This paper clarifies urban tissues, that is, the formation of street blocks and distribution of house types in Li-cheng Areas, which is the old castle district of the central part of Quanzhou., based on intensive field study. Quanzhou which is known as Ci Tong, had developed as a port city since the period of Tang Dynasty. Authors classified traditional houses into three types which are da-cuo, shou-jin-liao, qilou, in quanzhou. Da-cuo is the form of quadrangle, si- he-yuan and qilou is the form of shophouse with arcade. Da cuo mainly are located on the periphery of the inner cities. Shou-jin-liao are distributed on the south of the cities. Qilou which is a new style of shophouse, are distributed along the street of Zhongshan south road. This paper discusses the relationship between house types, focusing on transformation process of house and raise the question where is the origin of Qilou and Shou-jin-liao.
This paper aimed to research about the small bases for child-care that used the environment of the cities such as parks for their child-care. The staff and children want the pliability in which individual childcare needs can be satisfied at the base for child-care. They understand a road as a playground place. They want playground equipment with possibilities at stay space. And, some matters pursued in the urban environment as the place of the childcare were derived by analysis and consideration.
On this paper, we show the ways of planning for floor planning and equipment in the pharmacy service of central pharmacy from the result of hearing and observation on 6 hospitals. Next, we clarify 5 works which should be served on central pharmacy and 5 works which should be served in some cases. Finally, we suggest following 3 point from the result of our previous studies. 1) Architectural and equipment planning on each rooms 2) Structure model of the prepare, manufacture and management zone and rooms 3) Location planning of central pharmacy
We conducted a questionnaire survey after the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake in the coastal area of Onjuku, Chiba Prefecture. Residents were asked to describe their behaviors using a diagram and a map of the town. The results revealed the following: 1) actual behavior was not consistent with the result of a similar survey conducted before the earthquake, 2) many residents did not evacuate even though they received various disaster information, 3) behavior patterns differed based on residents' locations at the time of earthquake, and 4) several risky behaviors were conducted because of people's basic needs.
Kabul a fast growing city has been changed enormously, due to physical and social fabric affect. As a result, the living areas become denser and compact. The settlements used by one family, in the past have enlarged horizontally/vertically to be used by several families, today. This paper comprehends the spatial formation in blocks and houses through the process of transformation of the houses in relation with their typology in 4 residential areas (Historical, Sprawled, Planned and a New Township) in Kabul city. The typological study and the analysis of the collected data from the houses indicates 3 main housing types such as; Courtyard-Based, Detached-Based and Flat-Based in the 4 studied areas. Each of the main types has different variations, categorized into different sub-types. The analysis indicates that there are 5 types of transformations taken place in the houses and the majority of the increasing population is accommodated by the transformed houses. It also indicates that the Sprawled and Planned areas are the most flexible areas for acceptance of further extensions.
Authors have been conducting the field research on the former Spanish colonial cities under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities since 1999. In the Spanish colonial period, cities were planted and established in Philippines. This paper focuses on Intramuros, the historic walled area of Manila city which is one of the three city established by Spain in Asia. As cartographic database, images and maps from AGI (Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), other archives and libraries in the Philippines are used for analysis. This paper clarifies the formation and transformation process of Intramuros based on the analysis of historical maps and street pattern and block size, also the present formation of urban core of the city based on the field survey on the distribution of facilities and building types.
This research presents one part of the investigation stage for land readjustment planning at the War Damage Reconstruction Institute, which proposed planning standards for each municipality. This paper analyzed manuscripts by Kenichi Komiya investigated land readjustment planning, and drawings created at the War Damage Reconstruction Institute illustrated the relationship between land use planning and block planning. The results are given follows; 1. Komiya investigated criteria for comprehensive land readjustment planning that included rural areas with change land use and open space system in mind. 2. The land readjustment standard compiled more simplistically than Komiya's draft. Above all, typical value of the block and lot was worked-out on the basis of consideration of the open space.
In the field of disaster prevention planning, it is highly important to consider the difficulty of evacuation. In order to evaluate difficulty of evacuation dealing with any possible damages by a large-scale earthquake, we construct a simulation model, which describes physical damages (such as house-collapse, city-fire, and road-blockage) and people's behavior in terms of difficulty in wide-area evacuation. Based on the results of agent based simulations, we demonstrated some new findings: (1) the difficulty in wide-area evacuation has a significant correlation respectively with the density of wooden houses and the rate of road-blockage, (2) some areas might have difficulties even if they are located near the evacuation site, (3) the number of people with difficulty varies according to occurrence-time of disaster, the characteristic of areas, and the unfavorable situation for evacuation.
In a station square, avoidance behavior happens frequently. In order to create a more comfortable and safe walking space, it is necessary to consider people-to-people avoidance behavior and pedestrian personal space. In this research, we analyzed avoidance behavior by pedestrian pathways and discussed pedestrian personal space through the relative positions of two pedestrians in avoidance behavior. The characteristics of pedestrian avoidance behavior and personal spacewere as follows: 1. Pedestrian avoidance behavior has significant differences between moving in the opposite direction and in the same direction. 2. The distance of avoidance behavior in the morning is the least. 3. Under free walking conditions, the locus of the object's relative position can be considered as the boundary of the subject's personal space. 4. Reduce avoidance behavior: a. Give enough spacefor pathways of pedestrians. b. Consider the situation of users.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of the art event in urban space from the viewpoint of the relationship among the appreciators, art works and site environment and to confirm the possibility of an area direction to accelerate the communication and revitalization. Field surveys were carried out to identity the appreciators way finding to reach art works, and their behavior to evaluates and appreciate the art works. The results are as follows. People chose the street in which many persons gathered and in which has thriving and historic and unique characteristics. They also prefer the extraordinary object and unequivocal art, and gave them high evaluation. First time visitors chose the works with simple mechanism and intimacy work. As for appreciation behaviors, they took a photograph, listen to explanation, read objects and made conversation. However, the following behaviors were observed at the works with thee special mechanism or particular appreciation method riding, touching, seating and so on.
This study analyzes spatial structure of Kyoto by using large scale maps of the city by the age of 1951. We aim to make reappearance the structure of the city through the usage of maps at the time when the establishment of the Building Standard Law. The distribution of the situation of road contact failure the part alley space. will be compared with that of the current alley space. As the results, this study will help us to clarify the reason of the alley transformation in sixty years time.
The purpose of this study is to develop index for measurement of characteristics of regional population change from view point of local district sustainability, also to analyze that from long-term point of view about municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture. In this study we used stable rate of population increase and stable age distribution which are derived from “Leslie Matrix Model” in order to make the index of local district sustainability. From this study, the index of municipal sustainability has general tends of decreasing.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of especially “the layer of people having passivitys in daily communication” by focusing on elderly's “real communication activities” and “consciousness”, as basis for thinking about social capital in the areas corresponding to the aging. Elderly having passivitys is wholly seen for man and somewhat the very old, and for woman living with family 3 or 4 person. There is elderly who do not take into account future communication activities, would be individual-oriented with age and also have negative intentions for communication activities. The elderly classified as “the layer of having passivitys” has two factors and consciousnesses in the description as follows; 1) factors like “living alone during the day”, “equipment operations” and so on. 2) factors like “passive attribute”, “more hobby-oriented than communication” and so on. It may be contribute to the activation of communication activity in the elderly to overcome the difficulty of using equipment.
Design change orders during steel fabrication can have a tremendous negative impact on steel fabricators and general contractors mutually. Also, it is liable to take project delay and cost escalation. Such change orders are impossible to predict and it takes some time for the steel fabricator to understand the implications of changes made by the contractor and review the response scope and method properly. Additionally, steel fabricator's staffs are usually in charge of both structural steel production and responding to change orders at the same time. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an effective and reasonable decision making framework to respond design change orders and to minimize negative effects. This paper introduces a decision making framework, developed based on ISO9000 for design change orders in a large-scale steel fabrication shop, including detailed production organization and their production works. In addition, in order to review effective methods to reduce decision making time and make decisions more rationally, we discuss an improvement method and those effects of the decision making framework as using a meeting system, attended sub-managers from departments/teams in the steel fabricator.
In order to verify the effectiveness of new methods of work aiming at the productivity improvement in one-unit-at-a-time refurbishment of apartment house, I investigated and analyzed man-hour data of a new method of interior wooden frame work named “Gi system” in consideration of practice effect and comparative evaluation with the conventional method of work. At first, productivity of “Gi system” was inferior to the conventional method of work. But after practice effect, it decreased by 30%-50% and surpassed that by 15%-50%. It means there is room for productivity improvement even in discontinuous and scattered interior refurbishment work by using suitable new method of work.
The main hall of Kokubun-ji in Takamatsu City, built in the Late Kamakura Period, was designated as a national treasure under the Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Act. During repairing undertaken in the Showa Era (1941-1943), change of the building's original form was permitted. This paper discusses restoration that aimed to return the building to its original form, clarifying that the pitch of the roof after the remodeling was representative of the Edo Period, and was different from the original. It is also clear that the syumidan and zushi were made in the Kanbun Era.
This paper examines the composition of dry landscape gardens created in Muromachi period through the analysis of the differences between view of the garden from Engawa and view from the room. We focused on four sets of Hojo and adjoining garden, at Ryogen-in, Daisen-in, Ryoan-ji and Juko-in, and made three-dimensional CG of them, based on the research report and field survey. Through analysis, we pointed out that the space left near Hojo corresponds with the views from rooms, and the variety in the placement of stone brings change of view from the room.
This paper traces some links of the development process of the mountain huts through the example of the location planning of the mountain huts by the owners of the Nakabusa spa in the prewar period by analysing the Momose family's archives. The owners of the Nakabusa spa had construction plans for 15 mountain huts in the prewar period. This was done by using the local knowledge about the place which the mountain residents (i.e. huntsmen, etc.) had for the base of a mountaineering course around mountaineering stations.
This study takes up Kobo and Enokidu in Okawa-shi, Fukuoka. These cities are good examples that understand a city space change from the medieval times to early modern times. A city restored map is created with the land-register map of Meiji. And that city is restored retroactively. Formation and deployment of the city of Kobo and Enokidu are clarified by this change process, and an urban form, the name of a place and the formation age of temples and shrines.
Traditional festivals and historical townscape remain in the old castle town in Takayama. They were designated as national cultural properties and have been handled in the framework of national system for the protection of cultural properties. However, some problems for maintaining their festivals and community system occur beyond the traditional conservation systems. In this situation, it can be stated that local inhabitants' pride for traditional culture supports their cultural properties. Thorough the analysis on this article, we suggest that we need to deepen the management policy and system for tangible/intangible cultural properties in Takayama, which focuses on the thought and problems in the local communities (festival groups etc.).
This paper aims to clarify the characteristic of the grant-in-aid system for the preservation of ancient shrines and temples, which was enacted in 1880. This system was established as part of the religious administration to preserve the organization of shrines and temples. However, from the analysis of its establishment procedure and the actual operation of the system, it is clarified that the main method for preservation was not to directly aid the management of ancient shrines and temples. It was the system that recognized the value of buildings themselves and aimed to aid the maintenance and repair of these buildings.
The port open space planning policy was prescribed in 1973. However, this rule remains without a change. A purpose of this study is to clarify the next matter through the above. 1) To clarify the actual situation of the design of the port open spaces as a case study in Kawasaki Port and Yokohama Port. 2) To grasp the actual situation and the problem of the port-open-space which was designed by administration and private enterprise In Yokohama Port. The results of this study are as follows. 1) The needs of the port open space is "Public access to approach from hinterland to port space", "Opened port shore line for public", "Space to watch the port scenery". 2) The port open space which is designed by administration and the private enterprise needs the promotion system and clarification of the responsibility. This study suggests the need of the linear port open space and the designated manager system through these results.