Korea achieved its rapid economic development called "The Miracle of Han-River" beginning in the 1960's. This sudden economic development caused rapid urbanization and accelerated growth in the urban population. The Korean government supplied some housing in a short time to solve the problems from overcrowding, but these supplied housing let us know about the fixation of houses for the high rise and high density apartment house complex that characterize Korean living culture. While at the same time new problems such as housing speculation and revolting against development exist. From this background, the authors defined the process of how high rise and high density apartment housing complexes are connected to the housing policies and economic bodies. How to relate the consumer's interest also defined.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between housing relocation within Kozoji New Town and its housing stock and occupant households. The following are major findings. 1) A total of 37.4% of households relocated within Kozoji New Town, with particularly high rates for duplexes renovated as single-unit dwellings, low-rise public condominiums, and detached houses. 2) Household relocation is classified into seven types, and the main types of relocation are "relocation from a public rental house to a larger-scale public rental house" and "relocating from a public rental house to a low-rise condominium or detached house".
The purpose of this paper is to find the knowledge for creating group living's environments for resident's daily life. To find the knowledge, we evaluate the QOL on the group living and analyze the primary factors to create well quality life. Especially, addressing renewal type which reuse a house for group living, we find alternative knowledge. Renewal type has some spatial characteristics which are places of various character, open private room, corridors opened to the outside and private room, connected room, tatami which enable to sit floor. These spatial elements are primary factors in improvement of the autonomous life and enhancement of QOL.
We investigated the relationship between activities and plans in school-age child care centers. We collected the research data by two methods. One method is interviewing with staffs of 29 centers. The other is taking the measurements of rooms and furniture in each center. From the data we drew plans, furniture layout and the space where each activity takes place. And then we analyzed the relationship between activities and plan. The results are summarized are follows. 1)We can classify activities of children and staff, and grasp six necessary spaces for various activities. 2)The plans of nursery room are classified into several patterns with the number, size and flooring-material of the area determined by walls and difference of floor-material. Each plan is characterized by how and where each activity takes place. 3)We can grasp desirable links among the six spaces. 4)We can show the planning model considering the relationship among various activities, plans of nursery room and links of the six spaces.
This study aims to clarify the transformation of crematoria and cremators. Below are the findings. 1) The Cremation Society of Great Britain was founded in 1874 and it promoted the cremation movement. consequently, the cremation became common. The cremation rate has remained stagnant at the 70% level since the 1990's. Religious and ethnic cultures may cause this phenomenon. 2) While the basic structure of the cremation institution has not changed, the Chapel of Remembrance was added and the design of crematorium changed. Also, the Book of Remembrance was introduced. 3) The basic structure of cremators has not changed, but the improvement was found in regard to economy, combustion efficiency, and environmental preservation.
The purpose of this paper is to examine of the function of the welfare center for the elderly on the activity leader. The activity leader can be classified into three types: manager-type, group-user-type and personal-user-type. Group-user-type hold a majority at the moment, and it seems that this tendency is strengthened more in the future. The activity leader have a great influence on the plan or the management of the center. Therefore, it is important to consider what is the plan or the management that fit each type. At first I clarified the advantage and the problem, and next compiled the characteristics of the center of each type that I examined from some angles. As a result, the function of the center of each type was as follows. manager-type………health and life support function + group activity support function group-user-type……group activity support function personal-user-type…group activity support function + interchange and rest support function
This paper aims to clarify the today's OKINAWAN folksy disciplines, at OROKU district which has been requisition by Army in NAHA City. Research methodologies are interview, document analysis and interpretation of an aerial photograph. The evaluate the appropriateness for case study, first, we draw a comparison between requisitioned settlements and others in folkways. Accordingly, there are really not much difference between two kinds of settlements. Second, we trace requisitioned settlements' history of sacred spots and colonial morphology. Results are followings; 1.Inhabitants has been regarded hilly land as a sacred cow. 2. Settlement's meeting house has been recognized as important facilities. 3. 'Utaki' and other Okinawa's sacred spots has been treasured, but change in shape and quality. 4. The hierarchy between head family and cadet family is decreesing. 5. The south facing street pattern was changed back to back pattern
This study aims to evaluate the earthquake disaster rehabilitation land readjustment project through the conscious of the residents. We made a questionnaire survey on the residents at the Misuga district, Kobe City where the project was enforced. Clarified points are as follows: 1) Residents' evaluation corresponds to level that people put their lives back in order. 2) There are three significant factors which impede putting residents' lives back in order; infrastructure redevelopment, uniformity of land use and collapse of neighbourly ties. 3)Collapse of neighborly ties gave negative impacts on majority of the residents in the area, on the other hand redevelopment of infrastructure and uniformity of land use gave greater impacts on the residents who less putted their lives back. 4) Redevelopment of infrastructure has formed the space that social contacts hardly occurred and then obstructed to rebuild neighbourly ties. 5) The process of uniformity of land use has broken up mutual assistance which used to exist among independent enterprisers and between residents and independent enterprisers in the area.
This study aims to clarify the change of human relation in the nighbourhood by the space restructuring system thorough the earthquake disaster rehabilitation land readjustment project. We made a questionnaire survey on the residents at the Misuga district, Kobe City where the project was enforced. Clarified points are as follows: 1) Changes made by spatial restructuring through urban area reconstruction project have several levels, some households being affected significantly while others aren't. 2) Significantly influenced households are more likely to lose the relationships they had with their neighbors before the earthquake. 3) They lose relationships with their neighbors because of the changes in housing types and the distance between domiciles. By losing the relationships with neighbors, residents go out less frequently, and they tend to "shut-in". 4) They are mainly small households. Many of them used to have relationships with neighbors who have different types of households.
The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of enclosed arcades as pedestrian space by the research of pedestrian staying activities. The research in Kashiwa City was carried out on the street that has an enclosed arcade and the open mall, in 1999 and 2004. By analyzing the results of this research, following points become apparent. 1) At interior space of an enclosed arcade, smoking or eating, sitting, plural, and median street staying activities are comparatively frequent. These results show the amenity and the safety for pedestrian in enclosed arcade. 2) Categories and forms of stores have a relationship with staying activities. Especially, outdoor cafes and catering establishments increase the amount of staying activities and the number of smoking or eating activities. 3) The amount and its transition of staying activities had a tendency to be held in half-decade at the street that has an enclosed arcade.
Conservation zones are viewed as part of the process of urban development by residents. Selected areas are different from un-selected areas in character, but also in other aspects such as townscape, living environment, and residents' awareness. The authors examine differences in residents' awareness of a conservation zone with respect to selected and un-selected areas. The main findings are as follows: (1) residents' awareness varies depending on age, occupation, habitation. Residents in selected areas are aware of conservation, however they don't realize that their buildings have remarkable historical significance; (2) residents who know about the establishment of the zone have joined in conservation activities, but other people would also like to join in. Thus there is a need to investigate more carefully residents' awareness with respect to selected and un-selected areas. Furthermore, there is a need to inform residents in un-selected areas about what will be done towards future conservation projects.
This paper aims to grasp the harmony of a preferable townscape color from the difference of recognition between German and Japanese. Therefore, the townscape color of the object district in German, Japanese is verified though comparison study used the SD method and the image evaluation. As a result, the following three findings were obtained. 1) The color scheme with a high sequence was judged to be a high harmony. 2) To the townscape photograph with contrasted color scheme, it was evaluated that harmony was high. 3) When the change of value in color scheme is large, the evaluation result of Germany is high. As a result of comparison, it was clarified that was no great difference of recognition in a traditional town of Europe.
This study focuses on the parking lots distributed in the peripheral area of city center, and aims to clarify how function they carry out to support the city center from the view of land use and parking lot use. Firstly, we elucidate the characteristics of parking lots through quantitative analysis, and thus point out that the peripheral areas of city center supply parking lots whose characteristic is different from parking lots in city center. Second, we classify 52 rental parking lots into four types, and therefore make clear that the peripheral area of city center can contribute them adjusted to various users needs. Finally, we clarify the tendency that part of parking lots distributed in the peripheral area city center is converted into apartment houses for the residents who want to live in central area in recent years.
The authors proposed "renovation system of traditional wooden house by the fixed-term rental housing contract" as the strategy making use of vacant houses in housing market. In this paper, it is verified that the possibility to introduce the system in the rental housing market. Firstly, the factors that wooden house changes to vacant and the management situations are cleared. Secondly, the supply and demand of rental housing in the central area of Local City are grasped. Thirdly, renovation cost paid by household and the effect of public aid are estimated by the cost simulation.
The paper describes the activities of carpenters engaged in construction at Koyasan Temple. In the late 11th century, carpenters from Koyasan Temple worked on small construction projects, while carpenters from Todaiji Temple worked on large ones. In the middle of the 12th century, Kyokou participated in construction projects jointly with Sankou. For the construction of Amanosha Shrine, completed in the early 14th century, a Kyokou was given of Sodaiku. Since then, the Sodaiku was inherited from generation to generation by a carpenter from the Kyokou guild. Such inheritors were entitled to bear the name Saemonjiro.
This research aims at clearing it about "Shofuu-Sansou" to explain Mototaro Abe development of the modern suburb. "Shofuu-Sansou" was developed by Mototaro Abe in the land of Dr. Sata. It knows neither time nor a place clearly. These points were cleared. The land purchase of Dr. Sata was 1906 years. Dr. Sata purchased most land of "Ashiya-mura Tsu Tani". Mototaro Abe entreated Dr. Sata. Then, it was decided that Mototaro Abe developed "Shofuu-Sansou"". The development time was 1934 from 1928. "Shofuu-Sansou" was developed in the area of the north side of "Ashiya-mura Tsu Tani" and the south side. The house of Dr. Sata. is at the top of "Shofuu-Sansou". The area of the whole development was 8500 Tsubo.
The first building of the Japanese government-controlled Yawata Iron Works, which was first operated in the 34th year of Meiji (1901), was our country's first full-scale steel framed building. In this paper, the organization of institutional construction at the time the government controlled Yawata Iron Works stated operation in the 34th year of Meiji (1901) is made clear. Out of a group of factory buildings constructed at the time of establishment of Yawata Iron Works, I take up the issue of the only Ogura repair factory still existing in its complete form today, completed in the 33rd year of Meiji (1900). I also clarify the relations between a Japanese and a German on the design by that German and environment in which construction took place in those days. Furthermore, I also detail the construction process of factory ever after the 33rd year of Meiji (1900).
I identified to foreign architectural books owned by the library of the Imperial College of Engineering with the catalogue of this library edited on 1876, 1878 and 1880. By 1876, the collected architectural books were sufficient to aquire the rudiments of architecture. And treatises, including American pattern-books, built up the library urgently by 1878. Since Josiah Conder's arrival, however, English books and magazines, which contained many illustrations, instead of American pattern-books had been subscribed to aid the students to learn architectural design. Stains on a few books in existence of what Kingo Tatsuno purchased speak eloquently how they have cultivated architecture.
William M. Vories, born in the USA, 1880, came to Japan in 1905. He, as a missionary architect, had performed architectural works not only in Japan, but also in East Asian courtiers. This study aims to clarify his architectural works focused his drawing archives of the architecture in China. Through surveying of those archives, we could find out his brainstorming sketches. Furthermore those sketches showed what kind of notions he had initially on plan proposals clearly, also blue prints showed the proof of cooperation with other architectural offices in this province. Through the analysis of the archives, it was made clear that the description in drawings had written in English first and then added translation of Japanese. We could read that these drawing show Japanese styled room positively from the 1930s. The reason was thought that his works at that time would have developed for Japanese Christian companies in Manchuria.
This study aims to clarify the historical process and the construction systems of the traditional balconies in urban houses taking Catalonia of Spain as an object area. This paper specially focuses on the change from windows to balconies on the facades of historical urban palaces from the 14th until the 19th century. The small multiple windows of gothic facades which demanded the defensive character were to be enlarged and transformed into the rectangular form with the passage of time. Balconies appeared in the 17th century as additions to the windows of buildings constructed in the former ages. In the 18th century balconies had already been an important element for facade design of palaces. The most traditional construction system of a balcony consists of flat stones projecting from the facade and inserted under the jambs of an opening.
Following aspects are demonstrated in my analysis: 1) Fischer attempted creating the concentrated type plane composition, which includes internal and external spaces such as triangular, pentagonal, hexagonal, rotund and astral type. 2) The composition is categorized into two technical patterns. In the first one, its external form builds up rotund and astral type. The second one consists of the combination of geometrical forms, which creates triangular and quadrangle types. 3) Following project are exemplified in the first pattern: The project of a large county house(1688), in which the composition of various geometrical or sector forms is fitted in to the internal part of the rotund composition: the project of an astral shaped provincial country house(1692-93), the hexagonal type composition, in which the diamond shape is put on the surrounded rotund composition and the project of an astral shaped chapel(1697), the pentagonal type composition, in which oblong oval type is arranged in the surrounded rotund composition, exemplify the first pattern. The second pattern is already mentioned in the previous paper. 4) The sepulchral chapel in the 'Schloss Frain"(1698) is considered an example of the exterior performance of new internal space by keeping consistent character as building on the outside and showing up the third space in the internal part by unifying two compositional patterns. 5) His endeavor enabled the development of other various concentrated type plane ; and his idea had presumably influence on Baroque architecture in Central Europe.
There are the many historical port facilities in a port of our county, and these have high potential to contribute to comfortable local environmental creation. However, it decrease without the value being recognized by many of historical port facilities continuing a function at the present. On a preservation of such historical port facilities, security by a legal system is effective. Therefore this study assumed that it was clear about a preservation method of the historical port facilities through a legal system. 1. For the historical port facilities like buildings and civil structures as one need to adapt substance designate of group designate depending on geographical conditions. 2. As for the regulation contents of a legal system, it is wished the status quo is a principle for the historical port facilities. However, the regulation content that a valuable part is left for of the historical port facilities is expected at the time of continuation / conversion of a function for it with change.
The purpose of this paper is to provide the method for the construction of the probabilistic model of preference for space. Bayesian networks are expected to construct probabilistic models including an uncertainty of human behavior for prediction and decision-making. We applied Bayesian networks to construct graphical models that represented the correlation between preference for space and spatial elements of which exhibition was composed. The difference of preference for space was easily understood by visual analysis of graph structures. By executing probabilistic reasoning of Bayesian networks on these models, furthermore we deduced the combination of spatial elements that are expected to be preferred in high probability.