment of the Town Scape Law as an opportunity. However, only few cities have the nightscape planning or guidelines at this moment. Meanwhile, urban lighting became more important from not only the security reason, but also to earn various values such as comfort and amenity. Purposes of this study are to understand the present condition of nightscape policy in order to clarify the problems of their administration in Japan, and to propose the perspective of forming the future nightscape of the city.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relation for commercial act between the Non-Area Divided City Yamaguchi and the Area Divided City Hofu, which is adjacent to Yamaguchi. At first, we investigated the trend of commercial locate among three area, central district, use district and suburb using data of the building confirmation in those city. Then we calculated the rate of consumption and absorption about commercial act in case study. At last, using those data, we considerate the relation for commercial act between the each case study and show the issue about the district that commercial facilities has accumulated on operating the City Planning Act in local city.
Trend of regional characteristics was revealed by classification based on landform, natural water system resource and formative process of hot spring area. Classification of “ravine” and “hilly land” experienced small-scale development by mostly hot spring cure, medical treatment and health-seeking and leave old streetscape. Classification of “valley-between mountains-flat”, “hilly land-flat” and “flat” experienced major-scale development by mostly merriment and pleasures. Therefore scale of present hot spring area is determined by landform, natural water system resource and formative process of hot spring area.
This article attempts to clarify matters as follow, focusing on the renovation of common spaces in condominiums. (1)The renovation effect is related to the residents' attributes. (2)The combination of renovation contents could be effective for agreement. The results show that to surmise residents' latent effect, and to combine renovation contents contribute to agreement. In addition, in the gut renovation, it is necessary to reexamine the long-term renovation plan.
This study aims to examine the scheme for restoration of condominiums damaged by the Earthquake of 1999 in Taiwan. An outline of dameges for housing, support measures for reconstruction and repair of condominiums, the application situation of support measures, and the progress of reconstruction projects are surveyed and discussed. The results are shown as follows: (1) the government attached importance to restoration of condominiums, various support measures are enforced and expanded in stages; (2) the semipublic foundation played the importance roles in supports, especially temporary loan for owners who participate in project and purchase of ownership from nonparticipants by the foundation are effective; (3) despite these wide and sufficient supports, an progress of reconstruction projects is very slow and there still remains many condominiums without being rebuilt seven years after the earthquake.
This paper aims to examine Non Profit Organizations (NPOs) which are established to execute activities related to housing . To grasp the actual condition and achievements of Housing-Related NPOs, the nationwide questionnaire survey for 970 NPOs was conducted and 250 answers were collected. From analysis of these answers, some characteristics are observed: 1) Housing-Related NPOs are classified into two groups, one group executes housing activities as a business, the other group does activities in cooperation with members ; 2) Most NPOs actually practice housing activities and there are certain amounts of achievements such as supply and management of new houses, repair and improvement of existed houses, and consultation about housing problems ; 3) These NPOs generally cannot gain enough money from their projects and services because many activities are done voluntarily, therefore it is difficult to start new projects, to continue activities, or to improve their services.
This work intends to disclose the ordering system for actual firefighting in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime (Tokugawa era). There is no description about fire extinguishing by the temple fireman. But, in this paper, it will be clarified that fireman of Myohoin-temple had been played active part in Kyoto city. Especially, they worked hard in the Myohoin-temple precincts, so that give unwilling consent for fire extinguishing by the machibugyosyo (magistrate office) and daimyo (feudal load)on and after middle of 18Th century.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the function, architectural composition, scale, the placement in temple, and the formation time of the Shuryo(衆寮) in Zen Buddhism temple of Soong and Yuan dynasty. The historic materials used for this study are the rules(清規) and pictorial record of south Soong dynasty(五山十刹図) of Zen Buddhism temple, analects of Zen priest. And this research brought out four important results like follow: (1) The priests had individual seat at both Sodo(僧堂) and Syuryo. And the Shuryo was used for reading sutra and daily life space. (2) The Shuryo had the court yard in the building for lighting, and supporting space in the rear for needlework, tonsure and so on. And the Shuryo was built as same scale to the inner hall of Sodo for admitting all priests of temple. (3) The Shuryo was placed in the west area of temple and near to Sodo. And in the east area, there were Anjyado(行者堂) and Anjyaryo(行者寮) similar to Sodo and Shuryo, but those were the space for ascetics who didn't became the regular priest yet. (4) The Shuryo of Zen Buddhism temple, take the form as described above, was formatted in the north Soong dynasty at the latest.
This paper aims to clarify various issues concerning mosque design from the viewpoints of the architects, researchers, clients, and the Presidency of Religious Affairs (PRA) in the republic period in Turkey. Many mosques imitating Ottoman architecture have been built using contemporary methods since around the 1950s throughout the country. First, we review critical arguments made by architects and researchers with regard to these mosques. Second, we discuss the notions of the clients and the activities of the PRA in order to demonstrate the difference from the views of architects and researchers. We conclude that in order to encourage the construction of new mosques with modern designs, which most Turkish architects and researchers are eager to, it is vital that the architects spread awareness regarding the issue among the public in cooperation with the PRA.
The purpose of this paper will criticize and discuss some theories about historical development and architectural characteristics of the Hindu-Buddhist candi architecture which were built from the 7th to 15th centuries in the Java and Bali Islands. Most of the theories were proposed by archaeologist, historians and architects who came from Dutch, England, France, India, Japan and Indonesia as well. In general, the experts examined the candi architecture that was looked at from archaeological and historical approaches and some of them observed in architectural point of view. By this study means, all of the theory and primary data of previous study will be critically reviewed and the weakness of each theory will be discussed. Therefore, as a result, it can show the historical chronology of the Hindu-Buddhist candi architecture development and achieve the most reliable theory, which is supported by some new evidences that are found during a field research in the island of Java and Bali.
This paper discusses architectural space in the movies of German expressionism. German expressionism was a trend of art that existed in German during the early 20th century. This art movement did not have clear order of artistic activities like the Italian Futurism, but was mainly involved with the expression of the inner mind of artists. This trend of art can be seen in the movies of that period. The architecture that appears in those movies reflects form expression by the architects of that time. In this research, we clarified the mode of space expression in the movies by analyzing the form and characteristics of architectural space that appear in the post first world war movies. Our results showed that large space, architectural forms and daily commodities were used in space expression.This mode of space expression played the role of emphasizing the anxiety and the opposition that people had for the society at that time.
This paper deals with price formation of house and lot in Kyoto of the early Edo period. (1) The place, (2) frontage, (3) depth, (4) price, and (5) the date about deal in the house and lot were written in title deeds of the 17th century. The difference of the ratio of the price of the house and lot to the frontage by dealings is large. It can hardly explain the deciding factor of the unit price in case of basing on items written in title deeds. The reason is that the house has not been described though title deeds has described lot.
This paper examines patterns of spatial change among high-pillar house in suburban Bangkok. Until now, most research by Thai and Japanese architectural scholars has focused on the correspondence between increasing family members and expanding residential space through the addition of new buildings. They tend to assume a simple explanation of spatial change through the addition of buildings and an increase in family members. Following my field survey of a Bangkok suburb, however, it is clear that there is also another important and contrasting pattern - that of decreasing residential space through the moving and reconstructing of houses such as when a son marries into another family. Furthermore, following the birth of children and their marrying out of or marrying someone into the family, the residential space for a single two-generation family can simultaneously decrease and increase.
Under “The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict”, the States Parties are obliged to provide UNESCO Secretary-General with national reports on the measures to implement the Convention at least once every four years. Compiling the submitted reports, Secretariat has published the Reports on the Implementation of the Convention. Investigation those reports, this paper clarifies that the reporting system hasn't been run enough, and for the measures which hasn't applied widely and effectively, such as “Special Protection” or distinctive emblem, in each State Party there were some discussions on its effectiveness and possibility of application.
The Purpose of this study is to analyze the urban area and architectural spaces within, which are described in two Korean literatures, “The Sun & Moon” and “The Square”, using the following three methods. First, we classify architectural terms used in the literatures into 14 types, and we analyze the usage frequency of those and the trend in architectural style within them. Second, we define the background stages appearing in the literatures as conscious spaces and set these into three distinctive spaces: space of custom, consensus, and estrangement, which are divided further into six patterns of spaces based on whether they are private or social. Analyzing characteristics of the architectural terms described in each pattern space, we examine the conscious spaces and the relation with the stages. Third, we build the structure of consciousness among the background stages and analyze the spatial meaning of post-war society. We expect to find some symbols of historical and physical urban architectural space. In the mean time, we can also find the other spaces veiled by these symbols, the psychological space.
Ordinance-designated cities have been decreasing the population, causing a hollowing out of urban centers. The number of schoolchildren there has dropped dramatically. As the result, merging and closing down elementary schools is prevailing and the dealing of the old schoolhouses and schoolyards becomes a big community-issue. Generally ordinance-designated cities decide the way of reusing such school-properties by administrative initiative, but Kyoto City takes the way of citizen's participation to decide it(The Kyoto Method). In Kyoto its community organization (Machigumi) and an elementary school have nurtured a strong relationship historically from the Meiji Era to today. This relationship becomes a kind of community culture and grows into a community resource. The Kyoto Method is the product of this unique relationship between Machigumi ando an elementary school, and realizes community-oriented reuse of old school-properties.
Questions were raised about the houses in an independent ward in a sanatorium for Hansen's disease sufferers that are described in the above paper. Points in question are as follows:1) total number of houses, 2) donated houses, 3) removed and rebuilt houses, 4) extension of houses, and 5) layout map of houses.
The author thanks Yoshifumi Wakabayashi for his discussion and the answers are as fellows: 1) There were several awkward phrasings that caused misreadings in my thesis. I explain them and make some revisions in it, and I am grateful for his indication. 2) Showing the grounds of 142 houses by making the materials for my thesis public, I show the validity of my basis. 3) I correct insufficient and erroneous descriptions in my thesis. 4) I show the basis that I judge it is comparatively easy to expand the houses built to the edge of the site. 5) I specify the aim of the figure No.9 in my thesis and I explain the reason that buildings and roads are drawn on it.