Through surveys of two housing complexes developed by UDC (Acty Sangenjaya and City-Court Meguro), we elucidated some characteristics of the urban lifestyle in public rental housing. Many residents of Acty Sangenjaya are employees who commute, eat dinner near their office when working late, and do not take work home. Many residents of City-Court Meguro are self-employed designers or consultants working at or near their home. After eating dinner with their family, they work late in their SOHO. At City-Court Meguro, the value of this type of housing complex is clear, as many new urban lifestyles are visible.
In this paper, 8 group homes for seriously handicapped people in Tokyo are researched. Facility operators' attitudes toward facility management and residents' behavior are researched, in 2006 and 2008. The results are as follows: 1) Group homes for seriously handicapped people needs more space than group homes for mentally handicapped people. 2) In these group homes, many of residents are with mental handicap. 3) Preferences of spaces differ according to physical and mental situations of residents. 4) For people with serious physical handicaps, it would be very difficult to live in conventional group homes for mentally handicapped people.
The purpose of this paper is to measure a mental stress when the person looks down at the outside from the height by the experiment, and to clarify whether it changes by the difference of the design of the window side. The testee experiences the movie that looks down at the outside from the skyscraper with Head Mounted Display (HMD), and testee's Electro-Dermal Activity (EDA) at that time is measured. EDA is an index of a mental stress. The design of the window of 30 patterns was measured. In addition, testee's EDA was measured by an real height space. It was found that the best factor in the design of the decision of the increase and decrease of EDA is a cover rate in respect where the outside is seen, and EDA is in inverse proportion to the cover rate. It doesn't increase any more though EDA increases up to the height of 100m in an actual space.
At the disaster such as earthquake and fire, improving safety of stairs is important on evacuation safety designs of buildings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between dimensions of stairs and ratings of impression with descending stairs. We carried out questionary survey and experiments with actual size model and building. Results are summarized as follows ; 1) For improving safety of stairs(160-180mm rise), we need to precede the dimension of tread. However, as increasing walking speed, we need to decrease the dimension of rise, 2) Dimensions of stairs 160mm-180mm rise and 270mm-300mm tread are estimated proper for descending stairs. If the stairs are narrower than 270mm tread, the dimension of rise needs to be lower, 3) when each stair is constructed various dimension, the impression for stairs decrease. Especially, a difference between the maximum and minimum value is over 23mm rise or 20mm tread, it gave the subjects some bad impression on descending stairs.
The Coffee Shop called Kopi Tiam in Malaysia is an interesting system of eating house as assembly of hawkers. The independent hawkers with each special meal are assembled by the shop's owner, and the owner provides drink stall and tables for eat. It is similar to Hawker Centre in Singapore or modern food court, but It seems to became a spontaneous system to sustain the quality of foods. The Coffee Shop in Malaysia is analyzed by compared with Hawker Centre in Singapore to clarify the system and know a type of the plan.
This study clarifies the characteristics and the production method of the 'ash bricks' in Ube and Onoda area through its reproduction. Firstly, the overview of the ash bricks is given through literature and fieldwork. Secondly, interviews with the owners of the brick-buildings and craft-workers are provided by oral history. Thirdly, the production method is verified through the reproduction. The result serves as the basic data for community renovation with the use of the bricks. It also contributes to the conservation and utilization of the unique characteristics and the production method, and to the regional history of the modern non-burnt bricks.
This research aims to clear effects and elements by the rural-urban interchange of "Okumino challenge shop" in Gujo-City, and the factor that is important for continuation of the activity. As a result, it became clear that the challenge shop contributed to the reproduction of an urban areas and vacant houses, promotion of the agriculture etc by charm of an urban areas and direction in the real space especially. For continuation of the activity, the agricultural products which anyone can cultivate and having other works are important factor, and it is demanded the support of an urban areas such as the marketing or the sale talented person for rural areas.
This paper presents findings from the study of tourist-dependent adaptive reuse in the old residential quarter of Melaka City. Two surveys have been conducted in this study. The first survey involves the collection of building and land use data via non-participatory observation method. While the second survey uses a questionnaire to measure the perceptions of different users of the old quarter, namely local community which consist of residents and business owners, and also domestic and international tourists, on the effects of adaptive reuse. Findings show that almost 25 percent of the actively used buildings are housing tourist-dependent uses (TDUs), which are concentrated mainly on Jonker Street and its surrounding area. A number of streets have more TDUs buildings than non-TDUs, and some are dominated by one type of TDU only. This shows that tourist-dependent reuse activity in the old quarter needs to be checked to minimise future negative implications. This study first classifies adaptive reuse approaches in the old quarter and relates them to the different effects they bring to the old quarter. Then the concerns and expectations of different user groups in the old quarter towards the physical, social, economical and tourism effects of adaptive reuse are identified. Finally, this paper proposes planning and area management measures to regulate adaptive reuse in the old residential quarter.
Reconstructing or repairing of damaged houses is the most important theme to revive the earthquake-damaged area, and the public support system fulfill important roll. The purpose of this study is to clarify how utilized public support system for reconstructing or repairing of damaged houses in a case of Noto Peninsula Earthquake. Repair of damaged houses was regarded as important reconstruction method for revitalization and the supporting system was formulated. Four out of ten damaged houses were repaired by utilizing the system, and they were fairy improved the quake-resistance level, barrier-free standard and other aspects. They also were repaired considered a local climate and townscape in a surrounding area.
This research provides an overview of the trends in recent appeals to Board of Review and focuses upon the Setagaya Ward Board of Review. As a result, it was revealed that (1) a problem with the Building Standard Law and their related code is that there are significant issues concerning the establishment of the “ground level” and the “premises” that are assumed in building plans, (2) the reviews and decisions made by the Board of Review are based upon discretionary decisions, (3) there are limitations to securing a good living environment with the capabilities of the Board of Review that only utilizes regulations related to building standards and excludes voluntary ordinances, however (4) there is a possibility that government agencies will revise ordinances concerning regulations related to building standards and certification standards based upon reviews and decisions by the Board of Review.
This study offers a preliminary insight into the participation policy that has been introduced into the decision-making process for strategic urban planning in Egyptian villages. Since 2004, the Egyptian government has made efforts to decentralize urban management by involving local communities in the decision-making process. We analyzed the procedures and practices of the newly adopted participation policy to improve its implementation in the future. Through an analysis of each of the steps of the participatory process, as well as interviews and the questionnaire responses from 50 Egyptian urban planners, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1) Participatory decision making presents an opportunity to solve important urban problems such as unregulated urban sprawl impinging on agricultural lands in Egypt. 2) To ensure that the participation process is fair to all stakeholders, there is a need for the implementation of participatory decision making to be refined. 3) Despite the new policy, the process of involving the community in urban planning can still only be considered to be community consultation, rather than true community participation.
The growth of low-income population in urban area is recognized as a common problem in most of developing countries. In recent years, the improvement of living environment for the urban poor in four kinds of low-income areas also becomes a major issue in China's planning academia. In order to understand the opinions of residents regarding the improvement of their living environment, this study conducted detailed investigations in some kinds of low-income areas in Chongqing City, China. First, we investigated the basic information of permanent residents and transient population. Second, we found out their attitudes towards improvement of living environment. Third, we studied their satisfaction degree of current living condition, inquired transient residents' willing of settling down in those areas, and then analyzed the correlation between the results of these two and the residents' attitudes of improvement respectively. We found that almost all of residents are willing to improve their living environment, but the dwellers from different low-income areas have different needs and opinions towards improvement. Therefore, the solutions of regeneration should be changed according to types of low-income area.
The self-organized criticality of all municipalities in Nagano Prefecture at four points of time (1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007) was analyzed based on the following data published as commerce establishment survey of Nagano: annual sales of wholesale and retail products in all municipalities, shop area, number of shops, number of employees and population, old-age ratio (65 years old and older), increase/decrease in population deriving from birth and death, and the increase/decrease in population deriving from moving ins and outs. As a result of the analysis, municipalities were categorized into 3 groups: Group A, in which self-organization was observed; Group B, in which self-organization was weak; and Group C, in which self-organization has reached a critical point and the municipality has become dissipative and has collapsed. This report is a discussion centering on municipalities designated as depopulated rural areas in the three groups.
This study discussed the estimation of wastes of plasterboard by scenario analysis by comparing three possible future outcomes, from “Optimism Scenario”, “Pessimism Scenario” and “Previously Used Scenario”, and the results are as follows, 1. “Optimism Scenario” estimated plasterboard wastes at about 1,000,000 ton a year in 2050, but both “Pessimism Scenario” and “Previously Used Scenario” estimated them over 3,000,000 ton. 2. “Pessimism Scenario” and “Previously Used Scenario” showed a similar in some respects. If the time of the latter is delayed for ten-odd years, the outcome is very much like the former, though “Optimism Scenario” is like neither. 3. Plasterboard is an object of case study of the analysis method and it is applicable to many other building materials. This study showed the way of the long-term forecast estimation of building materials, which helps environmental problems and policies.
On the east side of Mt. Niseko Annupuri there is a network of ski lifts and courses, vast open space and a village with accommodations, cottages and shops at the foot, called Niseko Hirafu District. The district is well-known in Japan and other Asian countries and attracts tourists to the region. Those ski courses were originally a part of the wide ski course network since a hundred years by connecting hot springs and railway stations around Mt. Niseko Annupuri. By the research of the development process this paper aims to clarify the feature of space composition of the district and find coherency in the context.
The purpose of this study is to clarify spatial configurations in Japanese public museums by means of Space Syntax. This study treats 97 Japanese public museums built between 1926 and 2007. We use Space Syntax to determine a space with a highest integration value. Its space trends to be accessed more easily from the other space. The results are as follows; (1) In the first stage of public museums, there is an entrance hall, the largest of the museum. (2) Since the 1970s, spatial configurations in public museums have become diversified. There are stairs and passage type of public museums. (3) Since the 1980s, there are two halls type of public museums. The one is the entrance hall. Another is the largest hall.
This paper clarifies the roles played by government officials specialized in civil engineering in urban reform during the Meiji era in Japan. This clarification was made by studying the process until the initiation of the urban reform projects titled the Three Major Projects in Kyoto city, which were completed in 1912, as a case example for analysis. In the process of analysis, I clarified the emergence of two types of engineers according to differences in the roles they played. One is the engineer who developed the mayor's urban reform concept into a specific design plan. Not having studied modern technology, the engineer made a mistake in the design of civil engineering projects that required advanced technology, and the person was held responsible for the mistake in the city council. This incidence led to the appearance of another type of engineer. This engineer graduated from the Department of Civil Engineering of Kyoto Imperial University and mastered modern civil engineering. He then attempted to take initiative in council reform using his advanced knowledge.
The statute of 1262, enacted under the Ghibelline government, regulated the paving, the widening and the linearization of streets. However, since linearization and widening meant the partial removal of the private property, this operation proved rather difficult. This statute highlights the reality that the then government couldn't show initiative for the improvement of the public space. On the other hand, the statute of 1309-1310 prohibited ballatoio and obliged polifora on the facade of the buildings facing the Main Street and the Piazza del Campo. Because some provisions mentioned“the beauty”of the city as well as“the functionality”, this statute confirmes the concept of urban aesthetic as the basis for the townscape.
For creating detailed 3D model of traditional wooden architecture, the authors program part classes which create their instances as an architectural part. The purpose of this paper is to consider handling of part classes and programming concept for part classes which create complicated shapes. Main points are as follows: 1) Handling of classes could be organized into three patterns. The authors adopted the pattern which manage parameters with database and automatically switch entering parameters by the arranged layer. 2) Several classes which have same calculation should be integrated into especial classes. Also, properly managed class's coordinate system streamlines programming junction and assembling instances.