The purpose of this study is to consider the space nature which appears in memories of the housing, to clear up objects and causes of memories, in order to catch the charm of the space nature itself about present-day housing spaces. As results, 1: A lot of <space> on the house were memorized (about 70%), and they were recalled at first. 2: Memories, to which a family's recollections and individual recollections were the cause, were 80% or more. So there was very little memory to which the impression of space nature and the space nature itself were the cause. 3: In the case of the impression of space nature and the space nature itself were causes of memories, there was a few example of the memory to which it was the cause to feel an impression strong against the relation of a vertical space.
This study examines front yards and street-scapes of suburban developments in Japan. Front yards are influenced by "residents", "site situation" and also "housing exterior" itself. The "resident" factors include age, occupation, thoughts and housing extension/rebuilt. The "site situation" factors include orientation of the house, the way the home/lot was purchased, and the building agreement. There are three elements that explain the mechanism of front yards: the amount of hedge, level of hedge care and the number of planters.
In order to make our society Universal, we need to respect various needs of various people. In order to include needs of various people into community development plan, workshops involving public are regarded as an effective way. Although we have some methods to evaluate the workshop, we still do not know enough how much awareness has been changed by workshop. The Second Dimensional Image Mapping Method was developed to assist forming self-image of participants in an educational field. This is a study to evaluate an efficacy of workshop using the Second Dimensional Image Mapping Method.
This study aims to clarify suburbanites' preference of living environment of the central district area in Kanazawa. This study is based on the results of an investigation of the suburbanites of Kanazawa. This investigation is composed of two parts: a) "the photos preference" in regards to pairwise comparison of prepared 6 photos, b) evaluation of "ambience of townscape" with 5 criteria. We combined these variables and analyzed their relation applying Fuzzy Analysis, based on a "Choquet Integral Model." The results revealed that there was a close relation between the evaluation value of traditional ambience and the degree of photos preference, but when the evaluation of traditional ambience was combined with other criteria, the degree of relation became low.
The aims of this paper are to grasp the actual condition of model anti-crime condominium and to evaluate its ability of crime prevention through the investigation to residents. The investigation to residents were held in 2002 about the actual condition of their condominium, fear of crime, and their self-anticrime activities. Most of them don't regard their condominium as strong one against crime, but the plates that say their condominium has been registrated as a 'model anti-crime condominium', give most of them feeling of safety against crime. Few self-anticrime activities have been held in their condominium. We think that their self-anticrime activities should be reexamined in the near future.
Clarifying the process of urban formation and the form of townhouses in Malacca, this paper discusses the characteristics of urban space in comparison with other Dutch colonial Cities: The research project this paper is based on was launched under the title 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities' the major target of which are the Dutch colonial cities. To compare the colonial cities of all over the world is ambitious objective of our project. With numerous historical buildings and houses, Malacca municipality with Malaysian government tries to be registered as UNESCO World Heritage. The Dutch is well known as a developer of high-dense settlements with townhouses. One of major focuses of this paper is what and how the Dutch designed the townhouse. The paper is composed by historical analysis of the process of establishment and development of Malacca and considerations on block formation and typology of townhouses. Analyzing the block formation and form of the house plan, the paper suggests the townhouses in Malacca were merely influenced by those in Netherlands and were introduced by Chinese called Baba-Nyonya.
One of significances of day care centers for the elderly is thought to be as a place for social interactions among users. However,there was not an arguement from that point. The purpose of this study is to discuss on relations between extents of centers and users' social behaviors. 6 comparative case studies of each individual at a mini day care center and a day care center, were carried out. The conclusions are as follows. 1. In some cases, there could be seen phenomenonal differences between 'way of social behaviors' at mini day care centers and that at day care centers. 2. By examinations of their 'attitudes' toward centers, the differences could be thought not as effects from environments, but as results of their mutual adaptations to 'situations'. 3. 'Identical way of social behaviors' means putting together their own 'attitudes' and 'ways of social behaviors'. 4. We should not give a conclusion whether mini day care centers or day care centers are proper from the point of social interactions. Rather the most important point is that to produce 'situations' where each user can behave in identical way in each center.
This study aims to grasp the situation and the application to the "Twilight school". It is one of the children's outside school clubs. We made an questionnaire to the present activities, using conditions of the facilities. Then as a result, we get following: (1) The "Twilight school" is effective and is excellent as the children's outside school clubs. (2) The effective activity depends on the management of the person in charge and the responsibility of him is important. (3) The application to another government becomes possible by that the factor of the person and the factor at the facilities are serviced.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the decision making process during the seismic strengthening work of important cultural properties. The authors interviewed structural engineers who were involved in the seismic strengthening of wooden important cultural properties after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995. Through analyzing: 1. The principle and decision making process of the structural engineer. 2. The demands from other parties to the structural engineer and derivative issues. the general process and problems of seismic strengthening are clarified. In conclusion an ideal methodology of the seismic strengthening process of wooden important cultural properties is proposed.
Many kinds of components, materials and building systems are changing according to the alteration of building systems due to several reasons. However, the changes of ordinary components are rarely recorded in detail. In this study, we grasped the outline of development of heat insulating materials. In Japan, it is in the 1950s that heat insulating materials began to be used generally. They were used in the residence in Hokkaido. When the 1960s came, heat insulating materials of synthetic resin foaming was developed, and it spread quickly. By its appearance, the cement bonded wood-wool and frake board is no longer used for the purpose of heat insulation. Recently, material development in consideration of the environmental problem, such as formation of non chlorofluocarbon of heat insulating materials of synthetic resin foaming, is performed.
Purpose of this paper is to investigate awareness about townscape preservation in Narai that was selected one of the area for Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Historic Buildings in 1978. It was found that both of the level of satisfaction with their housing and that with townscape preservation became higher than that of 1978. And the level of satisfaction with townscape preservation is higher than satisfaction with their housing. These facts suggest that fear for a regulation of their housing was removed through preservation activity, and the townscape was recognized as an important tradition and culture of the area.
In the Both fields of Urban Planning and Mixed Reality to blend the virtual and the real world, computer vision technology will play an important role in urban space generation. Vision-based methods by mutual action and reaction between the mobile and the fixed of spatial communication would turn up the anti-predictive meanings, the general symbolic functions of urban spaces. In this paper, spatial organization model of standard time, space structure for the link between virtual space and real world is proposed to realize the positioning-free activities, which enables the previous mapping of informational resources for the dynamic space positioning programmed-in.
This study aims to describe the birth and to grasp the structure of Urban Pilot Project of the European Commission by investigating not only through documentary reference but also through the case study of Antwerp. From the results, UPP I has some characteristics as follows; 1) Any cities could apply for UPP I and be able to receive the subsidy directly. 2) Cities didn't need complicated process for UPP I 3) Innovative measures for urban regeneration and impinge on the formation of future urban policies. UPP I was very valuable source of revenue for these cities like Antwerp.
This study is an attempt to identify primary factors of the capacity of streets to generate children's play spaces through in-depth analysis of their environmental conditions and children's play environments. Analysis of our 2003-2004 observation- and interview-survey data covering forty street sections in four school districts in Beijing has revealed that convenient location and the availability of friends are among major reasons for children's playing in the street. The cul-de-sac configuration is characteristic of long-played and play-space-abundant streets. This is also a type of street which is efficient in generating play spaces. Finally, we have proved that both the amount of generated play spaces and the amount of play-space generating spaces in the street can be predicted through multiple-regression equations with fairly high level of precision. Key variables are: the number of accessible playable spaces, the width of the street, the total frontage of open places and the number of interfering trees along the street.
We studied on texture analysis of SAR data by use of JERS1 SAR and LANDSAT ETM+. The Information entropy is applied to calculate a degree of mixture of texture. And differences of value on each land coverage is discussed in varying window sizes. Furthermore Principal Component Analysis, in which 5 bands of Landsat data, SAR's digital number and 3 types of entropy distribution are adopted as factors, had been exploited to evaluate entropy distributions' significance on being used in combination with optical sensor like LANDSAT ETM+ for the sake of extracting urban land surface characteristics.
We integrated the comprehensive casualties' database from some surveys carried out after the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake for the purpose of clarifying the mechanism of human casualties. In this study, research analyzing the relationship among deaths, serious injury, and building damage has been conducted using the comprehensive database. As a result of this investigation, it became clear that there were differences in deaths and serious injuries depending on various factors (building damage, type of injury, the principle part of the body that was struck etc.) The results showed that the death ratio and the serious injury ratio of the advanced age were greatly influenced by the building damage comparing with the other generations.
The aim of this study is to clarify the activities of commercial districts in the Internet. Initially all the images appearing in the Internet are extracted through keywords "district, photo" by using Image-search that search-engine "GOOGLE" offers, and the total 2,172 images are collected in 24 districts of Tokyo. Secondly as the quantitative aspects of the Internet images are examined according to their spatial articulations the districts are classified into five patterns, and those five patterns "people, shopfront, intermediate, street, cityscape" are verified with those city index that deserve urban activities. It is concluded that actual activities in the Internet correlate closely with the relationship with the density of commercial districts, the capability to assemble people and the balance of business and residential area.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the growing process of "the plan based on living room" spread all over Hokkaido in SHOWA 40s. "The plan based on living room" is the plan that we must pass living room in order that we go to other rooms and facilities. As a result, we cleared the follows, 1) The technique protected against the cold concerned directly the growth of plans of the detached houses in Hokkaido. 2) "The plan based on living room" had the rationality on heating and filled important function as contact place among families and visitors. 3) Nowadays, "the plan based on living room" is taken over by "the plan based on living room with steps".
The purpose of this paper is to study how the criticism to Architectural Journalism was developed in Japan after the World War II. With a focus on the discussion about the criticism of Architectural Journalism, it summarizes how Architectural Journalism has been recognized in the community of architecture in Japan after the World War II. In the discussion of the criticism, we see four points; the nature of criticism; the role of reports and records; the relation to the society; and the problem in editing. The objectivity in Architectural Journalism was also discussed from each point. Moreover, the framework of Architectural Journalism was tried to disassemble. Such a trend became the factor from which Architectural Journalism changes bordering on the 1970s time.
The Meiji government lifted the ban on the founding of shrines and temples in 1878. However, because of the number of shrines and temples rapid increase, management of existing shrines and temples became a crisis. After several times administrative orders, the founding became principle prohibition again for the conservation of ancient shrines and temples in 1886. In the way, the following policies was done, 1) Urged existing shrines and temples to arrange those precincts magnificently. 2) Fixed a rebuilding time limit. 3) Did the survey to reinforce a system of "Koshaji Hozon-hi" fund. I made clear that the policies had a great effect on the modern shrines and temples.
This paper shows that the Ogakumon-jo (literally the Emperor's studying room) in the Meiji Palace was designed in relation to the Emperor's works (mainly the affairs of state, studying, dinning with his cabinet, etc). In the history of this project, the Ogakumon-jo was generally designed as two-storied building because it was needed to separate the space for each exclusive use of his works, and it was also needed to combine them as one building for the formality following the Kyoto Palace's building arragement. These exclusive uses were also expressed on their interiors.
Based on data of Yao's rural houses in Jianghua County, this paper focused on the transition of their fireplaces & cooking stoves. Fireplaces & cooking stoves were sorted into four types and each type's characters were clarified. Then the different positions of Yao's traditional cooking pots within each type were considered. Referring to the construction years of these houses, the typological transition of Yao's fireplace & cooking stove was surmised. In addition, how Yao's custom in cooking affected the form of cooking stove was analysed.
The restoration works of Timurid architecture in Samarkand has a long history starting from the period of the Russian colonization. This works dramatically changed the shape of monuments. Soon after Uzbekistan raised as a Presidential Republic, Timurid monument were recognized as a symbol of the country and restoration works were revitalized. In this paper, I focused on the changes of the architecture's shapes by the restoration works, and the various aims of restoration works during Russian colonial period, Soviet period, and after independence. According to detailed research for the restoration process of four main Timurid architectures in Samarkand, the monuments gained the position as historic monuments in the Russian period, and played a propaganda role in the Soviet period. In order to enhance the high quality of historic monuments in the soviet area, researchers made a great effort to study the monuments and realized many extensive restoration works. After the independence, many large-scale restoration works have been undergoing without academic studies and professionals.
The church of St. Hripsime, generally categorized in the Hripsime style that, as a unique style, is never discovered in other areas except the historic Armenia, is possibly recognized as a clue to fasten between the early and the middle Armenian architecture when considering the development of styles in Armenian architecture. This paper, by verifying its characteristics in style, clarifies the process of its stylistic formation in the early Armenian architecture from the phylogenic point of view. According to the comparative study with other styles in the early Armenian architecture, based on the frame-composition up to the dome in the central bay, two genealogical relationships are distinguished, as shown in the diagram of number 22: the Hripsime style in the squinch system, which evolved from the cross centric style in plan; the Hripsime style in the spandrel system, which evolved from the centralized polygonal style in plan.
The purpose of this study is to research the description of the famous ceremonial book, "De ceremoniis" which was compiled in the 10th century by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos. It reveals an important roll of the religious processions in the middle Byzantine period. The ceremonies and the churches in Constantinople are divided in the two remarkable groups; 1.the old urbane basilicas (ex. Hagia Sophia) with the great religious feasts, supported by the conservativeness of the society. 2.the new palace-churches (ex. "Nea" the New Church) with the less important memorial feasts of the saints, created by the real political needs.
During the fifteenth century in Florence, many ceremonies were held in the piazza della Signoria. The loggia della Signoria and the ringhiera were places that were used most commonly for the ceremonies in the piazza. The purpose of this report is to clarify how the piazza were adapted as a ritual space by using the loggia and the ringhiera. In this thesis, the piazza are analyzed on the following points; 1) The spatial use of the ringhiera for the ceremonies. 2) Remodeling of the ringhiera and the function as a stage space. 3) The effect of the disposition of the ringhiera and the loggia della Signoria.
Samuel von Quiccheberg's Inscriptione vel tituli theatri amplissimi (1565) is a manual for the organization of encyclopedic collection and is considered as the first theoretical text in the history of museums. In this work Quiccheberg not only presents his ideal collection and museum architecture based on the structure of the Vitruvian theattre, but also uses as spatial model the rhetorical and dialectical data processing system which is traditionally called commonplace book. Analyzing this aspect, the present study tries to reveal the influence of the scriptural order system on the spatial composition in the early modern architectural world.
This paper deals with churches of circular plan in Italy during 17th-18th Centuries, and, in particular, takes up several examples deriving from the Temple of Romulus, which was regarded as a model of church in 17th Century. Furthermore the investigation gives attention to the influence of Giovanni Battista Montano, and makes clear that Filippo Juvarra's work in the early 18th Century belongs to the same type. The purpose is to show the relationship between circular plan and curved facade in clerical architecture by clarifying mechanism of architectural composition. In short, circular plan together with curved facade is not only a model of the building itself, but also a motif in composition of large scale.
I tried to clear the character of forms in "the mortal dwelling" through the comparison of the "Rinjyugyogi". In this paper, it cleared three characteristics. The one is that mortals established the identification by the transcendence. The second is that mortals established the orientation to the transcendence. The third is that it arranged the place to attend on mortals.
This paper aims to describe and analyze Hideaki Ishikawa's thoughts on amusement places and their meaning in urban history. Especially this paper deal with three issues as follows. First, we describe his thought diachronically to figure out his origin and it's evolution. Second, we describe his practice in Tokyo during postwar reconstruction to clarify his effect on urban space. Third, we explore the background in urban history which made him to act matters as mentioned. In consequence we clarified that his act was linked to urban problem and trend of academic discourse in those days.
The purpose of this study Is to consider the influence of heavy industries progress on a spatial transformation in a modern city. The case of this study is Hitachi, Ltd. and Hitachi city. Industrial foundation was essential for the sake of heavy industries development. At first, Kuhara mining company treated industrial foundation. However Hitachi, Ltd. treated that after it became indepandent of Kuhara mining company. Hitachi, Ltd. became a huge company during World War II. That company tidied up a loop road. It caused the spatial transformation of Hitachi City.
This paper deals with the location of the assembly venue and the guard station in Kyoto of the early Edo period. It considers 'Sashidashi' of the Tensho era, and 'Kenjaku-aratame' of the Enpou era. 1.In many occassions, the assembly venue is not located near the center of Cho. 2.Also, the guard station is usually not located at the edge of Cho. Therefore it is concluded that the houses which are communal possession in Cho increased in number, and since watchmen of Cho lived in the assembly place, it became impossible to distinguish between a assembly venue and a guard station.