This paper aims to report on about the space constitution of "the plan housing development" and relations of the play appearance of the child. Field observation about the outdoor activity of the child is to investigate it, and they arrive. There is spatial characteristic there with social characteristics such as a joint ownership part and the building allocation patterns inside and outside the building, the high population density. I think that it forms the characteristic of the amusement place of the child. The house ridge placement of the plan housing development is divided into parallel type and box type and tower type. There controls traffic by a block unit, and it may be said that it becomes the play place that the movement space is safe, and is attractive. Small groups disperse with the parallelism type, tower type and surround many plays and tend to perform the play that large-scale groups are few with the model at the place where open spaces are few. By the characteristic of the play place judging from difference in the building allocation patterns, a difference was found between the parallel model and the box model to a tower type.
This study examines the transformation of Log Cabin house's plan and section form in Jinjiang village since Han Chinese moved in 1930. The research purpose is clarifying the reasons of transformation based on the analysis of relationship between life style and space using. As the result, several changes were found that a narrow kitchen; kang moved from south to north in Dongwu and Xiwu; a living room ewerged connecting Ting and Dongwu(or Xiwu) etc. Moreover, according to forest law, resource shortage was expressed by roof change.
In this study, by taking up the Bangladesh nationality foreign resident as an ethnic group's example, it has aimed to clarify the influence on living environment of Kita-ku, Tokyo from concentrated foreign residents, with a research on the tendency of foreign residents' concentrated area, the relationship of concentrated foreign residents and their housing, the measure of local government in a concentrated area, and the housing and living condition of foreign residents in Kita-ku, Tokyo. The Bangladesh nationality foreign residents have concentrated on public housing like UR rental housing in Kita-ku. At the same time, the expansion of living facilities based on food, clothing and religion culture of Bangladesh has taken place in the surrounding area. Since foreign residents' concentrated area may progress further from now on, the understanding and preemptive move to the foreign residents of local government and housing manager are needed in order to prevent the chain of the spatial and social segregation, which has happened at other receiving countries.
Data about the incidence of broken bones due to falls from standing height or below (high fall) or from an elevated position (low-height fall) within the past three years was collected from about 66,000 individuals in long-term care and about 10,000 in short-term care at 359 facilities. Analysis of this data revealed the following observations. 1) Per 100 individuals per year, 51.5 individuals receiving long-term care had experienced a high fall, 27.9 had experienced a low-height fall, 2.22 had broken a bone during a high fall, and 0.39 had broken a bone during a low-height fall 2) About 80% of facilities were constructed of reinforced concrete, and about 90% had hard floors, which do not absorb shock well during a fall. 3) Flooring materials in residents' rooms were compared with respect to incidence of broken bones, but no significant difference was observed. However, hard floors had a statistically-determined incidence of broken bones that was about 50% higher compared to other types of floor.
Successive studies set a goal to clarify spatial factors in medical institutions to contribute the development of severely disabled children. In this study focusing on the childens'postures, relations between their postures and mobility, floor covering material, and body supports including bed, wheel chair and floormat were explained. The key results were: 1) Differences between their postures and mobility were observed among individuals. However, effective ties were shown, 2) Sufficient floor-seating space in common area led more chances to take a floor sitting posture, usually seen on a bed in a room, in common area, and 3) Setting of chairs for work and rest produced more chances for them to experience variety in seating postures than using wheel chairs only.
This study aimed to make clear the operating structure and space composition in emergency medical centers, and analyzed by the following three aspects. 1.We collected the statistics documents and records from prefectural and city governments and analyzed them. 2.Questionnaire survey directed at all 233 emergency medical centers were carried out, we got a 37% response rate. We analyzed the trends of the operating structure and space composition of them. 3.We conducted interview investigations in 19 emergency medical centers, and clarified the operating structure and space composition of them in detail.
It is shown clearly whether administration can support large-sized commercial establishment for large-sized commercial establishment to serve as a core of the area. The view of administration - Large-sized commercial establishment becomes a core of the area. - Support of administration will increase a possibility that it will become a core of the area more. - The expense which administration pays decreases because administration invests jointly to large-sized commercial establishment. - It is hard to carry out support of administration with an organization, a staff, cost, an ordinance, etc.
This study analyzes the pedestrian's avoidance behavior in crossing flow in order to obtain quantitative criteria for evaluating the difficulty of walking in a crowd. The new graphic illustration methods, called Short-Time Pedestrian Path Diagram and Direction Rose Diagram, are developed and proposed in this paper to represent the state of a crowd visually. The result of our experiment suggests that pedestrians descend their walking speed or/and detour to avoid striking other people and each avoidance behavior can be classified into three levels, whose threshold are defined from the speed or the angular velocity of each pedestrian.
Through the previous researches, we defined “polysemy” as the character of words which creates many different meanings in text description of buildings on Shinkenchiku in 1950 - 2010. Following this, we have investigated that architects use one or some of meanings in text description to express thier buildings. This research aims to obtain a new potential perspective to reevaluate the word “White”, and to observe the conceptual structure in a part. Therefore, the objective of this research is to reveal the polysemy of “White” in text description of buildings by architects. As a result, at least 20 types of polysemy of “White” and their relationships in the text description by architects were revealed.
“Yato” is a landscape unit that is horseshoe-shaped flatland surrounded by the hill in three directions. In the hilly cities, such as Yokohama, many Yatos can be seen. Some previous researches mention about the importance of Yato from the perspective of ecological, hydrological, thermal environmental and social aspects. This study aims to developing the method for making Yato map by using GIS and DEM, and also classifying all Yatos based on the land use in Yokohama. By comparing previous researches, it becomes clear that this method is suite for making Yato map. Actually, Yato map is made in Yokohama and 4657 Yatos are extracted. It was also found that about 50% of all Yatos are already developed as low-rise residential areas, and about 30% are still undeveloped, by overlaying Yato map and land use map. Evaluating each Yatos from the perspective of natural and social environments will be needed as a future work.
This study aims to clarify how the plain villages on the lower reaches of Yasu river had formed. Especially, the spatial transition of residential area with land allotment of Jyori-grid system is focused. The main conclusions are as follows. Although the urbanization has progressed, the traditional structure of the spatial forms is maintained because they are surrounded by preserved farmlands, roads have planned along the edges of Jyori-grid, and, the waterways are preserved in their original routes. The residential areas have been becoming dense. It has been changing with the road improvement of boundary part to the form opened outside.
This paper developed five types of future city images based on the citizen's demands for the compact city on Yubari city. One City Core : concentrate public facilities and relocating the residents to Shimizusawa city core. City Core and Network : developing city core in Shimizusawa district and networking to all districts. Inter City Corporation : resorting public facilities among cities and towns. Lining City Core : development to small city cores on JR line. Maintain Existing Districts : keeping and maintain the all existing districts. The city images of 2nd and 4th are desirable for the intensive compact city.
The purpose of this study is considering the direction which the building confirmation and the final inspection systems aimed at while clarifying the enactment process of the building application procedure in the Building Standard Law. Conclusion of this study is as follows: 1. The building confirmation system was made by reference in the notification system of the former law. In this system, administrative discretion was eliminated as much as possible. 2. As a premise to which a building confirmation system is materialized, there was the Kenchikushi system backed by the Kenchikushi Law. At the time of planning, there was also a proposal which considers the Kenchikushis and the Building officers as assignment relations. 3. Although the plan which puts the final inspection into practice was taken out, since the system also had a defect, without realizing an In-process inspection, the enforcement became impossible.
This paper clears the characteristics of space utilization of after-school day care center converted from a farmer's barn and the outline of special program by volunteer instructors in the region and aims to explain the effect that give to the all day life of children．The program is held with various themes, and it is effective as the experience program to change into ordinary play though it only takes about one hour in the morning. The continuance time of static play in the afternoon on the program making day is especially long, and the movement and repetition of same play number of times decrease so the effect of the program is recognized.
We have reached a point in time where an old existing building can be regarded as a social asset. However, the current situation is one where promoting the use of building stock alone is not enough. To promote the use of building stock, analysis verification of the cost of stock use is an important issue, but there has been no specific study in past research, and the current cost of building stock use is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to attempt to see whether or not it is possible to actually classify the use of building stock based on the hypothesis that it can be classified into six factors. In conclusion, it is possible to clarify the current stock use costs through a trial analysis of Property Fun Case 10 as a practical example.
Ocha-ya in Kumamoto-Han was a lodging for stay and rest during Edo-Era. Inspectors were sent throughout Japan several times during Edo-Era. Through the examination of historical materials on usage of Ocha-ya by inspectors, following tendencies were ascertained; 1)Inspectors used Ocha-ya which was faced main road and separate from governmental or military facilities. 2)Inspectors didn't use Ocha-ya which was detached from main road and combined with governmental or military facilities.
This paper considers, through the case studies of oyado and honjin, early-modern boarding facilities in the districts of Tomari, the nature of Edo Period lodging facilities in Ettyu wherein daimyo stayed and rested. In the early Edo Period, Tomari suffered from frequent high ocean waves and consequently residents were forced to relocate. From the 1710s, oyado finally came to be opened. By the 1750s there were two oyado in Tomari, one for hosting the lords of the Kanazawa clan and the other for the lords of the Toyama and Daishoji clans. These oyado were constructed as having two distinct spaces: an area for the visiting lords and an area for the building's residents. During the Ito family's tenure overseeing the lodgings for the Kanazawa, the Kanazawa contributed to construction costs for the development of facilities in which they sojourn. However, the Ito were not classified as otaya, but instead considered oyado.
This study is about the octagonal building of GYEONGJU NAJONG, the remains of a ritual facility of ancient Shilla Dynasty. The purpose of this study is to examine the column arrangement of the octagonal building, and reveal the determinant factors for column arrangement by reviewing the sequential processes in building the facility. The results are as follows : the octagonal building was designed with special structure that internal structure is rotated against external column arrangement. Difference in the number of columns between inside and outside was caused by restrictions on the scale of the inner and outer circumference. And it induced rotation of the internal structure for the external column array. The circumference of internal and external column of the octagonal building was defined to include the core portion of predecessor facility, consisting of the central pit and the six pits.
The conclusion of this paper is as follows. :1. The joint of wooden structure is classified to two types, that are mong buong and mong that in Hue, Vietnam. The former is free to the pull force and the latter is fixed to it. 2. The property of wooden structure is that the strength against the pull force in the east-west direction is more weaken than it in the south-north direction. 3. The architecture in Hue Royal Palace is possible to have changed the joint method by the scale of it. 4. The property of the joint in Long Duc Dien is that the method of joint is changed by the necessity of its strength. 5. The various joint of wooden architecture in Hue, Vietnam work effectively against the vertical strength by the load of roof tile and the lateral strength by the strong wind.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify types of spatial compositions constructed by chronic schizophrenic patients based on Architectural Space Montage Technique to find spatial schema behind these compositions. We analyzed 49 cases, comparing them to types of rivers with respect to the frame in landscapes drawn by these same patients based on Landscape Montage Technique to ensure validity of the analysis. Five types of spatial compositions were identified. Discussions included the tendency of disorganization in the places, types where a space to give sanctuary was created, and the correspondence between these five types and the types of rivers.
Biwako canal was established in 1890 in order to derive waters to Kyoto basin for water power, transportation by ships, irrigation system and fire protection. Nanzen-ji area was developed in 1910's by Mr. Yosaji Tsukamoto for the villa residence by enterprisers. Each garden was made by a gardener, 7th Jihei Ogawa who was named “Ueji”. These gardens introduced water from Biwako canal. This paper shows the transfer of the rights of utilization on water of Biwako canal depended on the archives of resisters with water power by Kyoto City Bureau on Biwako canal. By the transfer and separation of water power, the new gardens were made in the same route of water system. And more, irrigation systems in the Kyoto basin was improved by the introduction on the Biwako canal.
The Mitsubishi zaibatsu, the largest landowner in the Marunouchi business district initiated land development from 1890 to 1945. In this paper, the development strategy of Mitsubishi which could be comprehended through verification of block morphosis will be clarified. This block morphosis will be analyzed from the following view points: 1. movement of development block and order of construction, 2. development subject and form of possession right of land, 3. scale of buildings, superficial outline of buildings, disposition of buildings and number of buildings.
By making a comparative study of “ the movement of economical rehabilitation for villages”, “the reconstruction plan of stricken villages”, and the actual performance of the plan at Kirikiri village after the Tsunami, the following conclusions are drawn. 1. Reconstruction plan of stricken villages along Sanriku coast was drawn up based on “ the movement of economical rehabilitation for villages” which started from one year before the Tsunami. 2. The Reconstruction of Kirikiri was performed in conformity with the movement mainly by the industrial union. 3. As a result, not only the infrastructure but also the social structure of Kirikiri might have changed.
Indonesia has rich architectural culture of wooden buildings even now. By focusing on one of the most unique and outstanding cultural heritage areas, architectural structural survey of the groups of traditional wooden houses in South Nias, Indonesia, was conducted for their conservation from a structural engineering point of view. 1. Structure of the traditional wooden buildings of which design was originated from ships was characterized. It consisted of three structural parts, the lower structure of columns and braces under the elevated floor, the box structure for living space and the roof frame structure. The joints were categorized into 4 types. As fundamental knowledge, the mechanical properties of woods used for the structures were evaluated. 2. To study seismic safety of the wooden houses that structurally survived against recent devastating earthquakes, microtremore measurements were performed, which revealed their fundamental dynamic properties. Furthermore, seismic response analysis of groups of the houses, by employing the simplified model, demonstrated the effect of the coupling effect in reduction of the response. 3. As results of deterioration and deformation survey of the structural materials, the serious damage due to termite and decay were found. On the basis of the survey, restoration plan was discussed for conservation. To know the environmental effect of roofing materials, Sagoyasshi leaves and GI sheets, on the deterioration, temperature and humidity monitoring was carried out in the roof structures of both roofing materials.
The authors developed a Web Application for an Interior-Design Simulator using Augmented Reality (AR). The application aims for getting the evaluation of AR systems from third party. In this paper, we described the results of the evaluation experiment with two versions of the system, and the improvement that was given to the system between two experiments. The conclusions are as follows. 1) The reproduction of the shadow which CG models casted on a real floor improves the evaluation of AR systems significantly. 2) The operability of CG models probably influence the evaluation of geometric consistency in AR systems.
An attempt to collect basic behavioral data available on evacuation time estimate for nuclear accident was made in this paper. We carried out two types of questionnaire surveys on evacuation behaviors following the Fukushima nuclear accident to the residents of Naraha town and Iwaki Joban district. The first survey targeted the residents who had started evacuation after receiving evacuation orders to estimate the variation in pre-movement time. The second survey targeted the residents who had voluntary evacuated despite being located outside the evacuation order zone to estimate the shadow evacuation rate per hour.