This research proposed the measuring method for the desirability of a 'refreshment room' to rest in a office. A desirable refreshment room can assist an occupier to change his mind to raise intellctual productivity. The subjects evaluated how they were refreshed themselves in mind after rest in various indoor environments to examine the validity as the measurement item. Color arrangement with beads was a set work. The desirability of a refreshment room should be made clear by a person. All subject refreshed themselves very much in a sunny room. As a reslut, a sunny room was one of desirable refreshment room. The measuring method may propose other desirable refreshment rooms.
Some facility may disappear, or, very lacking facility may increase like the day care center. However, we could not predict that facilities appeared or disappeared. We construct a model of the joint use facilities using utility function and cost function of the joint user number. By the fluctuation of utility function and cost function, it is shown that the appearance and disappearance of facilities can be estimated. It is also proven that facilities suddenly appeared or extinguished, when utility function and cost function slightly changed even in. The above results suggest that home and facilities should be understood as the realization form of one service.
This paper aims to inspect if the spatial units arrangement of the dwelling aimed to correspond to individualization would adapt to the lifestyle of the family oriented individualization by examining the way of living of the family through the term of the experiment conducted in the experimental housing NEXT21. As the result, we could verify the spatial units arrangement of the dwelling adapted to the lifestyle of the family oriented individualization. At the same time, some needs based on a whole family unit were also realized as necessary by the family. We have to consider the adaptability not only to the individualization but also to the diversity of the lifestyles.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the factor of changing two patterns in use each other and get the guide for sharing material collection for each library on the network of mutual use among them. The results are as follows: 1) Those who usually use only the library of the adjoining communities have the possibilities of using that in their own communities by the change of their style of use, in accordance with their family's or their own need for reading. And those who usually use the libraries of both their own and the adjoining communities have the possibilities of using only the libraries in adjoining communities for their decrease in need for reading. 2) It is not suitable for users'purposes that each library shares limited fields of books, magazines, AVmaterials and so on. It is to be desired that each library shares a variety of books, magazines, AVmaterials and so on. Therefore, at the moment general public libraries with all kinds of collection are preferable to special ones with some kind of collection.
Since our societies have diverse people and built environments, studies must be needed to develop systems assuring people's safety in potential emergent situations. We have developed a multimedia guidance system available in evacuation. In the present paper, we examined the effect of map presentation types on evacuation behavior. The results showed that sequential evacuation paths indicated on the map almost cancelled the negative effects of map rotation and alignment on the course of evacuation behavior, and that these map conditions made it difficult for evacuees to construct a spatial image like a survey map.
In order to find structure of "Cognitive Map" and "Cognitive Space", relationship between the two and path choice, after a walking experiment in a museum exhibition space, subjects were asked to draw the sketch of plan and ceiling plan of the exhibition space. Based on the sketches, it is found that: (1) while people spend short time in the exhibition or just walk around exhibition one time, their structure of "Cognitive Map" are always based on the trace of body moving. On the other hand, while people stay long time or walk around exhibition more than one time, their structure of "Cognitive Map" are based on construction of building; (2) Including the cognition of ceiling, the style of structure of "Cognitive Space" can be classified into "outside wall", "space along outside", "outside volume", "convex space with same height", etc. (3) Some people have the same unit of structure of "Cognitive Space" and path choice, which are "convex space", "continuous wall", so it can be said that unit of "Cognitive Space" is related to path choice.
This paper is discribed about the results of an experimental study on the human location of seat related to the type of opening in terms of vertical illuminance at their eyes. As the results of this study, the location of seats are identified as followed aspects. 1. Subjects tend to locate their seats on high illuminated position, and position where 90% of them are able to see the openings. 2. In the tendency of location of seats, there is similarity between full opening "ZENKAI" and lower opening "YUKIMI" though the contrast of illuminance. On the other hands, there is difference between opening above the waist level "KOSHIKABE" and horizontally half opening "SODEKABE" though the similarity of illuminance. 3. In most cases of the opening "SODEKABE", there are 3 typical positions of seats that for seeing the outside directly, that for seeing opening at their side, and that for seeing opening from wall side.
Experimental travel by wheelchair users were made to compare accessibility of normal ramps and two pieces of step-by-step ramps, and travelability on a long 1:20 gradient standard ramp. The results are as follows; 1) The travel estimation is affected by the difference of state of arms of wheelchair users. 2) Step-by-step ramps are more accessible and safer than normal ramps for wheelchair users. 3) Intermediate landings help decelerate downward travel speed. 4) It is difficult to travel up a long 1:20 gradient ramps, and dangerous to travel them down due to acceleration.
The purpose of this study is that to clarify and evaluate the spacial composition of public space leads to a guideline to design urban space better. Experiments of P.M method are made on behaviors of taking a rest and waiting in special zoing urban block areas. The result can visualize what the liking of space is and recognize the character of each area. The number of places marked for the behavoir of taking a rest are recognized to be diffrent from one of waiting. That indicates that each behavior has each factor for the liking of space. Factors which influence one's behavior are grasped with the character of spacial composition of public space. The greenery influence each behavior. Points increase where many kinds of trees are located, and decrease in the place with less trees. The greenery have an effect on taking a rest, but they do not on waiting. That indicates the relation between one's behavior and factors of spacial composition are grasped in quantity.
This study is an investigative research to grasp the continuous structure of color order of the town scenes. The field survey was done on 15 traditional town districts of Europe mostly in Germany. Investigation data was analyzed by the degree of harmony of a keynote color using the standard color chart of MUNSELL with the continuous photograph of the town scenes and has organized the feature of a color scheme in pattern. As a result, a feature of color scheme was clarified by analyzing the relation of a keynote color on a continuous scene; the tendencies are concentrated on the YR hue system with high value and low chroma. Furthermore, the feature of harmony of color scheme and elements of continuous color structure became clear through the result of analysis.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze "Hi-oho-i" (awning for street) as the origin of Arcades in Japan in detail. First, according to the nation-wide research of the Japan Chamber of Commerce and Industry in 1935, "Hi-oho-i" was distributed all over the country. Next, it was confirmed to use the word "Hi-oho-i" at Edo era, to exist old photograph and dairy on the "Hi-oho-i" at Meiji era (1890s), and to be declining the "Hi-oho-i" about 1950s. Finally, the relation between the construction of the "Hi-oho-i" and the formation of the community and urban space in shopping streets was examined.
This study is concerned with the distance distribution associated with a circular disk on which the origin and destination points are distributed radially symmetrically and mutually independently. Crofton's differential equation is generalaized for the case of circular disk and is applied to the derivation of the distance distribution. In this paper, circular-radial distance distributions are calculated explicitly for two types of point-distribution: (1) linear distribution and (2) exponential distribution. These are the first cases to achieve the explict derivation of distance distribution for non-uniform point-distributions. Our results are so easy to handle that they will be applied to many fundamental macro-scopic models on the efficiency of urban population and facility-location-design.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify situation of development at the suburb in the local city. In this research, we investigated the urbanization of 4 cities, Ube-City, Yamaguchi-City, Ogori-City which have not employed the area division system, Hofu-City which has employed it since 1968 in Yamaguchi Pref. Then we considered the tend of development at the loose reguration area and at the urbanization control area using 250m mesh data, a number of the development permission. Useing those data, we built the calculation model that can forecast tend of development at the suburb and show the issue about the development on operating the City Planning Act in the local city.
The purpose of this paper is to acquire the examination material of activation in the central area of Tokyo, with requiring the house supply promotion policy of Municipalities to reverse from a long series of population decrease, by analyzing this population recovery in the realities. We want to analyze the construction realities of the new supplies of apartment houses constructed in recent years and the resident characteristic in relating to the local society in this research.
It is important that residents in detached house area preserve living environment by co-operation, for example introduction of rules concerning preservation of living environment of the district where they live in. However, in an aged new town, many residents are advanced in age and some are lost their partner, so it become difficult for residents to live on and maintain their own houses, and living environment might be getting worse. Therefore, it is necessary to supply various houses for moving in Senri new town for residents in advanced age, and to give consultation and information concerning houses for moving and how to move.
This study focuses on the indoor free resting spaces located distributively in the commercial facilities of a city center, and analyzes their layout and usage from the view of comfort for pedestrian-oriented development through the survey in Tenjin District of Fukuoka City, where the pedestrian network is formed by connecting the facilities in the underground level and air deck level as well as on the ground level. As results of the observation and quantitative analysis on 177 indoor resting space samples in the existing facilities, we clarified the typology of resting spaces and the factors for usefulness, and pointed out the versatile pedestrian environment and characters of Tenjin District based on highly developed underground pedestrian network.
This paper deals with the systems and the applications of preservation of areas around 500m of historic monuments in France. Since 1943, all construction projects connected with historic monuments are controlled by the Architects of French Buildings (ABF) who attached to each prefecture by the ministry of culture. Though ABFs can decide to authorize a plan, in application of the systems they consult with the applicant of the project and order modifications. If applicants are not contented with a decision by ABF, they can appeal to a regional governor.
The authors examined how community development schemes when more suitable information was presented and deepened understanding. The concept used was "design of experiments". Results demonstrated that factors determining subjective evaluation were social norms and individual benefit. When clarity of the schemes was low, simple schemes were considered as important. Consequently, the main factor of individual benefits increased. On the other hand, when clarity of the schemes was high, the person considered more difficult schemes as important. Consequently, the factor of social norms increased. Therefore, proper community planning should communicate information about both individual benefits and social norms to residents so that clear and precise decisions on the schemes can be made and supported by the residents themselves.
To make the effective vacant dwelling circulation active in the housing market, it is important to clearly determine the amount of dwellings concealed from the market. In this paper, the amount of vacant dwellings after the household movement process was calculated by using the housing chain model, in which used housing was linked with new housing, concerning the detached owned house market in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The results showed that the amount of vacant dwellings concealed from the market was 80% of the amount of new housing supply, and three-fourths of those vacant dwellings were demolished.
Higashiosaka is well known as high density city. The ratio of three-storied houses among existent detached houses is 25%. Almost 80% of newly detached houses were three storied or more before year 2000. But after the year 2000, two-storied houses began to increase rapidly. This study is to find out the factors which influenced the increase of low-rise detached houses through statistical data of new construction starts in Higashiosaka. The hypothetical factors extracted through analysis are as follows. 1. New wave of demand based on second baby-boomer generation started to increase. 2. Lotsize was gradually getting wide due to long time fall of land price after 1990. 3. Competition among home-builders lead to reduce construction costs. 4. Inspection system to specific construction process pushed home-builders to build low-rise houses.
This study aims to clarify details of uniform townscape in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime. This paper deals with relation between the plastering front exterior wall of town house and the administration by Kyoto machibugyosho (magistrate of Kyoto). Official notices notified by Tokugawa shogunate permitted in use of roofing clay tile and mud coat wall for fire protecting in 1720. Nevertheless, mud coat wall for fire protecting was not spread wide use in Kyoto. Because of that, Kyoto machibugyosho was not enforced in use of roofing clay tile and mud coat wall for fire protecting on citizens.
This paper involves research regarding the processes of introducing steel structure technologies in plant construction within naval dockyards during the Meiji Era. Steel structure technologies introduced at naval dockyards consisted of, first, the cast iron era of the 1890s, and the steel era of the first decade of the 1900s. In regards to the steel era, in tandem with the development of policies for the national production of warships by the Japanese Navy, the introduction at each naval dockyard of the technologies of steelmaking companies of the United States and the United Kingdom clarified the processes whereby steel structure buildings, etc., were constructed.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the planning and design of Kamikochi Hotel as mountain lodge under the Policy of Tourist Industry during 1930s. The process of planning and design of this hotel had been hold round table talk organized by Kishichiro Okura who was chairman, Imperial Hotel. There were mountain-climbing specialists and him Okura reflected their comments with his intentions on the planning and design of the hotel. Through this process, Kamikochi Hotel was constructed as a mountain lodge in the Policy of Tourist Industry.
The team of Waseda University has been conducting excavations on the hilltop at Abusir-South in Egypt since 1991. The work has revealed a stone structure belonging to Prince Khaemwaset, the fourth son of Rameses II. It consisted of a main part (two central rooms and an outer wall) and a portico, which was added subsequently. This paper focuses on the analysis on the main part from an architectural perspective. As a result, the plan of the main part was reconstructed as a rectangular plan, composed by two central rooms enclosed by an outer wall, which is desired as a centripetal configuration centering on the granite stele of the cult room. The plan of the outer wall formed a sequence of alternating projections and recesses. The style of the main part is referred to that of the Old Kingdom or Middle Kingdom, and to be characterized as an extraordinary example of the New Kingdom buildings.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of Aldo van Eyck's architectural thought through his treatises on the Dogon villages. The analysis consists of three chapters as follows: Chapter 2 illustrates his principal concerns with Dogon villages whose features are described as being "anthropomorphic" and "twin-ness". Chapter 3 illustrates his unique understanding about them with his concepts such as "identification", "twinphenomena", and "interiorization". In Chapter 4, through analyzing his diagram "the Otterlo Circles", it is explicated that he intends to meet "ourselves" through pursuing "archaic" essence of human beings which remains the same in all places and ages.
本研究の目的は、ブルーノ・タウトのガラスについての思索を考察することにより、彼の「ガラス建築」の概念を明らかにすることである。第二章 第二章ではタウトと文学者パウル・シェーアバルトとの関係について考察する。シェーアバルトは,彼のガラスの概念にもっとも影響を与えた人物として知られる。タウト自身は自分の著作の中で幾度もシェーアバルトを参照し、1914年にケルンで催された工作連盟展のために建設された「グラスハウス」をシェーアバルトに捧げている。一方のシェーアバルトもタウトとの往復書簡を通じて著された『ガラス建築』をタウトに捧げている。本論ではタウトのガラス建築に及ぼしたシェーアバルトの影響についてみてゆくが、この章ではとくに彼等の問の事実関係について論じてゆく。第三章 タウトは何故ガラスというものに惹かれたのか。この間題に答えるため、ガラスという素材の単に技術的な理由を超えて、「ガラス建築」という彼自身の概念の可能性について考察がされなければならない。タウトのガラスについての言及を通じて、彼がガラスに惹かれた二つの要因があげられる。その一つがガラスの材料特性としての独特の光の効果であり、もう一つは当時のドイツにおいて捉えられていたクリスタルの象徴的意味としてである。そこで第三章は「Light Effects of Glass」(III.1)と「The Symbolic Meaning of Glass」(III.2)の二節に分けられる。特に後者において、当時のタウトの幻想的なデザインの意味について考察するためには、当時のドイツにおける新しい文明への期待としてのクリスタルの時代的な考え方、及び彼の幻想的なデザインの象徴的意味についてゴシックとの関係として、それぞれを二項に分けて論じてゆく。これらの各章を通じてタウトによる「ガラス建築」の考え方について考察する。具体的に建築物の例としては1914年の「グラスハウス」を、そして「ガラス建築」のもっとも理論的な作品として1919年の「アルプス建築」を参照する。
Through a study on the architectural design of "Le Palais des Metiers", the followings were made clear: the plan of "Le Palais des Metiers" was composed with the "L'Ambassade de France" and "La Cour des Metiers" symmetrically and geometrically, considering the conditions of the site and site plannings, and respecting "Le Dome des Invalides" especially. "La Cour des Metiers" was decorated with 9 pictures which were symbolized "La Classification" of the Exposition and, 14 sculptures which were expressed the artisan's crafts of decorative arts, because the aim of "La Cour des Metiers" was an education and an enlightenment of decorative arts to visitors.
The two terms, 'Mu-Kyo-Si: 無居肆' and 'Kyo:虚' shown in "Koryodogyong(高麗図経)", are understood as 'the market did not exist' and 'commercial product market were open in the air' in Kaegyong, the capital of Koryo Dynasty. These historical records have been large obstacles to research on the positioning and characteristics of the urban history of Kaegyong, but at the same time, the records have been important clues on them. This study attempts a basic analysis of the architectural form of the commercial facilities of Kaegyong, focusing on analysis of 'Kyo-Si' and 'Kyo'. I show that 'Koy-Si' refers to a multi-functional building comprising both a dwelling and a market, and 'Kyo' is the market where the simple building was laid. However, the market of Kaegyong was a specific commercial facility that did not contain dwellings, and exhibited and sold goods on the ground. The form of building was long and thin like a passage way or corridor. This research can became one basis for understanding the positioning and characteristics of urban history of Kaegyong through the change of market.
This paper examines the treatment of Genbaku-Dome and its site (Saiku-cho and Sarugaku-cho) in the Hiroshima Urban Reconstruction Plan and the Hiroshima Peace City Plan. The site of the Genbaku-Dome, initially included in Chuo Park (Motomachi), became a part of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park with Nakajima Park (Nakajima-honcho) at the time of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and Peace Memorial Hall Competition. This paper also examines competition guidelines and competition plans, and evaluates Kenzo Tange and his colleague's plan and others' plan.
There is recognition that the recognition of the scale feeling is important respectively in the sense with many sides. The problem is comparatively done to the scale feeling promotion as effective at early time. The teacher is recognizing that it thinks about the solid, and the composed work, the measurement, and the experienced work are important in the sense of scale promotion.